Publications by authors named "Janet Koster"

31 Publications

A Functional SMAD2/3 Binding Site in the β Promoter Identifies a Role for TGFβ in Peroxisome Proliferation in Humans.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 23;8:577637. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.

In mammals, peroxisomes perform crucial functions in cellular metabolism, signaling and viral defense which are essential to the viability of the organism. Molecular cues triggered by changes in the cellular environment induce a dynamic response in peroxisomes, which manifests itself as a change in peroxisome number, altered enzyme levels and adaptations to the peroxisomal morphology. How the regulation of this process is integrated into the cell's response to different stimuli, including the signaling pathways and factors involved, remains unclear. Here, a cell-based peroxisome proliferation assay has been applied to investigate the ability of different stimuli to induce peroxisome proliferation. We determined that serum stimulation, long-chain fatty acid supplementation and TGFβ application all increase peroxisome elongation, a prerequisite for proliferation. Time-resolved mRNA expression during the peroxisome proliferation cycle revealed a number of peroxins whose expression correlated with peroxisome elongation, including the β isoform of PEX11, but not the α or γ isoforms. An initial map of putative regulatory motif sites in the respective promoters showed a difference between binding sites in PEX11α and PEX11β, suggesting that these genes may be regulated by distinct pathways. A functional SMAD2/3 binding site in PEX11β points to the involvement of the TGFβ signaling pathway in expression of this gene and thus peroxisome proliferation/dynamics in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.577637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644849PMC
October 2020

Functional analysis of thirty-four suspected pathogenic missense variants in ALDH5A1 gene associated with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.

Mol Genet Metab 2020 07 4;130(3):172-178. Epub 2020 May 4.

Metabolic Unit, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam Gastroenterology & Metabolism, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam Gastroenterology & Metabolism, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Deficiency of succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (ALDH5A1), OMIM 271980, 610045), the second enzyme of GABA degradation, represents a rare autosomal-recessively inherited disorder which manifests metabolically as gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria. The neurological phenotype includes intellectual disability, autism spectrum, epilepsy and sleep and behavior disturbances. Approximately 70 variants have been reported in the ALDH5A1 gene, half of them being missense variants. In this study, 34 missense variants, of which 22 novel, were evaluated by in silico analyses using PolyPhen2 and SIFT prediction tools. Subsequently, the effect of these variants on SSADH activity was studied by transient overexpression in HEK293 cells. These studies showed severe enzymatic activity impairment for 27 out of 34 alleles, normal activity for one allele and a broad range of residual activities (25 to 74%) for six alleles. To better evaluate the alleles that showed residual activity above 25%, we generated an SSADH-deficient HEK293-Flp-In cell line using CRISPR-Cas9, in which these alleles were stably expressed. This model proved essential in the classification as deficient for one out of the seven studied alleles. For 8 out of 34 addressed alleles, there were discrepant results among the used prediction tools, and/or in correlating the results of the prediction tools with the functional data. In case of diagnostic urgency of missense alleles, we propose the use of the transient transfection model for confirmation of their effect on the SSADH catalytic function, since this model resulted in fast and robust functional characterization for the majority of the tested variants. In selected cases, stable transfections can be considered and may prove valuable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2020.04.004DOI Listing
July 2020

Bi-allelic GOT2 Mutations Cause a Treatable Malate-Aspartate Shuttle-Related Encephalopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 09 15;105(3):534-548. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

On behalf of "United for Metabolic Diseases," 1105AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Metabolic Laboratory, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Early-infantile encephalopathies with epilepsy are devastating conditions mandating an accurate diagnosis to guide proper management. Whole-exome sequencing was used to investigate the disease etiology in four children from independent families with intellectual disability and epilepsy, revealing bi-allelic GOT2 mutations. In-depth metabolic studies in individual 1 showed low plasma serine, hypercitrullinemia, hyperlactatemia, and hyperammonemia. The epilepsy was serine and pyridoxine responsive. Functional consequences of observed mutations were tested by measuring enzyme activity and by cell and animal models. Zebrafish and mouse models were used to validate brain developmental and functional defects and to test therapeutic strategies. GOT2 encodes the mitochondrial glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. GOT2 enzyme activity was deficient in fibroblasts with bi-allelic mutations. GOT2, a member of the malate-aspartate shuttle, plays an essential role in the intracellular NAD(H) redox balance. De novo serine biosynthesis was impaired in fibroblasts with GOT2 mutations and GOT2-knockout HEK293 cells. Correcting the highly oxidized cytosolic NAD-redox state by pyruvate supplementation restored serine biosynthesis in GOT2-deficient cells. Knockdown of got2a in zebrafish resulted in a brain developmental defect associated with seizure-like electroencephalography spikes, which could be rescued by supplying pyridoxine in embryo water. Both pyridoxine and serine synergistically rescued embryonic developmental defects in zebrafish got2a morphants. The two treated individuals reacted favorably to their treatment. Our data provide a mechanistic basis for the biochemical abnormalities in GOT2 deficiency that may also hold for other MAS defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732527PMC
September 2019

Deciphering the potential involvement of PXMP2 and PEX11B in hydrogen peroxide permeation across the peroxisomal membrane reveals a role for PEX11B in protein sorting.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2019 10 24;1861(10):182991. Epub 2019 May 24.

Laboratory of Lipid Biochemistry and Protein Interactions, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Herestraat 49, box 601, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Peroxisomes have the intrinsic ability to produce and scavenge hydrogen peroxide (HO), a diffusible second messenger that controls diverse cellular processes by modulating protein activity through cysteine oxidation. Current evidence indicates that HO, a molecule whose physicochemical properties are similar to those of water, traverses cellular membranes through specific aquaporin channels, called peroxiporins. Until now, no peroxiporin-like proteins have been identified in the peroxisomal membrane, and it is widely assumed that small molecules such as HO can freely permeate this membrane through PXMP2, a non-selective pore-forming protein with an upper molecular size limit of 300-600 Da. By employing the CRISPR-Cas9 technology in combination with a Flp-In T-REx 293 cell line that can be used to selectively generate HO inside peroxisomes in a controlled manner, we provide evidence that PXMP2 is not essential for HO permeation across the peroxisomal membrane, neither in control cells nor in cells lacking PEX11B, a peroxisomal membrane-shaping protein whose yeast homologue facilitates the permeation of molecules up to 400 Da. During the course of this study, we unexpectedly noted that inactivation of PEX11B leads to partial localization of both peroxisomal membrane and matrix proteins to mitochondria and a decrease in peroxisome density. These findings are discussed in terms of the formation of a functional peroxisomal matrix protein import machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2019.05.013DOI Listing
October 2019

Glutaminase Deficiency Caused by Short Tandem Repeat Expansion in .

N Engl J Med 2019 04;380(15):1433-1441

From Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Departments of Clinical Chemistry, Pediatrics, and Clinical Genetics, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism (A.B.P.K., R.L., J.K., J. Meijer, L.A.T., M.T., M.W., R.J.A.W., H.R.W., C.D.M.K.), and United for Metabolic Diseases (A.B.P.K., R.J.A.W., H.R.W., C.D.M.K.), Amsterdam, and the Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht (J.J.F.A.V., J.H.V.), and the Project MinE ALS Sequencing Consortium (J.J.F.A.V., J.H.V.), Utrecht - all in the Netherlands; the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Medical Genetics, Cumming School of Medicine, and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary (M.T.-G.), Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute (P.A.R., M.J.J., M.S.K., J. MacIsaac, W.W.W., C.D.M.K.), the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (B.I.D., G.E.B.W., C.J.R.), and the Departments of Medical Genetics (C.M., I.-S.R.-B., W.W.W.) and Pediatrics (C.D.M.K.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, the Zebrafish Centre for Advanced Drug Discovery, St. Michael's Hospital and University of Toronto (K.B.-A., F.K., M.L., Y.W., X.-Y.W.), the Centre for Applied Genomics, Genetics and Genome Biology, the Hospital for Sick Children (C.N., S.W.S., B.T., R.K.C.Y.), and the Department of Molecular Genetics (C.N., S.W.S., R.K.C.Y.), the McLaughlin Centre (S.W.S.), and the Departments of Medicine, Physiology, and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Institute of Medical Science (X.-Y.W.), University of Toronto, Toronto, and the Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Eastern Ontario, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (J.S.W., M.T.G.) - all in Canada; the Departments of Medicine and Physiology, National University of Singapore (M.A.P.), and the Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (M.A.P., B.S., X.X., J.Z.) - both in Singapore; Uppsala University, Department of Chemistry-Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden (D.D.); Illumina, San Diego, CA (E.D., M.A.E.); Gene Structure and Disease Section, Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (B.H., D.K., K.U.); and the Department of Clinical Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom (S.S.).

We report an inborn error of metabolism caused by an expansion of a GCA-repeat tract in the 5' untranslated region of the gene encoding glutaminase () that was identified through detailed clinical and biochemical phenotyping, combined with whole-genome sequencing. The expansion was observed in three unrelated patients who presented with an early-onset delay in overall development, progressive ataxia, and elevated levels of glutamine. In addition to ataxia, one patient also showed cerebellar atrophy. The expansion was associated with a relative deficiency of messenger RNA transcribed from the expanded allele, which probably resulted from repeat-mediated chromatin changes upstream of the repeat. Our discovery underscores the importance of careful examination of regions of the genome that are typically excluded from or poorly captured by exome sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1806627DOI Listing
April 2019

Squalene Synthase Deficiency: Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of a Defect in Cholesterol Biosynthesis.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 07 14;103(1):125-130. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Victorian Clinical Genetics Services, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Mendelian disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis typically result in multi-system clinical phenotypes, underlining the importance of cholesterol in embryogenesis and development. FDFT1 encodes for an evolutionarily conserved enzyme, squalene synthase (SS, farnesyl-pyrophosphate farnesyl-transferase 1), which catalyzes the first committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis. We report three individuals with profound developmental delay, brain abnormalities, 2-3 syndactyly of the toes, and facial dysmorphisms, resembling Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, the most common cholesterol biogenesis defect. The metabolite profile in plasma and urine suggested that their defect was at the level of squalene synthase. Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify recessive disease-causing variants in FDFT1. Functional characterization of one variant demonstrated a partial splicing defect and altered promoter and/or enhancer activity, reflecting essential mechanisms for regulating cholesterol biosynthesis/uptake in steady state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037199PMC
July 2018

A novel case of ACOX2 deficiency leads to recognition of a third human peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Mar 26;1864(3):952-958. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases catalyze the first step of beta-oxidation of a variety of substrates broken down in the peroxisome. These include the CoA-esters of very long-chain fatty acids, branched-chain fatty acids and the C27-bile acid intermediates. In rat, three peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases with different substrate specificities are known, whereas in humans it is believed that only two peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases are expressed under normal circumstances. Only three patients with ACOX2 deficiency, including two siblings, have been identified so far, showing accumulation of the C27-bile acid intermediates. Here, we performed biochemical studies in material from a novel ACOX2-deficient patient with increased levels of C27-bile acids in plasma, a complete loss of ACOX2 protein expression on immunoblot, but normal pristanic acid oxidation activity in fibroblasts. Since pristanoyl-CoA is presumed to be handled by ACOX2 specifically, these findings prompted us to re-investigate the expression of the human peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidases. We report for the first time expression of ACOX3 in normal human tissues at the mRNA and protein level. Substrate specificity studies were done for ACOX1, 2 and 3 which revealed that ACOX1 is responsible for the oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids with different chain lengths, ACOX2 is the only human acyl-CoA oxidase involved in bile acid biosynthesis, and both ACOX2 and ACOX3 are involved in the degradation of the branched-chain fatty acids. Our studies provide new insights both into ACOX2 deficiency and into the role of the different acyl-CoA oxidases in peroxisomal metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.12.032DOI Listing
March 2018

A homozygous missense mutation in ERAL1, encoding a mitochondrial rRNA chaperone, causes Perrault syndrome.

Hum Mol Genet 2017 07;26(13):2541-2550

Department of Clinical Genetics, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural deafness. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and previously mutations have been described in different genes, mostly related to mitochondrial proteostasis. We diagnosed three unrelated females with PS and set out to identify the underlying genetic cause using exome sequencing. We excluded mutations in the known PS genes, but identified a single homozygous mutation in the ERAL1 gene (c.707A > T; p.Asn236Ile). Since ERAL1 protein binds to the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and is involved in the assembly of the small mitochondrial ribosomal subunit, the identified variant represented a likely candidate. In silico analysis of a 3D model for ERAL1 suggested that the mutated residue hinders protein-substrate interactions, potentially affecting its function. On a molecular basis, PS skin fibroblasts had reduced ERAL1 protein levels. Complexome profiling of the cells showed an overall decrease in the levels of assembled small ribosomal subunit, indicating that the ERAL1 variant affects mitochondrial ribosome assembly. Moreover, levels of the 12S rRNA were reduced in the patients, and were rescued by lentiviral expression of wild type ERAL1. At the physiological level, mitochondrial respiration was markedly decreased in PS fibroblasts, confirming disturbed mitochondrial function. Finally, knockdown of the C. elegans ERAL1 homologue E02H1.2 almost completely blocked egg production in worms, mimicking the compromised fertility in PS-affected women. Our cross-species data in patient cells and worms support the hypothesis that mutations in ERAL1 can cause PS and are associated with changes in mitochondrial metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddx152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5965403PMC
July 2017

Transfection of Primary Human Skin Fibroblasts for Peroxisomal Studies.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1595:63-67

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Functional studies with primary human skin fibroblasts from patients with a peroxisomal disorder often require efficient transfection with plasmids to correct the genetic defect or to express heterologous reporter proteins. Here, we describe a protocol we commonly use for efficient nonviral transfection of primary human skin fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6937-1_7DOI Listing
May 2017

Peroxisomal abnormalities in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line.

Histochem Cell Biol 2017 Apr 24;147(4):537-541. Epub 2016 Dec 24.

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins. These abnormalities have consequences for the lipid homeostasis of these cells and thus should be taken into account for the interpretation of data previously generated by using this cell line and when considering using this cell line for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-016-1532-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5359384PMC
April 2017

ACBD5 deficiency causes a defect in peroxisomal very long-chain fatty acid metabolism.

J Med Genet 2017 05 31;54(5):330-337. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Acyl-CoA binding domain containing protein 5 (ACBD5) is a peroxisomal membrane protein with a cytosolic acyl-CoA binding domain. Because of its acyl-CoA binding domain, ACBD5 has been assumed to function as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters. In addition, a role for ACBD5 in pexophagy has been suggested. However, the precise role of ACBD5 in peroxisomal metabolism and/or functioning has not yet been established. Previously, a genetic ACBD5 deficiency was identified in three siblings with retinal dystrophy and white matter disease. We identified a pathogenic mutation in in another patient and studied the consequences of the ACBD5 defect in patient material and in ACBD5-deficient HeLa cells to uncover this role.

Methods: We studied a girl who presented with progressive leukodystrophy, syndromic cleft palate, ataxia and retinal dystrophy. We performed biochemical, cell biological and molecular studies in patient material and in ACBD5-deficient HeLa cells generated by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing.

Results: We identified a homozygous deleterious indel mutation in , leading to complete loss of ACBD5 protein in the patient. Our studies showed that ACBD5 deficiency leads to accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) due to impaired peroxisomal β-oxidation. No effect on pexophagy was found.

Conclusions: Our investigations strongly suggest that ACBD5 plays an important role in sequestering C26-CoA in the cytosol and thereby facilitates transport into the peroxisome and subsequent β-oxidation. Accordingly, ACBD5 deficiency is a novel single peroxisomal enzyme deficiency caused by impaired VLCFA metabolism, leading to retinal dystrophy and white matter disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-104132DOI Listing
May 2017

A novel type of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, RCDP5, is caused by loss of the PEX5 long isoform.

Hum Mol Genet 2015 Oct 28;24(20):5845-54. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Department of Medical Genetics and

Import of peroxisomal matrix proteins, crucial for peroxisome biogenesis, is mediated by the cytosolic receptors PEX5 and PEX7 that recognize proteins carrying peroxisomal targeting signals 1 or 2 (PTS1 or PTS2), respectively. Mutations in PEX5 or 12 other PEX genes cause peroxisome biogenesis disorders, collectively named the Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), whereas mutations in PEX7 cause rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1). Three additional RCDP types, RCDP2-3-4, are caused, respectively, by mutations in GNPAT, AGPS and FAR1, encoding enzymes involved in plasmalogen biosynthesis. Here we report a fifth type of RCDP (RCDP5) caused by a novel mutation in PEX5. In four patients with RCDP from two independent families, we identified a homozygous frame shift mutation c.722dupA (p.Val242Glyfs(∗)33) in PEX5 (GenBank: NM_001131023.1). PEX5 encodes two isoforms, PEX5L and PEX5S, and we show that the c.722dupA mutation, located in the PEX5L-specific exon 9, results in loss of PEX5L only. Both PEX5 isoforms recognize PTS1-tagged proteins, but PEX5L is also a co-receptor for PTS2-tagged proteins. Previous patients with PEX5 mutations had ZSD, mainly due to deficient import of PTS1-tagged proteins. Similarly to mutations in PEX7, loss of PEX5L results in deficient import of PTS2-tagged proteins only, thus causing RCDP instead of ZSD. We demonstrate that PEX5L expression restores the import of PTS2-tagged proteins in patient fibroblasts. Due to the biochemical overlap between RCDP1 and RCDP5, sequencing of PEX7 and exon 9 in PEX5 should be performed in patients with a selective defect in the import of PTS2-tagged proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv305DOI Listing
October 2015

A novel bile acid biosynthesis defect due to a deficiency of peroxisomal ABCD3.

Hum Mol Genet 2015 Jan 28;24(2):361-70. Epub 2014 Aug 28.

McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

ABCD3 is one of three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters present in the peroxisomal membrane catalyzing ATP-dependent transport of substrates for metabolic pathways localized in peroxisomes. So far, the precise function of ABCD3 is not known. Here, we report the identification of the first patient with a defect of ABCD3. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly and severe liver disease and showed a striking accumulation of peroxisomal C27-bile acid intermediates in plasma. Investigation of peroxisomal parameters in skin fibroblasts revealed a reduced number of enlarged import-competent peroxisomes. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation of C26:0 was normal, but beta-oxidation of pristanic acid was reduced. Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous deletion at the DNA level of 1758bp, predicted to result in a truncated ABCD3 protein lacking the C-terminal 24 amino acids (p.Y635NfsX1). Liver disease progressed and the patient required liver transplantation at 4 years of age but expired shortly after transplantation. To corroborate our findings in the patient, we studied a previously generated Abcd3 knockout mouse model. Abcd3-/- mice accumulated the branched chain fatty acid phytanic acid after phytol loading. In addition, analysis of bile acids revealed a reduction of C24 bile acids, whereas C27-bile acid intermediates were significantly increased in liver, bile and intestine of Abcd3-/- mice. Thus, both in the patient and in Abcd3-/- mice, there was evidence of a bile acid biosynthesis defect. In conclusion, our studies show that ABCD3 is involved in transport of branched-chain fatty acids and C27 bile acids into the peroxisome and that this is a crucial step in bile acid biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddu448DOI Listing
January 2015

ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism.

Brain 2014 Nov 14;137(Pt 11):2903-8. Epub 2014 Aug 14.

1 Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Victorian Clinical Genetics Services, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Vic 3052, Australia 3 Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3052, Australia

Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this diagnosis was excluded by HIBCH sequencing and normal enzyme activity. In contrast to HIBCH deficiency, the excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-carnitine was normal in the children, suggesting deficiency of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1 gene). This mitochondrial enzyme is active in several metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and amino acids, including valine, and is immediately upstream of HIBCH in the valine pathway. Both children were compound heterozygous for a c.473C > A (p.A158D) missense mutation and a c.414+3G>C splicing mutation in ECHS1. ECHS1 activity was markedly decreased in cultured fibroblasts from both siblings, ECHS1 protein was undetectable by immunoblot analysis and transfection of patient cells with wild-type ECHS1 rescued ECHS1 activity. The highly reactive metabolites methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA accumulate in deficiencies of both ECHS1 and HIBCH and are probably responsible for the brain pathology in both disorders. Deficiency of ECHS1 or HIBCH should be considered in children with Leigh disease. Urine metabolite testing can detect and distinguish between these two disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu216DOI Listing
November 2014

Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1) deficiency: conjugated hypercholanemia without a clear clinical phenotype.

Hepatology 2015 Jan 25;61(1):260-7. Epub 2014 Aug 25.

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Disease, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Unlabelled: The enterohepatic circulation of bile salts is an important physiological route to recycle bile salts and ensure intestinal absorption of dietary lipids. The Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide SLC10A1 (NTCP) plays a key role in this process as the major transporter of conjugated bile salts from the plasma compartment into the hepatocyte. Here we present the first patient with NTCP deficiency, who was clinically characterized by mild hypotonia, growth retardation, and delayed motor milestones. Total bile salts in plasma were extremely elevated (up to 1,500 μM, ref. <16.3) but there were no clinical signs of cholestatic jaundice, pruritis, or liver dysfunction. Bile salt synthesis and intestinal bile salt signaling were not affected, as evidenced by normal plasma 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and FGF19 levels. Importantly, the presence of secondary bile salts in the circulation suggested residual enterohepatic cycling of bile salts. Sequencing of the SLC10A1 gene revealed a single homozygous nonsynonymous point mutation in the coding sequence of the gene, resulting in an arginine to histidine substitution at position 252. Functional studies showed that this mutation resulted in a markedly reduced uptake activity of taurocholic acid. Immunofluorescence studies and surface biotinylation experiments demonstrated that the mutant protein is virtually absent from the plasma membrane.

Conclusion: We describe the identification of NTCP deficiency as a new inborn error of metabolism with a relatively mild clinical phenotype. The identification of NTCP deficiency confirms that this transporter is the main import system for conjugated bile salts into the liver but also indicates that auxiliary transporters are able to sustain the enterohepatic cycle in its absence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.27240DOI Listing
January 2015

An unusual phenotype of X-linked developmental delay and extreme behavioral difficulties associated with a mutation in the EBP gene.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Apr 23;164A(4):907-14. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Yorkshire Regional Genetics Service, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds, UK.

We report on a family in which four males over three generations are affected with X-linked recessive developmental delay, learning difficulties, severe behavioral difficulties and mild dysmorphic features. Plasma sterol analysis in three of the four affected males demonstrated increased concentrations of 8-dehydrocholesterol (8-DHC) and cholest-8(9)-enol. All four affected males had a novel hemizygous missense mutation, p.W47R (c.139T>C), in EBP. Functional studies showed raised levels of cholest-8(9)-enol in patient's cultured fibroblast cells, which were suppressed when the cells were incubated with simvastatin. EBP encodes 3β-hydroxysteroid-delta8, delta7-isomerase, a key enzyme involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in EBP have previously been associated with Conradi-Hunermann-Happle syndrome (CHH), an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by skeletal dysplasia, skin, and ocular abnormalities, which is usually lethal in males. Four previous reports describe X-linked recessive multiple anomaly syndromes associated with non-mosaic EBP mutations in males, two at the same amino acid position, p.W47C. This phenotype has previously been described as "MEND" syndrome (male EBP disorder with neurological defects). The family reported herein represent either a novel phenotype, or an expansion of the MEND phenotype, characterized by extreme behavioral difficulties and a scarcity of structural anomalies. Simvastatin therapy is being evaluated in two males from this family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36368DOI Listing
April 2014

Peroxisomes contribute to the acylcarnitine production when the carnitine shuttle is deficient.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Sep 10;1831(9):1467-74. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

Metabolism and Genetics Group, Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, iMed.UL, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal.

Fatty acid β-oxidation may occur in both mitochondria and peroxisomes. While peroxisomes oxidize specific carboxylic acids such as very long-chain fatty acids, branched-chain fatty acids, bile acids, and fatty dicarboxylic acids, mitochondria oxidize long-, medium-, and short-chain fatty acids. Oxidation of long-chain substrates requires the carnitine shuttle for mitochondrial access but medium-chain fatty acid oxidation is generally considered carnitine-independent. Using control and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2)- and carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT)-deficient human fibroblasts, we investigated the oxidation of lauric acid (C12:0). Measurement of the acylcarnitine profile in the extracellular medium revealed significantly elevated levels of extracellular C10- and C12-carnitine in CPT2- and CACT-deficient fibroblasts. The accumulation of C12-carnitine indicates that lauric acid also uses the carnitine shuttle to access mitochondria. Moreover, the accumulation of extracellular C10-carnitine in CPT2- and CACT-deficient cells suggests an extramitochondrial pathway for the oxidation of lauric acid. Indeed, in the absence of peroxisomes C10-carnitine is not produced, proving that this intermediate is a product of peroxisomal β-oxidation. In conclusion, when the carnitine shuttle is impaired lauric acid is partly oxidized in peroxisomes. This peroxisomal oxidation could be a compensatory mechanism to metabolize straight medium- and long-chain fatty acids, especially in cases of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation deficiency or overload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2013.06.007DOI Listing
September 2013

Substrate specificity of human carnitine acetyltransferase: Implications for fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid metabolism.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Jun 24;1832(6):773-9. Epub 2013 Feb 24.

Metabolism and Genetics Group, Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, iMed.UL, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Portugal.

Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible conversion of acyl-CoAs into acylcarnitine esters. This family includes the mitochondrial enzymes carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). CPT2 is part of the carnitine shuttle that is necessary to import fatty acids into mitochondria and catalyzes the conversion of acylcarnitines into acyl-CoAs. In addition, when mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation is impaired, CPT2 is able to catalyze the reverse reaction and converts accumulating long- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs into acylcarnitines for export from the matrix to the cytosol. However, CPT2 is inactive with short-chain acyl-CoAs and intermediates of the branched-chain amino acid oxidation pathway (BCAAO). In order to explore the origin of short-chain and branched-chain acylcarnitines that may accumulate in various organic acidemias, we performed substrate specificity studies using purified recombinant human CrAT. Various saturated, unsaturated and branched-chain acyl-CoA esters were tested and the synthesized acylcarnitines were quantified by ESI-MS/MS. We show that CrAT converts short- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs (C2 to C10-CoA), whereas no activity was observed with long-chain species. Trans-2-enoyl-CoA intermediates were found to be poor substrates for this enzyme. Furthermore, CrAT turned out to be active towards some but not all the BCAAO intermediates tested and no activity was found with dicarboxylic acyl-CoA esters. This suggests the existence of another enzyme able to handle the acyl-CoAs that are not substrates for CrAT and CPT2, but for which the corresponding acylcarnitines are well recognized as diagnostic markers in inborn errors of metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.02.012DOI Listing
June 2013

The matilda effect in science: awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s.

Soc Stud Sci 2012 Apr;42(2):307-20

Department of Sociology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0192, USA.

Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the 'Matthew Effect'. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism--the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims and contributions--in practice, a great deal of evidence suggests that the scientific efforts and achievements of women do not receive the same recognition as do those of men: the 'Matilda Effect'. Awards in science, technology, engineering and medical (STEM) fields are not immune to these biases. We outline the research on gender bias in evaluations of research and analyze data from 13 STEM disciplinary societies. While women's receipt of professional awards and prizes has increased in the past two decades, men continue to win a higher proportion of awards for scholarly research than expected based on their representation in the nomination pool. The results support the powerful twin influences of implicit bias and committee chairs as contributing factors. The analysis sheds light on the relationship of external social factors to women's science careers and helps to explain why women are severely underrepresented as winners of science awards. The ghettoization of women's accomplishments into a category of 'women-only' awards also is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312711435830DOI Listing
April 2012

A novel defect of peroxisome division due to a homozygous non-sense mutation in the PEX11β gene.

J Med Genet 2012 May;49(5):307-13

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Peroxisomes are organelles that proliferate continuously and play an indispensable role in human metabolism. Consequently, peroxisomal gene defects can cause multiple, often severe disorders, including the peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Currently, 13 different PEX proteins have been implicated in various stages of peroxisome assembly and protein import. Defects in any of these proteins result in a peroxisome biogenesis disorder. The authors present here a novel genetic defect specifically affecting the division of peroxisomes.

Methods: The authors have studied biochemical and microscopical peroxisomal parameters in cultured patient fibroblasts, sequenced candidate PEX genes and determined the consequence of the identified PEX11β gene defect on peroxisome biogenesis in patient fibroblasts at different temperatures.

Results: The patient presented with congenital cataracts, mild intellectual disability, progressive hearing loss, sensory nerve involvement, gastrointestinal problems and recurrent migraine-like episodes. Although microscopical investigations of patient fibroblasts indicated a clear defect in peroxisome division, all biochemical parameters commonly used for diagnosing peroxisomal disorders were normal. After excluding mutations in all PEX genes previously implicated in peroxisome biogenesis disorders, it was found that the defect was caused by a homozygous non-sense mutation in the PEX11β gene. The peroxisome division defect was exacerbated when the patient's fibroblasts were cultured at 40°C, which correlated with a marked decrease in the expression of PEX11γ.

Conclusions: This novel isolated defect in peroxisome division expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of peroxisomal disorders and indicates that peroxisomal defects exist, which cannot be diagnosed by standard laboratory investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2012-100778DOI Listing
May 2012

Desmosterolosis-phenotypic and molecular characterization of a third case and review of the literature.

Am J Med Genet A 2011 Jul 10;155A(7):1597-604. Epub 2011 Jun 10.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Desmosterolosis, a rare disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis, is caused by mutations in DHCR24, the gene encoding the enzyme 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24). To date, desmosterolosis has been described in only two patients. Here we report on a third patient with desmosterolosis who presented after delivery with relative macrocephaly, mild arthrogryposis, and dysmorphic facial features. Brain MRI revealed hydrocephalus, thickening of the tectum and massa intermedia, mildly effaced gyral pattern, underopercularization, and a thin corpus callosum. The diagnosis of desmosterolosis was established by detection of significant elevation of plasma desmosterol levels and reduced enzyme activity of DHCR24 upon expression of the patient's DHCR24 cDNA in yeast. The patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for c.281G>A (p.R94H) and c.1438G>A (p.E480K) mutations. Structural and evolutionary analyses showed that residue R94 resides at the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding site and is strictly conserved throughout evolution, while residue E480 is less conserved, but the charge shift substitution is accompanied by drastic changes in the local protein environment of that residue. We compare the phenotype of our patient with previously reported cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.34040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995031PMC
July 2011

Genetic classification and mutational spectrum of more than 600 patients with a Zellweger syndrome spectrum disorder.

Hum Mutat 2011 Jan;32(1):59-69

Academic Medical Centre at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The autosomal recessive Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) disorders comprise a main subgroup of the peroxisome biogenesis disorders and can be caused by mutations in any of 12 different currently identified PEX genes resulting in severe multisystemic disorders. To get insight into the spectrum of PEX gene defects among ZSS disorders and to investigate if additional human PEX genes are required for functional peroxisome biogenesis, we assigned over 600 ZSS fibroblast cell lines to different genetic complementation groups. These fibroblast cell lines were subjected to a complementation assay involving fusion by means of polyethylene glycol or a PEX cDNA transfection assay specifically developed for this purpose. In a majority of the cell lines we subsequently determined the underlying mutations by sequence analysis of the implicated PEX genes. The PEX cDNA transfection assay allows for the rapid identification of PEX genes defective in ZSS patients. The assignment of over 600 fibroblast cell lines to different genetic complementation groups provides the most comprehensive and representative overview of the frequency distribution of the different PEX gene defects. We did not identify any novel genetic complementation group, suggesting that all PEX gene defects resulting in peroxisome deficiency are currently known.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.21388DOI Listing
January 2011

Genotype-phenotype correlation in PEX5-deficient peroxisome biogenesis defective cell lines.

Hum Mutat 2009 Jan;30(1):93-8

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Proteins destined for the peroxisomal matrix are targeted by virtue of a peroxisomal targeting sequence type 1 (PTS1) or type 2 (PTS2). In humans, targeting of either class of proteins relies on a cytosolic receptor protein encoded by the PEX5 gene. Alternative splicing of PEX5 results in two protein variants, PEX5S and PEX5L. PEX5S is exclusively involved in PTS1 protein import, whereas PEX5L mediates the import of both PTS1 and PTS2 proteins. Genetic complementation testing with over 500 different fibroblast cell lines from patients diagnosed with a peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) identified 11 cell lines with a defect in PEX5. The aim of this study was to characterize these cell lines at a biochemical and genetic level. To this end, the cultured fibroblasts were analyzed for very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) concentrations, peroxisomal beta-and alpha-oxidation, dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) activity, peroxisomal thiolase, and catalase immunofluorescence. Mutation analysis of the PEX5 gene revealed 11 different mutations, eight of which are novel. PTS1- and PTS2-protein import capacity was assessed by transfection of the cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged with either PTS1 or PTS2. Six cell lines showed a defect in both PTS1 and PTS2 protein import, whereas four cell lines only showed a defect in PTS1 protein import. The location of the different mutations within the PEX5 amino acid sequence correlates rather well with the peroxisomal protein import defect observed in the cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.20833DOI Listing
January 2009

HMG-CoA reductase inhibition induces IL-1beta release through Rac1/PI3K/PKB-dependent caspase-1 activation.

Blood 2008 Nov 6;112(9):3563-73. Epub 2008 Aug 6.

Department of General Pediatrics, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by recurring fever episodes and results from disturbed isoprenoid biosynthesis. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MKD patients secrete high levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) because of the presence of hyperactive caspase-1, and this has been proposed to be the primary cause of recurring inflammation. Here we show that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by simvastatin treatment, mimicking MKD, results in increased IL-1beta secretion in a Rac1/PI3K-dependent manner. Simvastatin treatment was found to activate protein kinase B (PKB)/c-akt, a primary effector of PI3K, and ectopic expression of constitutively active PKB was sufficient to induce IL-1beta release. The small GTPase Rac1 was activated by simvastatin, and this was required for both PKB activation and IL-1beta secretion. IL-1beta release is mediated by caspase-1, and simvastatin treatment resulted in increased caspase-1 activity in a Rac1/PI3K-dependent manner. These data suggest that, in MKD, dysregulated isoprenoid biosynthesis activates Rac1/PI3K/PKB, resulting in caspase-1 activation with increased IL-1beta release. Importantly, inhibition of Rac1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from MKD patients resulted in a dramatic reduction in IL-1beta release. These data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of Rac1 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of MKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-03-144667DOI Listing
November 2008

A lethal defect of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission.

N Engl J Med 2007 Apr;356(17):1736-41

Department of Pediatrics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We report on a newborn girl with microcephaly, abnormal brain development, optic atrophy and hypoplasia, persistent lactic acidemia, and a mildly elevated plasma concentration of very-long-chain fatty acids. We found a defect of the fission of both mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as a heterozygous, dominant-negative mutation in the dynamin-like protein 1 gene (DLP1). The DLP1 protein has previously been implicated, in vitro, in the fission of both these organelles. Overexpression of the mutant DLP1 in control cells reproduced the fission defect. Our findings are representative of a class of disease characterized by defects in both mitochondria and peroxisomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa064436DOI Listing
April 2007

Clinical, biochemical, and mutational spectrum of peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase deficiency.

Hum Mutat 2007 Sep;28(9):904-12

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation due to a deficiency of straight-chain acyl-CoA oxidase (SCOX). The biochemical hallmark of this disorder is the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids. Although some case reports and small series of patients have been published, a comprehensive overview of the clinical, biochemical, and mutational spectrum of this disorder is still lacking. For this reason, we report clinical information for a cohort of 22 patients with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency and the results from biochemical and mutation analyses in fibroblasts of the patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. An intriguing mutation in the alternatively-spliced transcript encoding the isoform SCOX-exon 3II in a patient with normal expression of the transcript encoding the isoform SCOX-exon 3I, prompted us to characterize these two isoforms of human SCOX. The recombinant SCOX-exon 3I displayed activity toward medium-chain fatty acyl-CoAs and was not active with very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. In contrast, recombinant SCOX-exon 3II was capable of oxidizing a broad range of substrates, including very long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs. These results explain why this patient with a mutation in exon 3II of the ACOX1 gene, but with normal expression of exon 3I, was indistinguishable from other patients with peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency with respect to his clinical presentation and the biochemical abnormalities in his fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.20535DOI Listing
September 2007

Mutational spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations in mevalonate kinase deficiency.

Hum Mutat 2006 Aug;27(8):796-802

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Departments of Clinical Chemistry and Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder caused by mutations in the MVK gene resulting in deficient activity of mevalonate kinase (MK). Depending on the clinical severity, MKD may present as hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) or the more severe mevalonic aciduria (MA). We analyzed the MVK gene in 57 patients with MKD and found 39 different mutations including 15 novel mutations, expanding the total mutational spectrum of MKD to 63 mutations. To get more insight into the genotype-phenotype correlation in MKD, we studied the effect of selected missense mutations on MK protein stability and activity in various patient fibroblast cell lines. All MKD cell lines showed markedly decreased MK activities that correlated well with the clinical severity and, for most of the cell lines, with the amount of MK protein. When fibroblasts of MKD patients were cultured under conditions known to promote a more controlled protein folding, all cell lines of patients with the HIDS phenotype and few cell lines of patients with the MA phenotype showed an increase in the residual MK activity. This increase in enzyme activity correlates well with an increase in the MK protein levels in these cell lines, indicating that most of the mutations in MKD affect stability and/or folding of the MK protein rather than affecting the catalytic properties of the enzyme. The finding that the residual activity in MKD can be manipulated by environmental conditions may offer therapeutic options to alleviate or prevent the clinical symptoms associated with MKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.20361DOI Listing
August 2006

Human mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase is localized in the cytosol.

Mol Genet Metab 2004 Mar;81(3):216-24

Laboratory of Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Departments of Clinical Chemistry and Pediatrics/Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In the past decade several reports have claimed that peroxisomes play a critical role in the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway based on the finding of a predominant peroxisomal localization of several of the enzymes involved. Other reports, however, do not support the peroxisomal localization of these enzymes. In this study we have studied the subcellular localization of one of the enzymes, human mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase, by conventional subcellular fractionation and digitonin permeabilization studies, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. We found a cytosolic localization for both endogenous human mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase (in human fibroblasts, liver, CV1 and HEK293 cells) and overexpressed mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase (in human fibroblasts, HEK293 and CV1 cells) but no indication for a peroxisomal localization. Our results do not support a central role of peroxisomes in the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2003.12.001DOI Listing
March 2004

Mevalonate kinase is a cytosolic enzyme in humans.

J Cell Sci 2004 Feb;117(Pt 4):631-9

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam.

In the past decade several reports have appeared which suggest that peroxisomes play a central role in isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthesis. These suggestions were based primarily on the reported finding of several of the enzymes of the presqualene segment of the biosynthetic pathway in peroxisomes. More recently, however, conflicting results have been reported raising doubt about the postulated role of peroxisomes in isoprenoid biosynthesis, at least in humans. In this study we have studied the subcellular localisation of human mevalonate kinase (MK) using a variety of biochemical and microscopical techniques. These include conventional subcellular fractionation studies, digitonin permeabilisation studies, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We exclusively found a cytosolic localisation of both endogenous human MK (human fibroblasts, liver and HEK293 cells) and overexpressed human MK (human fibroblasts, HEK293 cells and CV1 cells). No indication of a peroxisomal localisation was obtained. Our results do not support a central role for peroxisomes in isoprenoid biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.00910DOI Listing
February 2004

Phosphomevalonate kinase is a cytosolic protein in humans.

J Lipid Res 2004 Apr 16;45(4):697-705. Epub 2004 Jan 16.

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In the past decade, a predominant peroxisomal localization has been reported for several enzymes functioning in the presqualene segment of the cholesterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway. More recently, however, conflicting results have been reported raising doubts about the postulated role of peroxisomes in isoprenoid biosynthesis, at least in humans. In this study, we have determined the subcellular localization of human phosphomevalonate kinase using a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques, including conventional subcellular fractionation studies, digitonin permeabilization studies, immunofluorescence, and immunoelectron microscopy. We found an exclusive cytosolic localization of both endogenously expressed human phosphomevalonate kinase (in human fibroblasts, human liver, and HEK293 cells) and overexpressed human phosphomevalonate kinase (in human fibroblasts, HEK293 cells, and CV1 cells). No indication of a peroxisomal localization was obtained. Our results do not support a central role of peroxisomes in isoprenoid biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M300373-JLR200DOI Listing
April 2004