Publications by authors named "Janet A Tooze"

131 Publications

Targeted eHealth Intervention to Reduce Breast Cancer Survivors' Fear of Recurrence: Results from the FoRtitude Randomized Trial.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: Fear of recurrence (FoR) is a prevalent concern among breast cancer survivors (BCS) yet few accessible interventions exist. This study evaluated a targeted eHealth intervention, "FoRtitude," to reduce FoR using cognitive behavioral skills training and telecoaching.

Methods: BCS (N = 196) were recruited from an academic medical center and 3 National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program community sites, had stage 0-III breast cancer, were 1-10 years post-primary treatment, with moderate to high FoR and familiarity with the internet. Using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, participants were independently randomized to three cognitive behavioral skill (Relaxation, Cognitive restructuring, Worry practice) versus an attention control condition (health management content; HMC), and to telecoaching (motivational interviewing) versus no telecoaching. Website content was released across 4 weeks and included didactic lessons, interactive tools, and a text-messaging feature. BCS completed the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory (FCRI) at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. FCRI scores over time were compared using mixed-effects models. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: FCRI scores decreased statistically significantly from baseline to post-intervention (T0=53.1 [SD = 17.4], T2=41.9 [SD = 16.2]; p < 0.001). The magnitude of reduction in FCRI scores was comparable across CBT and attention control HMC conditions and was predicted by increased self-efficacy. Telecoaching was associated with lower attrition and greater website use (mean adherence score = 26.6 [SD = 7.2] vs. 21.0 [SD = 10.5]; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: BCS experienced statistically significant reductions in FoR post-intervention, but improvements were comparable between CBT and attention controls. Telecoaching improved adherence and retention. Future research on optimal integration of CBT and HMC, dose, and features of eHealth delivery that contributed to reducing FoR is needed. In the COVID-19 era, remote delivery has become even more essential for reaching survivors struggling with FoR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab100DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of Visceral Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance with Incident Metabolic Syndrome Independent of Obesity Status: The IRAS Family Study.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: Although increasing evidence suggests that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a major underlying cause of metabolic syndrome (MetS), few studies have measured VAT at multiple time points in diverse populations. VAT and insulin resistance were hypothesized to differ by MetS status within BMI category in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study and, further, that baseline VAT and insulin resistance and increases over time are associated with incident MetS.

Methods: Generalized estimating equations were used for differences in body fat distribution and insulin resistance by MetS status. Mixed effects logistic regression was used for the association of baseline and change in adiposity and insulin resistance with incident MetS across 5 years, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family correlation.

Results: VAT and insulin sensitivity differed significantly by MetS status and BMI category at baseline. VAT and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at baseline (VAT odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 [95% CI: 1.12-2.31]; HOMA-IR OR = 1.85 [95% CI: 1.32-2.58]) and increases over time (VAT OR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.22-1.98]; HOMA-IR OR = 3.23 [95% CI: 2.20-4.73]) were associated with incident MetS independent of BMI category.

Conclusions: Differing levels of VAT may be driving metabolic heterogeneity within BMI categories. Both overall and abdominal obesity (VAT) may play a role in the development of MetS. Increased VAT over time contributed additional risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23177DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of food insecurity with dietary intakes and nutritional biomarkers among US children, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2016.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Food insecurity is associated with poorer nutrient intakes from food sources and lower dietary supplement use. However, its association with total usual nutrient intakes, inclusive of dietary supplements, and biomarkers of nutritional status among US children remains unknown.

Objective: The objective was to assess total usual nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores, and nutritional biomarkers by food security status, sex, and age among US children.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from 9147 children aged 1-18 y from the 2011-2016 NHANES were analyzed. Usual energy and total nutrient intakes and HEI-2015 scores were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method from 24-h dietary recalls.

Results: Overall diet quality was poor, and intakes of sodium, added sugars, and saturated fat were higher than recommended limits, regardless of food security status. Food-insecure girls and boys were at higher risk of inadequate intakes for vitamin D and magnesium, and girls also had higher risk for inadequate calcium intakes compared with their food-secure counterparts, when total intakes were examined. Choline intakes of food-insecure children were less likely to meet the adequate intake than those of their food-secure peers. No differences by food security status were noted for folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, potassium, and sodium intakes. Food-insecure adolescent girls aged 14-18 y were at higher risk of micronutrient inadequacies than any other subgroup, with 92.8% (SE: 3.6%) at risk of inadequate intakes for vitamin D. No differences in biomarkers for vitamin D, folate, iron, and zinc were observed by food security status. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 12.7% in food-secure and 12.0% in food-insecure adolescent girls.

Conclusions: Food insecurity was associated with compromised intake of some micronutrients, especially among adolescent girls. These results highlight a need for targeted interventions to improve children's overall diet quality, including the reduction of specific nutrient inadequacies, especially among food-insecure children. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03400436.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab113DOI Listing
May 2021

Diet, obesity, and the gut microbiome as determinants modulating metabolic outcomes in a non-human primate model.

Microbiome 2021 05 5;9(1):100. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27157, USA.

Background: The objective of this study was to increase understanding of the complex interactions between diet, obesity, and the gut microbiome of adult female non-human primates (NHPs). Subjects consumed either a Western (n=15) or Mediterranean (n=14) diet designed to represent human dietary patterns for 31 months. Body composition was determined using CT, fecal samples were collected, and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed. Gut microbiome results were grouped by diet and adiposity.

Results: Diet was the main contributor to gut microbiome bacterial diversity. Adiposity within each diet was associated with subtle shifts in the proportional abundance of several taxa. Mediterranean diet-fed NHPs with lower body fat had a greater proportion of Lactobacillus animalis than their higher body fat counterparts. Higher body fat Western diet-fed NHPs had more Ruminococcus champaneliensis and less Bacteroides uniformis than their low body fat counterparts. Western diet-fed NHPs had significantly higher levels of Prevotella copri than Mediterranean diet NHPs. Western diet-fed subjects were stratified by P. copri abundance (P. copri versus P. copri), which was not associated with adiposity. Overall, Western diet-fed animals in the P. copri group showed greater proportional abundance of B. ovatus, B. faecis, P. stercorea, P. brevis, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii than those in the Western P. copri group. Western diet P. copri subjects had a greater proportion of Eubacterium siraeum. E. siraeum negatively correlated with P. copri proportional abundance regardless of dietary consumption. In the Western diet group, Shannon diversity was significantly higher in P. copri when compared to P. copri subjects. Furthermore, gut E. siraeum abundance positively correlated with HDL plasma cholesterol indicating that those in the P. copri population may represent a more metabolically healthy population. Untargeted metabolomics on urine and plasma from Western diet-fed P. copri and P. copri subjects suggest early kidney dysfunction in Western diet-fed P. copri subjects.

Conclusions: In summary, the data indicate diet to be the major influencer of gut bacterial diversity. However, diet and adiposity must be considered together when analyzing changes in abundance of specific bacterial taxa. Interestingly, P. copri appears to mediate metabolic dysfunction in Western diet-fed NHPs. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01069-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101030PMC
May 2021

Eutectic Mixture of Lidocaine and Prilocaine Decreases Movement and Propofol Requirements for Pediatric Lumbar Puncture During Deep Sedation: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double Blind Trial.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Departments of Anesthesiology Pediatrics Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Deep sedation/general anesthesia is commonly used in pediatric oncology patients undergoing lumbar puncture (LP). Propofol is often used for sedation, with or without a narcotic. We hypothesized that eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) would allow for lower cumulative doses of propofol and less movement. We performed a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial in children undergoing sedation for LP. Standard initial weight-based doses of propofol and fentanyl were administered, with either EMLA cream or a placebo cream applied topically. The primary outcome was the total dose of propofol administered to each patient. We also tracked patient movement and complications. Twenty-seven patients underwent 152 LPs. Patients randomized to EMLA cream (n=75) were significantly more likely to receive a lower dose of propofol (2.94 mg/kg, SE=0.25, vs. 3.22 mg/kg, SE=0.19; P=0.036) and to not require additional propofol doses (probability 0.49, SE=0.08 vs. 0.69, SE=0.06; P=0.001) compared with patients randomized to placebo cream (n=77). In addition, patients with EMLA cream were significantly less likely to demonstrate minor or major movement. EMLA cream results in less movement and less propofol administration in pediatric oncology patients undergoing sedation for LP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000002169DOI Listing
April 2021

Phase I Study of Muscadine Grape Extract for Patients With Advanced Cancer.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 06;44(6):239-246

Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Objective: Preclinical studies with muscadine grape extract (MGE) show antitumor activity and decreased systemic inflammation. This phase I study (NCT02583269) assessed safety and tolerability of a proprietary MGE preparation in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Methods: Patients with metastatic or unresectable cancers who were progressing on standard therapies were assigned to MGE in a standard 3+3 design. Five dose levels were tested (320 to 1600 mg total phenolics/d). Safety and maximum-tolerated dose were assessed after 4 weeks. Patients were evaluated for response at 8 weeks and continued on MGE if clinically stable. Secondary outcomes were response, survival, adherence, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL).

Results: In total, 23 patients (lung, n=7; gastrointestinal, n=7; genitourinary, n=6; other, n=3) received MGE capsules by mouth twice daily. The cohort [median age 72 years, 48% Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 2] was heavily pretreated. After 4 weeks on MGE, possibly attributable adverse events grade 2 or higher were fatigue (n=1), decreased lymphocyte count (n=1), and constipation (n=2), including 1 dose-limiting toxicity for grade 3 constipation. Maximum-tolerated dose was not reached. No partial responses were observed. Median time on therapy was 8 weeks, with 29% of patients treated beyond 16 weeks and a median overall survival of 7.2 months. QOL and fatigue levels were stable from baseline to 8 weeks. Higher MGE dose was correlated with improvement in self-reported physical well-being QOL at 8 weeks (r=0.6; P=0.04).

Conclusions: MGE is safe and well-tolerated in heavily pretreated and older cancer patients.  The potential anticancer properties and the effects of MGE on physical well-being and QOL metrics will be evaluated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141001PMC
June 2021

Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

Int J Endocrinol 2021 13;2021:6671823. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

For the Health ABC Study, Sticht Center on Aging, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Objective: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prevalent among older adults; however, longitudinal studies examining 25(OH)D status and MetS are lacking. We explore the association of 25(OH)D levels with prevalent and incident MetS in white and black older adults. . A total of 1620 white and 1016 black participants aged 70-79 years from the Health ABC cohort with measured 25(OH)D levels and data on MetS and covariates of interest were examined. The association between 25(OH)D levels and prevalent MetS at baseline and incident MetS at 6-year follow-up was examined in whites and blacks separately using logistic regression adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors, and renal function.

Results: At baseline, 635 (39%) white and 363 (36%) black participants had prevalent MetS. In whites, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with prevalent MetS (adjusted OR (95% CI), 1.85 (1.47, 2.34)) and 1.96 (1.46, 2.63) for 25(OH)D of 20-<30 and <20 vs. ≥30 ng/ml, respectively). The association was attenuated after adjustment for BMI but remained significant. No association was found between 25(OH)D levels and prevalent MetS in blacks. Among those without MetS at baseline (765 whites, 427 blacks), 150 (20%) whites and 87 (20%) blacks had developed MetS at 6-year follow-up. However, 25(OH)D levels were not associated with incident MetS in whites or blacks.

Conclusion: In older adults, low 25(OH)D levels were associated with increased odds of prevalent MetS in whites but not in blacks. No association was observed between 25(OH)D levels and incident MetS in either whites or blacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6671823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981173PMC
March 2021

Effect of dietary protein intake on bone mineral density and fracture incidence in older adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Dietary recommendations may underestimate the protein older adults need for optimal bone health. This study sought to determine associations of protein intake with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture among community-dwelling white and black older adults.

Methods: Protein as a percentage of total energy intake (TEI) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire in 2,160 older adults (73.5±2.8 years; 51.5% women; 35.8% black) in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition prospective cohort. Hip, femoral neck, and whole body BMD was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 4 years, and lumbar trabecular, cortical, and integral BMD was assessed by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Fragility fractures over 5 years were adjudicated from self-report data collected every 6 months. Associations with tertiles of protein intake were assessed using analysis of covariance for BMD and multivariate Cox regression for fracture, adjusting for confounders.

Results: Participants in the upper protein tertile (≥15% TEI) had 1.8-6.0% higher mean hip and lumbar spine BMD compared to the lower protein tertile (<13% TEI; p<0.05). Protein intake did not affect change in BMD at any site over the follow-up period. Participants in the upper protein tertile had a reduced risk of clinical vertebral fracture over five years of follow-up (Hazard Ratio: 0.36 [95% Confidence Intervals (CI), 0.14, 0.97] vs. lower protein tertile, p=0.04).

Conclusions: Older adults with higher protein intake (≥15% TEI) had higher BMD at the hip, whole body, and lumbar spine, and a lower risk of vertebral fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab068DOI Listing
March 2021

Trunk Skeletal Muscle Changes on CT with Long-Duration Spaceflight.

Ann Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 18;49(4):1257-1266. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center for Injury Biomechanics, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, 27101, USA.

Astronauts exposed to microgravity for extended time are susceptible to trunk muscle atrophy, which may compromise strength and function on mission and after return. This study investigates changes in trunk skeletal muscle size and composition using computed tomography (CT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) among 16 crewmembers (1 female, 15 male) on 4-6 month missions. Muscle cross-sectional area and muscle attenuation were measured using abdominal CT scans at pre-flight, post-flight return, 1 year post-flight, and 2-4 years post-flight. Longitudinal muscle changes were analyzed using mixed models. In six crewmembers, CT and DXA data were used to calculate subject height-normalized skeletal muscle indices. Changes in these indices were analyzed using paired t-tests and compared by imaging modality using Pearson correlations. Trunk muscle area decreased at post-flight return (- 4.7 ± 1.1%, p < 0.001) and recovered to pre-flight values at 1-4 years post-flight. Muscle attenuation changes were not significant. Skeletal muscle index from CT decreased (- 5.2 ± 1.0%, p = 0.004) while appendicular skeletal muscle index from DXA did not change significantly. In summary, trunk muscle atrophies with long-duration microgravity exposure but recovers to pre-flight values within 1-4 years. The CT measures highlight size decreases not detected with DXA, emphasizing the importance of advanced imaging modalities in assessing muscle health with spaceflight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-021-02745-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207531PMC
April 2021

Dietary Quality and Usual Intake of Underconsumed Nutrients and Related Food Groups Differ by Food Security Status for Rural, Midwestern Food Pantry Clients.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2020 09 20;120(9):1457-1468. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Background: Food pantry users represent a predominantly food insecure population, yet dietary intake may differ among food secure (FS), low FS, and very low FS clients. Usual intake of food groups and nutrients by food security status has not previously been compared among food pantry clients.

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the usual intakes of underconsumed nutrients (ie, potassium; dietary fiber; choline; magnesium; calcium; vitamins A, D, E, and C; and iron) and related food groups (ie, vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and dairy) and dietary quality, and to evaluate their relationship with food security status.

Design: This cross-sectional, secondary analysis used baseline data from a prior intervention study (Clinical Trial Registry: NCT03566095). A demographic questionnaire, the US Household Food Security Survey Module, and up to three 24-hour dietary recalls on nonconsecutive days, including weekdays and weekends, were collected.

Participants/setting: This community-based study included a convenience sample of adult, midwestern food pantry clients (N=579) recruited from August to November 2014.

Main Outcome Measures: Main outcomes evaluated were Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and usual intakes of underconsumed nutrients and related food groups.

Statistical Analyses Performed: Linear regression models and the National Cancer Institute method, adjusting for confounders, were used to estimate associations of food security with diet quality and usual intake, respectively.

Results: Being FS was associated with a higher whole grains HEI-2010 score and higher mean usual intake of whole grains compared with being low FS. Being FS was associated with higher usual intakes of iron and dairy compared with being very low FS. Being FS was associated with a higher mean usual intake of dark green vegetables compared with being low FS and very low FS. Usual intakes were below federal guidance for all subgroups of food security.

Conclusions: Although food security status may differentiate dietary intake among food pantry clients, improvements are needed among all clients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.04.011DOI Listing
September 2020

Diet Quality and Associations with Food Security among Women Eligible for Indiana Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education.

J Nutr 2020 08;150(8):2191-2198

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: The diet quality among adults receiving nutrition education lessons through Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) is currently unknown.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the diet quality of Indiana SNAP-Ed-eligible women; estimate their mean usual intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy, and whole grains compared to Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations; and determine if these dietary outcomes differed by food security status.

Methods: SNAP-Ed paraprofessionals recruited participants from August 2015 to May 2016 for this secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected as the baseline assessment for a randomized controlled trial. Participants were SNAP-Ed-eligible women aged ≥18 y interested in nutrition education lessons. Dietary outcomes were assessed by one or two 24-h dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 was used to characterize diet quality. Mean usual intake of food groups was estimated using the National Cancer Institute Method. Food security status was classified using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Data were analyzed in October 2019.

Results: Mean ± SEM HEI-2010 total score was 42 ± 0.9 for the study sample. Mean ± SE usual intake of servings of fruits (0.61 ± 0.08 cups [144.32 ± 18.93 mL]), vegetables [1.4 ± 0.10 cups (331.2 ± 23.66 mL)], dairy [1.5 ± 0.11 cups (354.88 ± 26.02 mL)], and whole grains [0.48 ± 0.06 ounces (13.61 ± 1.70 g)] did not differ by food security subgroup. Mean HEI-2010 total score was significantly higher by 4.8 ± 2.0 points for the food-secure than for the food-insecure subgroup (P = 0.01). Mean HEI-2010 component scores were 1.1 ± 0.5 points higher for whole grain (P = 0.01) and 1.0 ± 0.5 points higher for dairy (P = 0.05) in the food-secure than in the food-insecure subgroup. The proportions of the study sample not meeting the DGA recommendations for food group intake were ≥85% for both food-secure and -insecure subgroups.

Conclusions: Indiana SNAP-Ed-eligible women reported poor diet quality, highlighting their need for nutrition interventions aiming to improve food security and diet as per DGA recommendations in low-income populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690761PMC
August 2020

Older adults with obesity have higher risks of some micronutrient inadequacies and lower overall dietary quality compared to peers with a healthy weight, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2011-2014.

Public Health Nutr 2020 09 29;23(13):2268-2279. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN47907, USA.

Objective: To evaluate total usual intakes and biomarkers of micronutrients, overall dietary quality and related health characteristics of US older adults who were overweight or obese compared with a healthy weight.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Two 24-h dietary recalls, nutritional biomarkers and objective and subjective health characteristic data were analysed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. We used the National Cancer Institute method to estimate distributions of total usual intakes from foods and dietary supplements for eleven micronutrients of potential concern and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 score.

Participants: Older adults aged ≥60 years (n 2969) were categorised by sex and body weight status, using standard BMI categories. Underweight individuals (n 47) were excluded due to small sample size.

Results: A greater percentage of obese older adults compared with their healthy-weight counterparts was at risk of inadequate Mg (both sexes), Ca, vitamin B6 and vitamin D (women only) intakes. The proportion of those with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 40 nmol/l was higher in obese (12 %) than in healthy-weight older women (6 %). Mean overall HEI-2015 scores were 8·6 (men) and 7·1 (women) points lower in obese than in healthy-weight older adults. In addition, compared with healthy-weight counterparts, obese older adults were more likely to self-report fair/poor health, use ≥ 5 medications and have limitations in activities of daily living and cardio-metabolic risk factors; and obese older women were more likely to be food-insecure and have depression.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that obesity may coexist with micronutrient inadequacy in older adults, especially among women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020000257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429309PMC
September 2020

A Web-Based, Positive Emotion Skills Intervention for Enhancing Posttreatment Psychological Well-Being in Young Adult Cancer Survivors (EMPOWER): Protocol for a Single-Arm Feasibility Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 May 28;9(5):e17078. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States.

Background: Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors (AYAs) experience clinically significant distress and have limited access to supportive care services. Interventions to enhance psychological well-being have improved positive affect and reduced depression in clinical and healthy populations but have not been routinely tested in AYAs.

Objective: The aim of this protocol is to (1) test the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention for posttreatment AYAs called Enhancing Management of Psychological Outcomes With Emotion Regulation (EMPOWER) and (2) examine proof of concept for reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being.

Methods: The intervention development and testing are taking place in 3 phases. In phase 1, we adapted the content of an existing, Web-based positive emotion intervention so that it would be suitable for AYAs. EMPOWER targets 8 skills (noticing positive events, capitalizing, gratitude, mindfulness, positive reappraisal, goal setting, personal strengths, and acts of kindness) and is delivered remotely as a 5-week, Web-based intervention. Phase 2 consisted of a pilot test of EMPOWER in a single-arm trial to evaluate feasibility, acceptability, retention, and adherence and to collect data on psychosocial outcomes for proof of concept. In phase 3, we are refining study procedures and conducting a second pilot test.

Results: The project was part of a career development award. Pilot work began in June 2015, and data collection was completed in March 2019. The analysis is ongoing, and results will be submitted for publication by May 2020.

Conclusions: If this intervention proves feasible and acceptable, EMPOWER will be primed for a subsequent large, multisite randomized controlled trial. As a scalable intervention, it will be ideally suited for AYA survivors who would otherwise not have access to supportive care interventions to help manage posttreatment distress and enhance well-being.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02832154, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02832154.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/17078.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290453PMC
May 2020

Authors' Response.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2020 06;120(6):960-961

Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.02.012DOI Listing
June 2020

STRATOS guidance document on measurement error and misclassification of variables in observational epidemiology: Part 1-Basic theory and simple methods of adjustment.

Stat Med 2020 07 3;39(16):2197-2231. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Biostatistics and Biomathematics Unit, Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Measurement error and misclassification of variables frequently occur in epidemiology and involve variables important to public health. Their presence can impact strongly on results of statistical analyses involving such variables. However, investigators commonly fail to pay attention to biases resulting from such mismeasurement. We provide, in two parts, an overview of the types of error that occur, their impacts on analytic results, and statistical methods to mitigate the biases that they cause. In this first part, we review different types of measurement error and misclassification, emphasizing the classical, linear, and Berkson models, and on the concepts of nondifferential and differential error. We describe the impacts of these types of error in covariates and in outcome variables on various analyses, including estimation and testing in regression models and estimating distributions. We outline types of ancillary studies required to provide information about such errors and discuss the implications of covariate measurement error for study design. Methods for ascertaining sample size requirements are outlined, both for ancillary studies designed to provide information about measurement error and for main studies where the exposure of interest is measured with error. We describe two of the simpler methods, regression calibration and simulation extrapolation (SIMEX), that adjust for bias in regression coefficients caused by measurement error in continuous covariates, and illustrate their use through examples drawn from the Observing Protein and Energy (OPEN) dietary validation study. Finally, we review software available for implementing these methods. The second part of the article deals with more advanced topics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450672PMC
July 2020

STRATOS guidance document on measurement error and misclassification of variables in observational epidemiology: Part 2-More complex methods of adjustment and advanced topics.

Stat Med 2020 07 3;39(16):2232-2263. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Biostatistics and Biomathematics Unit, Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

We continue our review of issues related to measurement error and misclassification in epidemiology. We further describe methods of adjusting for biased estimation caused by measurement error in continuous covariates, covering likelihood methods, Bayesian methods, moment reconstruction, moment-adjusted imputation, and multiple imputation. We then describe which methods can also be used with misclassification of categorical covariates. Methods of adjusting estimation of distributions of continuous variables for measurement error are then reviewed. Illustrative examples are provided throughout these sections. We provide lists of available software for implementing these methods and also provide the code for implementing our examples in the Supporting Information. Next, we present several advanced topics, including data subject to both classical and Berkson error, modeling continuous exposures with measurement error, and categorical exposures with misclassification in the same model, variable selection when some of the variables are measured with error, adjusting analyses or design for error in an outcome variable, and categorizing continuous variables measured with error. Finally, we provide some advice for the often met situations where variables are known to be measured with substantial error, but there is only an external reference standard or partial (or no) information about the type or magnitude of the error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272296PMC
July 2020

An Approach for Examining the Impact of Food Group-Based Sources of Nutrients on Outcomes with Application to PUFAs and LDL in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 28;12(4). Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Traditionally, nutritional epidemiologists have utilized single nutrient or dietary pattern approaches to examine diet-health relationships. However, the former ignores that nutrients are consumed from foods within dietary patterns, and, conversely, dietary patterns may provide little information on mechanisms of action. Substitution provides a framework for estimating diet-health relationships while holding some nutrient intakes constant. We examined substitution effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study in the context of food group source. PUFAs were calculated from fatty acids 18:3, 20:5, and 22:6 (-3), and 18:2 and 20:4 (-6) from a food frequency questionnaire, quantified by food group. Models were adjusted for other fat intake, carbohydrates, protein, age, race, gender, and diabetes duration. Participants ( = 1441) were 14 years old on average, 51% female, with type 1 diabetes for 3.6 years. Mean intake of PUFAs was 14.9 g/day, and the highest PUFA sources were nonsolid fats, nuts, grains, red/processed meats, sweets/desserts, and high-fat chicken. PUFAs from nuts were inversely associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) ( = 0.03) and PUFAs from high-fat chicken were positively associated with LDL ( < 0.01). Substituting nuts for chicken was associated with -7.4 mg/dL in LDL. These findings illustrate the importance of considering food group-based sources of nutrients when examining diet-health relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12040941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230845PMC
March 2020

Rural cancer survivors' health information needs post-treatment.

Patient Educ Couns 2020 08 27;103(8):1606-1614. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Objective: This study describes the most common cancer-related health information needs among rural cancer survivors and characteristics associated with reporting more information needs.

Methods: Rural breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors, two to five years post-diagnosis, identified from an institutional cancer registry, completed a mailed/telephone-administered survey. Respondents were asked about 23 health information needs in eight domains (tests and treatment, side effects and symptoms, health promotion, fertility, interpersonal, occupational, emotional, and insurance). Poisson regression models were used to assess relationships between number of health information needs and demographic and cancer characteristics.

Results: Participants (n = 170) reported an average of four health information needs, with the most common domains being: side effects and symptoms (58 %), health promotion (54 %), and tests and treatment (41 %). Participants who were younger (compared to 5-year increase, rate ratio [RR] = 1.11, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.21), ethnic minority (RR = 1.89, 95 % CI = 1.17-3.06), less educated (RR = 1.49, 95 % CI = 1.00-2.23), and financially stressed (RR = 1.87, 95 % CI = 1.25-2.81) had a greater number of information needs.

Conclusions: Younger, ethnic minority, less educated, and financially strained rural survivors have the greatest need for informational support.

Practice Implications: The provision of health information for rural cancer survivors should consider type of cancer, treatments received, and sociocultural differences to tailor information provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.02.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311274PMC
August 2020

Detection and quantification of renal fibrosis by computerized tomography.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(2):e0228626. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Comparative Medicine, Wake Forest University, Wake Forest, North Carolina, United States of America.

Objectives: Reliable biomarkers for renal fibrosis are needed for clinical care and for research. Existing non-invasive biomarkers are imprecise, which has limited their utility.

Methods: We developed a method to quantify fibrosis by subject size-adjusted CT Hounsfield units. This was accomplished using CT measurements of renal cortex in previously irradiated non-human primates.

Results: Renal cortex mean CT Hounsfield units that were adjusted for body size had a very good direct correlation with renal parenchymal fibrosis, with an area under the curve of 0.93.

Conclusions: This metric is a promising and simple non-invasive biomarker for renal fibrosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228626PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018060PMC
May 2020

The prognostic value of standardized phase angle in adults with acute leukemia: A prospective study.

Cancer Med 2020 04 12;9(7):2403-2413. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Standardized phase angle (SPhA) is a tool used to estimate body composition and cell membrane integrity. Standardized phase angle has been shown to predict survival in solid malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. We investigated the predictive value of SPhA on 60-day mortality, overall survival (OS), and length of hospital stay (LHS) for adults with acute myelogenous and lymphoblastic leukemia (AML and ALL). Consecutive patients ≥18 years with newly diagnosed acute leukemia receiving intensive chemotherapy were enrolled. Phase angle measurements were taken on day 1 of therapy for all patients and on the day of nadir marrow for AML patients. Measurements were standardized by BMI, gender, and age to calculate the SPhA. The difference between SPhA at nadir bone marrow compared to day 1 of induction was used to calculate change in SPhA. A cutoff of 25th percentile was used to dichotomize baseline SPhA. Among 100 patients, 88% were AML, 56% were female, and mean age was 59 years. Though not statistically significant, OS by Kaplan-Meier analysis was shorter for those below the 25th percentile SPhA compared to those above (median OS: 11.0 months vs 19.5 months; P = .09). Lower baseline SPhA was associated with increased incidence of 60-day mortality in univariable (odds ratio [OR] = 5.25; 1.35, 20.44; P = .02) but not multivariable analysis (OR = 3.12; 0.67, 14.48; P = .15) adjusted for age, creatinine, and cytogenetics. Increased change in SPhA was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio = 1.15; 1.00,1.33; P = .05) in multivariable analysis. Standardized phase angle is a rapid, noninvasive, and objective measure that may be used to inform risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7131844PMC
April 2020

Total Usual Micronutrient Intakes Compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes among U.S. Adults by Food Security Status.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 22;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 22.

Interdepartmental Nutrition Program, Purdue University, 700 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

This study examined total usual micronutrient intakes from foods, beverages, and dietary supplements (DS) compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes among U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sex and food security status using NHANES 2011-2014 data ( = 9954). DS data were collected via an in-home interview; the NCI method was used to estimate distributions of total usual intakes from two 24 h recalls for food and beverages, after which DS were added. Food security status was categorized using the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Adults living in food insecure households had a higher prevalence of risk of inadequacy among both men and women for magnesium, potassium, vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K; similar findings were apparent for phosphorous, selenium, and zinc in men alone. Meanwhile, no differences in the prevalence of risk for inadequacy were observed for calcium, iron (examined in men only), choline, or folate by food security status. Some DS users, especially food secure adults, had total usual intakes that exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for folic acid, vitamin D, calcium, and iron. In conclusion, while DS can be helpful in meeting nutrient requirements for adults for some micronutrients, potential excess may also be of concern for certain micronutrients among supplement users. In general, food insecure adults have higher risk for micronutrient inadequacy than food secure adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12010038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019721PMC
December 2019

Comparison of 4 Methods to Assess the Prevalence of Use and Estimates of Nutrient Intakes from Dietary Supplements among US Adults.

J Nutr 2020 04;150(4):884-893

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Accurate and reliable methods to assess prevalence of use of and nutrient intakes from dietary supplements (DSs) are critical for research, clinical practice, and public health monitoring. NHANES has been the primary source of DS usage patterns using an in-home inventory with a frequency-based DS and Prescription Medicine Questionnaire (DSMQ), but little is known regarding DS information obtained from 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs).

Methods: The objectives of this analysis were to compare results from 4 different methods for measuring DS use constructed from two data collection instruments (i.e., DSMQ and 24HR) and to determine the most comprehensive method for measuring the prevalence of use and estimating nutrient intakes from DS for selected nutrients. NHANES 2011-2014 data from US adults (aged ≥19 y; n = 11,451) were used to examine the 4 combinations of methods constructed for measuring the prevalence of use of and amount of selected nutrients from DSs (i.e., riboflavin, vitamin D, folate, magnesium, calcium): 1) DSMQ, 2) 24HR day 1, 3) two 24HRs (i.e., mean), and 4) DSMQ or at least one 24HR.

Results: Half of US adults reported DS use on the DSMQ (52%) and on two 24HRs (mean of 49%), as compared with a lower prevalence of DS use when using a single 24HR (43%) and a higher (57%) prevalence when combining the DSMQ with at least one 24HR. Mean nutrient intake estimates were highest using 24HR day 1. Mean supplemental calcium from the DSMQ or at least one 24HR was 372 mg/d, but 464 mg/d on the 24HR only. For vitamin D, the estimated intakes per consumption day were higher on the DSMQ (46 μg) and the DSMQ or at least one 24HR (44 μg) than those on the 24HR day 1 (32 μg) or the mean 24HR (31 μg). Fewer products were also classed as a default or reasonable match on the DSMQ than on the 24HR.

Conclusions: A higher prevalence of use of DSs is obtained using frequency-based methods, whereas higher amounts of nutrients are reported from a 24HR. The home inventory results in greater accuracy for products reported. Collectively, these findings suggest that combining the DSMQ with at least one 24HR (i.e., DSMQ or at least one 24HR) is the most comprehensive method for assessing the prevalence of and estimating usual intake from DSs in US adults.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03400436.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138661PMC
April 2020

Breakfast Consumption Is Positively Associated with Usual Nutrient Intakes among Food Pantry Clients Living in Rural Communities.

J Nutr 2020 03;150(3):546-553

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Breakfast consumption has declined over the past 40 y and is inversely associated with obesity-related diet and health outcomes. The breakfast pattern of food pantry clients and its association with diet is unknown.

Objective: The objective is to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with diet quality and usual nutrient intakes among food pantry clients (n = 472) living in rural communities.

Methods: This was an observational study using cross-sectional analyses. English-speaking participants ≥18 y (or ≥19 y in Nebraska) were recruited from 24 food pantries in rural high-poverty counties in Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and South Dakota. Participants were surveyed at the pantry regarding characteristics and diet using 24-h recall. A second recall was self-completed or completed via assisted phone call within 2 wk of the pantry visit. Participants were classified as breakfast skippers when neither recall reported breakfast ≥230 kcal consumed between 04:00 and 10:00; breakfast consumers were all other participants. The Healthy Eating Index-2010 was modeled with breakfast pattern using multiple linear regression. Mean usual intake of 16 nutrients was estimated using the National Cancer Institute Method and compared across breakfast pattern groups. Usual nutrient intake was compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) to estimate the proportion of population not meeting the EAR or exceeding the AI.

Results: A total of 56% of participants consumed breakfast. Compared with breakfast skippers, breakfast consumers had 10-59% significantly higher usual mean intakes of all nutrients (P ≤ 0.05), and had 12-21% lower prevalence of at-risk nutrient intakes except for vitamin D, vitamin E, and magnesium.

Conclusions: Adult food pantry clients living in rural communities experienced hardships in meeting dietary recommendations. Breakfast consumption was positively associated with usual nutrient intakes in this population. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03566095.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz258DOI Listing
March 2020

Neck Muscle Changes Following Long-Duration Spaceflight.

Front Physiol 2019 13;10:1115. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Center of Injury Biomechanics, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States.

The effects of long-duration spaceflight on crewmember neck musculature have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the neck musculature on pre-flight and post-flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of six crewmembers on 4- to 6-month missions equipped with the advanced resistive exercise device (aRED). The MRI images were resliced to remove variations in spinal curvature, the cross-sectional area (CSA), and muscle fat infiltration (MFI) of neck musculature at the C1-C2, C4-C5, C7-T1, and T1-T2 intervertebral disc levels were measured bilaterally. Percent changes in the neck muscle CSA and fatty infiltration following spaceflight were calculated, and mixed models were used to assess significance of these changes. Crewmembers on missions equipped with the aRED experienced an average 25.1% increase in CSA for the trapezius muscle at C6-C7, an average 11.5% increase in CSA for the semispinalis capitis muscle at C4-C5, an average 9.0% increase in CSA for the sternocleidomastoid muscle at C4-C5, and an average 23.1% increase in CSA for the rhomboid minor at T1-T2. There were no significant changes in the CSA of the levator scapulae, splenius capitis, rectus capitis posterior major, scalenus anterior, scalenus posterior, scalenus medius, longissimus capitis, or obliquus capitis inferior muscles at the locations measured. None of the muscles analyzed experienced statistically significant changes in fatty infiltration with spaceflight. Our study indicates that long-duration spaceflight conditions are associated with preservation of CSA in most neck muscles and significant increases in the CSAs of the trapezius, semispinalis capitis, sternocleidomastoid, and rhomboid minor muscles. This may indicate that cervical muscles are not subjected to the same degradative effects microgravity imparts on the majority of muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753191PMC
September 2019

Using Simulation to Define the Learning Curve for the Digital Cervical Examination.

Obstet Gynecol 2019 10;134 Suppl 1:1S-8S

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Biostatistics and Data Science, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Introduction: To assess how skill in the digital cervical examination is acquired in medical students.

Methods: In a longitudinal study, medical students completed 200 simulated cervical examinations. We performed regressions of each student's cumulative accuracy using the linear, power, and sigmoidal models to determine best fit. We also constructed multilevel models to determine the influence of dilation and effacement on accuracy and to determine whether the starting level and rate of learning varied between individuals. To assess skill decay, we assessed accuracy at 1, 2, and 5 months after training. We defined the amount of sustained accuracy needed to achieve competence using cumulative summation analyses and determined the amount of practice needed to reach this level of skill.

Results: Twenty-five medical students participated. The median (interquartile range) of cumulative accuracy at the end of the study was 69% (65-78) for dilation and 80% (76-91) for effacement. The sigmoidal model had the best fit. All students achieved competence during the study. The multilevel models showed that accuracy decreased with higher dilation and lower effacement and found that starting level and rate of learning varied between individuals. Maximal accuracy in both dilation and effacement was seen after 150 repetitions. Accuracy of the medical students persisted for 1 month for dilation and 2 months for effacement. The average±SD number of repetitions needed to achieve competence was 89±46 (range 35-195) for dilation and 48±38 (range 11-174) for effacement.

Discussion: Based on the variability in skill between individuals and the rate of skill acquisition and decay, we feel that a competence-based rather than time-based approach is most appropriate, that trainee performance should be monitored both during and after training, and that 150 repetitions, or more, should be included in any digital cervical examination simulation regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003433DOI Listing
October 2019

Best Practices for Conducting and Interpreting Studies to Validate Self-Report Dietary Assessment Methods.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2019 11 11;119(11):1801-1816. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Careful consideration of the validity and reliability of methods intended to assess dietary intake is central to the robustness of nutrition research. A dietary assessment method with high validity is capable of providing useful measurement for a given purpose and context. More specifically, a method with high validity is well grounded in theory; its performance is consistent with that theory; and it is precise, dependable, and accurate within specified performance standards. Assessing the extent to which dietary assessment methods possess these characteristics can be difficult due to the complexity of dietary intake, as well as difficulties capturing true intake. We identified challenges and best practices related to the validation of self-report dietary assessment methods. The term validation is used to encompass various dimensions that must be assessed and considered to determine whether a given method is suitable for a specific purpose. Evidence on the varied concepts of validity and reliability should be interpreted in combination to inform judgments about the suitability of a method for a specified purpose. Self-report methods are the focus because they are used in most studies seeking to measure dietary intake. Biomarkers are important reference measures to validate self-report methods and are also discussed. A checklist is proposed to contribute to strengthening the literature on the validation of dietary assessment methods and ultimately, the nutrition literature more broadly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.06.010DOI Listing
November 2019

Body Mass Index Z-Score Modifies the Association between Added Sugar Intake and Arterial Stiffness in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: The Search Nutrition Ancillary Study.

Nutrients 2019 Jul 30;11(8). Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The relationship between added sugar and arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has not been well-described. We used data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study (SEARCH), an ongoing observational cohort study, to determine the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness in individuals diagnosed with T1D <20 years of age ( = 1539; mean diabetes duration of 7.9 ± 1.9 years). Added sugar intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and arterial stiffness measures included pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index. Separate multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness. Separate interaction terms were included to test for effect modification by body mass index (BMI) z-score and physical activity (PA). Overall, there was no association between added sugar and arterial stiffness ( > 0.05); however, the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness differed by BMI z-score ( for interaction = 0.003). For participants with lower BMI z-scores, added sugar intake was positively associated with PWV trunk measurements, whereas there was no association for those who had a higher BMI z-score. PA did not significantly modify the association between added sugar and arterial stiffness. Further research is needed to determine the longitudinal relationship and to confirm that obesity differentially affects this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11081752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723563PMC
July 2019

Lung Cancer Patient and Caregiver Health Vulnerabilities and Interest in Health Promotion Interventions: An Exploratory Study.

Glob Adv Health Med 2019 17;8:2164956119865160. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Social Sciences & Health Policy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Introduction: Lung cancer patients and their caregivers are at risk for negative health behaviors and poor psychosocial functioning, but few interventions exist that target this population. To inform intervention development, we explored potential targets and interest and concordance in health promotion interventions among lung cancer patients and their caregivers.

Methods: Lung cancer patients (n = 18) with a smoking history and their caregivers (n = 15) participated in a cross-sectional, observational survey study (an average of 1 month postdiagnosis) to assess health behaviors, psychosocial functioning, and interest in health promotion interventions. Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests examined factors associated with intervention interest. McNemar's test examined concordance in interest.

Results: Many caregivers (40%) reported providing care at least 4 days per week, and over half (53.3%) reported a smoking history. Patients reported high cancer self-blame (mean = 3.1, standard deviation = 0.9, range = 1-4). Patients (55.6%) and caregivers (60%) reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. There was high interest and concordance in interest in cancer education (patients, 77.8%; caregivers, 86.7%) and diet and exercise (patients, 66.7%; caregivers, 80%) interventions. Significantly more caregivers were interested in stress reduction (patients, 53.3%; caregivers, 73.3%;  = .05) and yoga (patients, 16.7%; caregivers, 50%;  = .03) than patients. Caregivers interested in stress reduction interventions had higher levels of distress than those not interested.

Discussion: Health promotion interventions are needed and of interest to lung cancer patients and caregivers. Shared interests in interventions suggest dyadic interventions may be appropriate, yet interventions should also address distinct patient and caregiver needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2164956119865160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637827PMC
July 2019

Development of an Innovative Career Development Program for Early-Career Women Faculty.

Glob Adv Health Med 2019 16;8:2164956119862986. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Physician Assistant Studies, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Objective: Our institutional Women in Medicine & Science Program (formerly the Office of Women in Medicine and Science) developed the Early Career Development Program for Women to promote the careers of women faculty. At 6 monthly sessions, participants learn relevant content (imposter syndrome, strengths, change style, career management, assertive communication, feedback, personal influence, conflict management, negotiation, importance of mentors, resilience, and self-care); exchange ideas; and expand their professional networks. Here, we report changes in participants' career skills/knowledge, confidence, and perceptions of the current environment after attending the program.

Method: Between 2014 and 2017, participants (N = 65) completed pre- and post-program surveys that assessed career knowledge and skills, confidence, and perceptions of the current environment and provided program feedback.

Results: Most skills showed pre-post significant improvement. The greatest increases occurred in knowing paths to promotion, tailoring communication style, ability to manage conflict, and ability to handle personal-professional role balance. Women reported a significant increase for all items measuring confidence. Among these items, establishing networks, understanding institutional culture, providing feedback, motivating others, strategic planning, delegating, and conflict management had the largest increases. Overall, 89.3% of respondents rated the program impact as very strong/profound, 98.5% rated the concepts as essential, 95.2% rated the skills as essential, and 90.8% rated the sense of community with women in their class as very/extremely close.

Conclusions: Work-related skills/knowledge, confidence, and perceptions of the current environment increased significantly among program participants. These early-career women faculty indicated that the program augmented the skills needed to develop their careers in an academic medical center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2164956119862986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636414PMC
July 2019