Publications by authors named "Janet A Buchanan"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A framework for an evidence-based gene list relevant to autism spectrum disorder.

Nat Rev Genet 2020 06 21;21(6):367-376. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

The Centre for Applied Genomics, Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often grouped with other brain-related phenotypes into a broader category of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). In clinical practice, providers need to decide which genes to test in individuals with ASD phenotypes, which requires an understanding of the level of evidence for individual NDD genes that supports an association with ASD. Consensus is currently lacking about which NDD genes have sufficient evidence to support a relationship to ASD. Estimates of the number of genes relevant to ASD differ greatly among research groups and clinical sequencing panels, varying from a few to several hundred. This Roadmap discusses important considerations necessary to provide an evidence-based framework for the curation of NDD genes based on the level of information supporting a clinically relevant relationship between a given gene and ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41576-020-0231-2DOI Listing
June 2020

A large data resource of genomic copy number variation across neurodevelopmental disorders.

NPJ Genom Med 2019 7;4:26. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Hamilton Health Sciences, Ron Joyce Children's Health Centre, Hamilton, On Canada.

Copy number variations (CNVs) are implicated across many neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and contribute to their shared genetic etiology. Multiple studies have attempted to identify shared etiology among NDDs, but this is the first genome-wide CNV analysis across autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia (SCZ), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) at once. Using microarray (Affymetrix CytoScan HD), we genotyped 2,691 subjects diagnosed with an NDD (204 SCZ, 1,838 ASD, 427 ADHD and 222 OCD) and 1,769 family members, mainly parents. We identified rare CNVs, defined as those found in <0.1% of 10,851 population control samples. We found clinically relevant CNVs (broadly defined) in 284 (10.5%) of total subjects, including 22 (10.8%) among subjects with SCZ, 209 (11.4%) with ASD, 40 (9.4%) with ADHD, and 13 (5.6%) with OCD. Among all NDD subjects, we identified 17 (0.63%) with aneuploidies and 115 (4.3%) with known genomic disorder variants. We searched further for genes impacted by different CNVs in multiple disorders. Examples of NDD-associated genes linked across more than one disorder (listed in order of occurrence frequency) are , , , , , , , , , , and long non-coding RNAs: and . We demonstrated that CNVs impacting the same genes could potentially contribute to the etiology of multiple NDDs. The CNVs identified will serve as a useful resource for both research and diagnostic laboratories for prioritization of variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41525-019-0098-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779875PMC
October 2019

Heterogeneity in clinical sequencing tests marketed for autism spectrum disorders.

NPJ Genom Med 2018 19;3:27. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

2Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41525-018-0066-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6145925PMC
September 2018

The Personal Genome Project Canada: findings from whole genome sequences of the inaugural 56 participants.

CMAJ 2018 02;190(5):E126-E136

The Centre for Applied Genomics (Reuter, Walker, Thiruvahindrapuram, Whitney, Yuen, Trost, Paton, Pereira, Herbrick, Wintle, Merico, Howe, MacDonald, Lu, Nalpathamkalam, Sung, Wang, Patel, Pellecchia, J. Wei, Strug, Bell, Kellam, Mahtani, Hosseini, Fiume, Marshall, Buchanan, Scherer); Divisions of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology (I. Cohn), or Clinical, and Metabolic Genetics (Sondheimer, Weksberg, Shuman, Bowdin, Meyn, Monfared), The Hospital for Sick Children; Departments of Paediatrics (Sondheimer, R. Cohn) and Molecular Genetics (Yuen, Weksberg, Shuman, R. Cohn, Ellis, Meyn), University of Toronto; Deep Genomics Inc. (Merico); Department of Psychiatry (Bassett), University Health Network and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute (Bombard), St. Michael's Hospital; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation (Bombard), University of Toronto; Centre for Genetic Medicine (Stavropoulos, Bowdin, Ray, Monfared); Molecular Genetics Laboratory (Stavropoulos, Ray, Marshall), Division of Genome Diagnostics, Paediatric Laboratory Medicine; Developmental and Stem Cell Biology (Hildebrandt, W. Wei, Romm, Pasceri, Ellis); Ted Rogers Cardiac Genome Clinic (Hosseini); Cytogenetics Laboratory (Joseph-George), Division of Genome Diagnostics, Paediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children; Departments of Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, and Pathobiology (Keeley), University of Toronto; DNAstack (Cook, Fiume); McLaughlin Centre (Lee, Scherer), University of Toronto; Medcan Health Management Inc. (Davies, Hazell); Dalla Lana School of Public Health (Szego), Department of Family and Community Medicine, and The Joint Centre for Bioethics, University of Toronto; Centre for Clinical Ethics (Szego), St. Joseph's Health Centre, Toronto, Ont.

Background: The Personal Genome Project Canada is a comprehensive public data resource that integrates whole genome sequencing data and health information. We describe genomic variation identified in the initial recruitment cohort of 56 volunteers.

Methods: Volunteers were screened for eligibility and provided informed consent for open data sharing. Using blood DNA, we performed whole genome sequencing and identified all possible classes of DNA variants. A genetic counsellor explained the implication of the results to each participant.

Results: Whole genome sequencing of the first 56 participants identified 207 662 805 sequence variants and 27 494 copy number variations. We analyzed a prioritized disease-associated data set ( = 1606 variants) according to standardized guidelines, and interpreted 19 variants in 14 participants (25%) as having obvious health implications. Six of these variants (e.g., in or mosaic loss of an X chromosome) were pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Seven were risk factors for cancer, cardiovascular or neurobehavioural conditions. Four other variants - associated with cancer, cardiac or neurodegenerative phenotypes - remained of uncertain significance because of discrepancies among databases. We also identified a large structural chromosome aberration and a likely pathogenic mitochondrial variant. There were 172 recessive disease alleles (e.g., 5 individuals carried mutations for cystic fibrosis). Pharmacogenomics analyses revealed another 3.9 potentially relevant genotypes per individual.

Interpretation: Our analyses identified a spectrum of genetic variants with potential health impact in 25% of participants. When also considering recessive alleles and variants with potential pharmacologic relevance, all 56 participants had medically relevant findings. Although access is mostly limited to research, whole genome sequencing can provide specific and novel information with the potential of major impact for health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.171151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798982PMC
February 2018

Variable phenotype expression in a family segregating microdeletions of the and autism spectrum disorder susceptibility genes.

NPJ Genom Med 2017 May;2

Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, The Centre for Applied Genomics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition of early childhood onset, which impacts socio-communicative functioning and is principally genetic in etiology. Currently, more than 50 genomic loci are deemed to be associated with susceptibility to ASD, showing and inherited unbalanced copy number variants (CNVs) and smaller insertions and deletions (indels), more complex structural variants (SVs), as well as single nucleotide variants (SNVs) deemed of pathological significance. However, the phenotypes associated with many of these genes are variable, and penetrance is largely unelaborated in clinical descriptions. This case report describes a family harboring two CNV microdeletions, which affect regions of and - each well-established in association with risk of ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Although each CNV would likely be categorized as pathologically significant, both genomic alterations are transmitted in this family from an unaffected father to the proband, and shared by an unaffected sibling. This family case illustrates the importance of recognizing that phenotype can vary among exon overlapping variants of the same gene, and the need to evaluate penetrance of such variants in order to properly inform on risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41525-017-0020-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5482711PMC
May 2017

Whole genome sequencing resource identifies 18 new candidate genes for autism spectrum disorder.

Nat Neurosci 2017 Apr 6;20(4):602-611. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

The Centre for Applied Genomics, Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

We are performing whole-genome sequencing of families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to build a resource (MSSNG) for subcategorizing the phenotypes and underlying genetic factors involved. Here we report sequencing of 5,205 samples from families with ASD, accompanied by clinical information, creating a database accessible on a cloud platform and through a controlled-access internet portal. We found an average of 73.8 de novo single nucleotide variants and 12.6 de novo insertions and deletions or copy number variations per ASD subject. We identified 18 new candidate ASD-risk genes and found that participants bearing mutations in susceptibility genes had significantly lower adaptive ability (P = 6 × 10). In 294 of 2,620 (11.2%) of ASD cases, a molecular basis could be determined and 7.2% of these carried copy number variations and/or chromosomal abnormalities, emphasizing the importance of detecting all forms of genetic variation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501701PMC
April 2017

Genome and Transcriptome Assembly of the Canadian Beaver ().

G3 (Bethesda) 2017 02 9;7(2):755-773. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6, Canada.

The Canadian beaver () is the largest indigenous rodent in North America. We report a draft annotated assembly of the beaver genome, the first for a large rodent and the first mammalian genome assembled directly from uncorrected and moderate coverage (< 30 ×) long reads generated by single-molecule sequencing. The genome size is 2.7 Gb estimated by k-mer analysis. We assembled the beaver genome using the new Canu assembler optimized for noisy reads. The resulting assembly was refined using Pilon supported by short reads (80 ×) and checked for accuracy by congruency against an independent short read assembly. We scaffolded the assembly using the exon-gene models derived from 9805 full-length open reading frames (FL-ORFs) constructed from the beaver leukocyte and muscle transcriptomes. The final assembly comprised 22,515 contigs with an N50 of 278,680 bp and an N50-scaffold of 317,558 bp. Maximum contig and scaffold lengths were 3.3 and 4.2 Mb, respectively, with a combined scaffold length representing 92% of the estimated genome size. The completeness and accuracy of the scaffold assembly was demonstrated by the precise exon placement for 91.1% of the 9805 assembled FL-ORFs and 83.1% of the BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) gene set used to assess the quality of genome assemblies. Well-represented were genes involved in dentition and enamel deposition, defining characteristics of rodents with which the beaver is well-endowed. The study provides insights for genome assembly and an important genomics resource for Castoridae and rodent evolutionary biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.116.038208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295618PMC
February 2017

Uncovering obsessive-compulsive disorder risk genes in a pediatric cohort by high-resolution analysis of copy number variation.

J Neurodev Disord 2016 18;8:36. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

The Centre for Applied Genomics and Program in Genetics and Genome Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON Canada.

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition, thought to have a significant genetic component. When onset occurs in childhood, affected individuals generally exhibit different characteristics from adult-onset OCD, including higher prevalence in males and increased heritability. Since neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with copy number variations (CNVs), we considered their potential role in the etiology of OCD.

Methods: We genotyped 307 unrelated pediatric probands with idiopathic OCD (including 174 that were part of complete parent-child trios) and compared their genotypes with those of 3861 population controls, to identify rare CNVs (<0.5 % frequency) of at least 15 kb in size that might contribute to OCD.

Results: We uncovered de novo CNVs in 4/174 probands (2.3 %). Our case cohort was enriched for CNVs in genes that encode targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (nominal  = 1.85 × 10; FDR=0.09), similar to previous findings in autism and schizophrenia. These results also identified deletions or duplications of exons in genes involved in neuronal migration (), synapse formation ( and ), and postsynaptic scaffolding ( and ), which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of OCD. Four cases had CNVs involving known genomic disorder loci (1q21.1-21.2, 15q11.2-q13.1, 16p13.11, and 17p12). Further, we identified as a candidate gene for OCD. We also sequenced exomes of ten "CNV positive" trios and identified in one an additional plausibly relevant mutation: a 13 bp exonic deletion in .

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that rare CNVs may contribute to the etiology of OCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11689-016-9170-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5070001PMC
October 2016

Indexing Effects of Copy Number Variation on Genes Involved in Developmental Delay.

Sci Rep 2016 07 1;6:28663. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

The Centre for Applied Genomics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

A challenge in clinical genomics is to predict whether copy number variation (CNV) affecting a gene or multiple genes will manifest as disease. Increasing recognition of gene dosage effects in neurodevelopmental disorders prompted us to develop a computational approach based on critical-exon (highly expressed in brain, highly conserved) examination for potential etiologic effects. Using a large CNV dataset, our updated analyses revealed significant (P < 1.64 × 10(-15)) enrichment of critical-exons within rare CNVs in cases compared to controls. Separately, we used a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to construct an unbiased protein module from prenatal and adult tissues and found it significantly enriched for critical exons in prenatal (P < 1.15 × 10(-50), OR = 2.11) and adult (P < 6.03 × 10(-18), OR = 1.55) tissues. WGCNA yielded 1,206 proteins for which we prioritized the corresponding genes as likely to have a role in neurodevelopmental disorders. We compared the gene lists obtained from critical-exon and WGCNA analysis and found 438 candidate genes associated with CNVs annotated as pathogenic, or as variants of uncertain significance (VOUS), from among 10,619 developmental delay cases. We identified genes containing CNVs previously considered to be VOUS to be new candidate genes for neurodevelopmental disorders (GIT1, MVB12B and PPP1R9A) demonstrating the utility of this strategy to index the clinical effects of CNVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep28663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4929460PMC
July 2016

Prenatal genomic microarray and sequencing in Canadian medical practice: towards consensus.

J Med Genet 2015 Sep 3;52(9):585-6. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103223DOI Listing
September 2015

Building trust in 21st century genomics.

G3 (Bethesda) 2013 Aug 7;3(8):1209-11. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

The Centre for Clinical Ethics, Toronto, ON M6R 1B5, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.113.007690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3737161PMC
August 2013

The cycle of genome-directed medicine.

Genome Med 2009 Feb 2;1(2):16. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

The Centre for Applied Genomics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada.

The genome era in medicine is upon us. Questions that arise from patient and family care are a watershed for research and technology, which in turn fuel the cycle of opportunity for impact through delivery of health services, which feeds back to families. Medical infrastructure needs to adapt to the dramatic pace of technology development in the wake of the Human Genome Project, in order for genome data to be delivered as information and applied as knowledge to benefit health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gm16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664949PMC
February 2009

Contemplating effects of genomic structural variation.

Genet Med 2008 Sep;10(9):639-47

The Centre for Applied Genomics and Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Two developments have sparked new directions in the genetics-to-genomics transition for research and medical applications: the advance of whole-genome assays by array or DNA sequencing technologies, and the discovery among human genomes of extensive submicroscopic genomic structural variation, including copy number variation. For health care to benefit from interpretation of genomic data, we need to know how these variants contribute to the phenotype of the individual. Research is revealing the spectrum, both in size and complexity, of structural genotypic variation, and its association with a broad range of human phenotypes. Genomic disorders associated with relatively large, recurrent contiguous variants have been recognized for some time, as have certain Mendelian traits associated with functional disruption of single genes by structural variation. More recent examples from phenotype- and genotype-driven studies demonstrate a greater level of complexity, with evidence of incremental dosage effects, gene interaction networks, buffering and modifiers, and position effects. Mechanisms underlying such variation are emerging to provide a handle on the bulk of human variation, which is associated with complex traits and adaptive potential. Interpreting genotypes for personalized health care and communicating knowledge to the individual will be significant challenges for genomics professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/gim.0b013e318183f848DOI Listing
September 2008
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