Publications by authors named "Janelle D Greene"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Relationship of Olecranon Apophyseal Ossification and Sanders Hand Scores with the Timing of Peak Height Velocity in Adolescents.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: The onset of peak height velocity (PHV) guides the timing of interventions in the growing child. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Diméglio olecranon grading system and to compare these scores with the Risser/triradiate closure (TRC), proximal humerus, and Sanders hand scores.

Methods: Eighty children with annual serial radiographs were selected from the Bolton-Brush collection. The olecranon apophysis was graded with use of lateral radiographs of the elbow. The mean age to PHV was determined for each stage, and reliability was calculated with use of an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Olecranon stage was combined with age, sex, and height in a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model to predict PHV. Predictive performance of this model was evaluated with use of tenfold cross-validation such that the model was trained on 90% of the radiographs and was asked to predict the PHV of the remaining 10%.

Results: PHV is closely associated with olecranon stage, with stage 1 occurring 3.0 years before PHV and stage 7 occurring 3.4 years after PHV. Stage 5 was found to occur at PHV. Scoring system reliability was high across an array of observers (ICC = 0.85 ± 0.07). The GEE model showed that this olecranon system outperforms the Risser/TRC system in predicting PHV and is comparable with the humerus and Sanders hand systems. When combined with age and sex, the olecranon system successfully predicted PHV such that 62% of PHV predictions were accurate within 6 months and 90% of PHV predictions were accurate within a year.

Conclusions: Our data show that stage 5 occurs at PHV, contrary to previously published data. When combined with age and sex, the olecranon system successfully predicts PHV within a year in 90% of cases, establishing a single lateral view of the olecranon as a simple alternative to more complex grading systems. Last, we describe novel 3 variations in olecranon morphology and provide a guide for accurate olecranon staging.

Clinical Relevance: Understanding PHV is critical in the treatment of many pediatric orthopaedic disorders. The revised olecranon staging system will allow for more accurate determination of this variable.
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May 2021

Modification and application of the proximal humerus ossification system to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

Spine Deform 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Orthopedics, Texas Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that proximal humeral ossification patterns are reliable for assessing peak height velocity in growing patients. Here, we sought to modify the system by including medial physeal closure and evaluate whether this system combined with the Cobb angle correlates with progression to surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Methods: We reviewed 616 radiographs from 79 children in a historical collection to integrate closure of the medial physis into novel stages 3A and 3B. We then analyzed radiographs from the initial presentation of 202 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had either undergone surgery or completed monitoring at skeletal maturity. Summary statistics for the percentage of patients who progressed to the surgical range were calculated for each category of humerus and Cobb angle.

Results: The intra-observer and inter-observer ICC for assessment of the medial physis was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. Only 3.4% of radiographs were unable to be assessed for medial humerus closure. The medial humerus physis begins to close about 1 year prior to the lateral physis and patients with a closing medial physis, but an open lateral physis were found to be the closest to PHV (0.7 years). Stratifying patients by Cobb angle and modified humerus stage yield categories with low and high risks of progression to the surgical range.

Conclusion: The medial humerus can be accurately evaluated and integrated into a new modified proximal humerus ossification system. Patients with humerus stage 3A or below have a higher rate of progression to the surgical range than those with humerus stage 3B or above.
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May 2021

Delayed Presentation of Unstable Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears Treated with Volar Foveal Ligament Repair.

J Wrist Surg 2021 Apr 3;10(2):144-149. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Bascom Palmer Institute, Department of Ortho, Miami, Florida.

 An open volar surgical approach with suture anchor repair of the foveal ligament and temporary pinning of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is an effective way to treat DRUJ instability associated with chronic foveal tears of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC).  We retrospectively reviewed nine patients with foveal ligament tears of the TFCC and DRUJ instability who underwent open repair of the TFCC using a volar surgical approach, combined with temporary pinning of the DRUJ for 8 weeks. Pain, instability, arc of motion, and functional outcomes scores were evaluated.  Mean patient age was 40.5 years (range 16.3-56.2). Average time from injury to surgery was 8.4 months (range 2.9-23.3 months). Average final follow-up was 18.9 months from injury (range 12.0-29.3 months), 10.5 months from surgery (range 3.9-18.6 months), and 8.7 months from pin removal (range 1.7-17.2 months). At final follow-up, all patients demonstrated clinically stable DRUJ. Pain scores diminished significantly from pre to final postoperative visits, with averages of 6.8 (range 4.0-9.0) improving to a mean of 0.70 (range 0.0-2.0), respectively. Average postoperative forearm rotation was 71.1 degrees in supination and 76.1 degrees in pronation (average total arc of motion 147.2 degrees, range 90-160 degrees). Average postoperative wrist motion was 68.8 degrees in flexion and 70.6 degrees in extension (average total arc of motion 139.4 degrees, range 110-160 degrees). No patients developed crepitus, recurrent DRUJ instability, or required revision surgery (subsequent to pin removal).  Volar suture anchor repair of the foveal ligament of the TFCC with DRUJ pinning led to reliable outcomes within this patient group including a stable DRUJ with improved functional outcomes regarding pain, stability, and range of motion in patients with foveal TFCC tears and associated DRUJ instability. These results compare favorably with dorsal repair of the foveal ligament.  This is a Level IV, therapeutic study.
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April 2021

An Anatomic and Radiographic Study of the Distal Tibial Epiphysis.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 Jan;40(1):23-28

Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Although the undulating shape of the distal tibial epiphysis is well recognized, its anatomic features have not been well quantified in the literature. To guide the placement of surgical implants about the distal tibial physis, we investigated the topographical anatomy of the distal tibial epiphysis and explored the ability of standard radiographs to visualize the physis.

Methods: We studied 30 cadaveric distal tibial epiphyses in specimens 3 to 14 years of age. Anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs were obtained of each specimen and then repeated after flexible radiopaque markers were placed on the major undulations. All radiographs were analyzed to determine the height or depth of each landmark, and measurements with and without markers for each landmark were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). In 9 specimens, similar measurements were obtained on high-resolution 3-dimensional (3D) surface scans.

Results: There were 4 distinct physeal undulations usually present: an anteromedial peak (Kump's bump), a posterolateral peak, an anterior central valley, and a posterior central valley. On the 3D scans, Kump's bump averaged 5.0 mm (range, 3.0 to 6.4 mm), the posterolateral peak 2.4 mm (range, 1.2 to 5.0 mm), the anterior valley 1.3 mm (range, 0 to 3.6 mm), and the posterior valley 0.77 mm (range, 0 to 2.7 mm). Lateral radiographs with markers correlated with measurements from 3D scans better than those without markers (ICC=0.61 vs. 0.24). For AP radiographs, correlation was good to excellent regardless of marker use (ICC=0.76 vs. 0.66).

Conclusions: There are 4 major undulations of the distal tibial physis. Kump's bump is the largest. A centrally placed epiphyseal screw in the medial/lateral direction or screws from anterolateral to posteromedial and anteromedial to posterolateral would tend to avoid both valleys. Particular caution should be taken when placing metaphyseal screws in the anteromedial or posterolateral distal tibia. Physeal undulations were more difficult to visualize on the lateral view.

Clinical Relevance: This study provides quantitative data on the topography of the distal tibial physis to aid hardware placement. Lateral views should be interpreted with caution, as the physeal undulations are not as visible, whereas AP views can be interpreted with more confidence.
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January 2020

Analysis of Serial Radiographs of the Foot to Determine Normative Values for the Growth of the First Metatarsal to Guide Hemiepiphysiodesis for Immature Hallux Valgus.

J Pediatr Orthop 2017 Jul/Aug;37(5):338-343

*Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Case Western Reserve University, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH †Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT ‡Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY.

Background: Hallux valgus deformity in the immature patient can be difficult to manage, as osteotomy can result in recurrence with additional growth. Lateral hemiepiphysiodesis of the first metatarsal offers a promising alternative, by permitting gradual correction of the intermetatarsal angle with growth. An important limitation of this approach is the lack of normative tables of first metatarsal growth to guide timing of intervention.

Methods: First metatarsal lengths were measured from anteroposterior foot radiographs of children. For females, 95 patients totaling 894 radiographs were used ranging from 6 months to 18 years of age. For males, 122 patients totaling 1018 radiographs were measured ranging from 8 months to 19.5 years of age. All patients with image series including a closed proximal metatarsal physis were sorted into an older group, with multipliers generated by setting last image to a multiplier of 1. Patients with serial imaging not inclusive of a closed physis were classified as a younger group, with multipliers based off of the multiplier at age 7 from the older group. First metatarsal multiplier values were then compared with published multiplier values for the overall foot.

Results: For both females and males, the multipliers followed a logarithmic curve versus age, with R values of 0.921 and 0.888, respectively. Comparison of the first metatarsal multiplier values with previously studied multiplier values of the entire foot showed high correlation with ICC=0.955 for females and ICC=0.969 for males.

Conclusions: The pattern of growth of the first metatarsal follows a logarithmic regression curve. These normative tables allow for clinical prediction of first metatarsal remaining growth based on age and sex, and in turn guide timing of hemiepiphysiodesis for the surgical correction of hallux valgus deformity.

Clinical Relevance: The normative tables generated in this study can be used for the calculation of hemiepiphysiodesis and the timing of intervention. Future clinical correlation studies will be important.
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November 2017

A radiographic study of the distal femoral epiphysis.

J Child Orthop 2015 Jun 5;9(3):235-41. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, RBC 6081, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA,

Purpose: Previous studies have described the complex undulation pattern in the distal femoral physis. We investigated whether standard radiographs can visualize these landmarks, in order to guide hardware placement in the distal immature femur.

Methods: We studied 36 cadaveric immature femora in specimens 3 to 18 years of age. Anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographs were obtained with and without flexible radiodense markers placed on the major undulations and were analyzed to determine the relative height or depth of each topographical landmark. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated between measurements taken with and without markers for each undulation on each view.

Results: Examination of the specimens confirmed a central peak and anteromedial and posterolateral valleys as the major physeal structures. AP radiographs without markers correlated well with marked AP radiographs for all three landmarks (ICC = 0.92, 0.92, 0.91), but the lateral radiographs had lower correlations for the posterolateral valley (ICC = 0.36). The correlation between AP and lateral radiographs without markers on the posterolateral valley was also decreased compared to the other two landmarks (ICC = 0.28 versus 0.57 for the central ridge and 0.62 for the anteromedial valley).

Conclusions: This is the first study to rigorously evaluate radiographic visibility of the distal femur physeal undulations. The position of the central ridge, anteromedial valley, and posterolateral valley are reliably seen on AP radiographs, while the lateral view is less consistent, especially for the posterolateral valley. We recommend that caution should be taken when placing screws near the posterolateral aspect of the epiphysis, as lateral views do not visualize those undulations well.
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June 2015