Publications by authors named "Jane Stafford"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Active-Duty Service Members Improves Depressive Symptoms.

J ECT 2020 Dec;36(4):279-284

From the Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC.

Objectives: Current research on the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as a noninvasive therapy for treatment-resistant depression is largely settled science. However, little is known about its efficacy with active-duty service members (ADSMs) with major depressive disorder. In a retrospective chart review, we examined depressive symptom ratings in ADSMs seeking treatment at the US Army Outpatient Behavioral Health Service Clinic at Eisenhower Army Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Ga.

Methods: We reviewed 121 consecutive outpatient charts, which yielded 61 ADSMs who completed a minimum of 20 rTMS sessions for refractory depression, and for whom both pretreatment and posttreatment depressive symptom ratings were available. Pre- and post-Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) scores were subjected to a paired t test, and Reliable Change Indices were calculated to determine both reliable and clinical significance.

Results: Average (SD) pretreatment and posttreatment PHQ-9 scores were 15.8 (6.2) and 12.6 (7.6), respectively. Statistically significant reduction in post-PHQ-9 was demonstrated (P < 0.001), with 69% of patients lowering their ratings and 31% demonstrating reliable change (improvement >5.64). Additionally, 20% demonstrated a reliable change that placed them in the nondysfunctional range (post-PHQ-9 <9.6), demonstrating clinical significance.

Conclusions: These data confirm a course of standard rTMS to ADSMs with major depression is promising in reducing depressive symptoms. Given that success and completion rates from this clinic are similar to those reported in civilian populations (80%), rTMS may be an adequate additional treatment or augmentation strategy for refractory depression in ADSMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676465PMC
December 2020

"We should see her like part of the team": an investigation into care home staff's experiences of being part of an RCT of a complex psychosocial intervention.

Aging Ment Health 2020 01 20;24(1):178-185. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Health Services & Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

To contribute to improvements in the design and delivery of intervention research in care homes by adopting a collaborative approach that listens to the experiences of care home staff who had participated in a clinical trial aimed at optimising and evaluating a psychosocial intervention package for people with dementia. Qualitative study involving focus group discussions (FGDs) involving 41 staff across 6 care homes with the UK. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify themes and interpret the data. Three overarching themes emerged as influential: Recognising preparedness; working together and learning more than expected. The findings highlighted the need to be attentive in addressing staff expectations, the value of sustained relationships and recognition of good practice. The FGDs also identified areas of unanticipated learning that staff and managers adopted. The FGDs showed the importance of considering the overall experience of care home staff who are involved in research and the importance of valuing the skills and experience they hold through positive affirmation. There are often unanticipated consequences of research involvement both on staff practice and on relationships which if promoted could help sustain effective ways of working together.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2018.1525603DOI Listing
January 2020

Medical Evaluation Board Involvement, Non-Credible Cognitive Testing, and Emotional Response Bias in Concussed Service Members.

Mil Med 2018 11;183(11-12):e546-e554

University of South Carolina-Aiken, 471 University Parkway, Aiken, SC.

Introduction: Military Service Members (SMs) with post-concussive symptoms are commonly referred for further evaluation and possible treatment to Department of Defense Traumatic Brain Injury Clinics where neuropsychological screening/evaluations are being conducted. Understudied to date, the base rates of noncredible task engagement/performance validity testing (PVT) during cognitive screening/evaluations in military settings appears to be high. The current study objectives are to: (1) examine the base rates of noncredible PVTs of SMs undergoing routine clinical or Medical Evaluation Board (MEB) related workups using multiple objective performance-based indicators; (2) determine whether involvement in MEB is associated with PVT or symptom exaggeration/symptom validity testing (SVT) results; (3) elucidate which psychiatric symptoms are associated with noncredible PVT performances; and (4) determine whether MEB participation moderates the relationship between psychological symptom exaggeration and whether or not SM goes on to demonstrate PVTs failures - or vice versa.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective study of 71 consecutive military concussion cases drawn from a DoD TBI Clinic neuropsychology clinic database. As part of neuropsychological evaluations, patients completed several objective performance-based PVTs and SVT.

Results: Mean (SD) age of SMs was 36.0 (9.5), ranging from 19-59, and 93% of the sample was male. The self-identified ethnicity resulted in the following percentages: 62% Non-Hispanic White, 22.5% African American, and 15.5% Hispanic or Latino. The majority of the sample (97%) was Active Duty Army and 51% were involved in the MEB at the time of evaluation. About one-third (35.9%) of routine clinical patients demonstrated failure on one or more PVT indicators (12.8% failed 2) while PVT failure rates amongst MEB patients ranged from 15.6% to 37.5% (i.e., failed 2 or 1 PVTs, respectively). Base rates of failures on one or more PVT did not differ between routine clinical versus MEB patients (p = 0.94). MEB involvement was not associated with increased emotional symptom response bias as compared to routine clinical patients. PVT failures were positively correlated with somatization, anxiety, depressive symptoms, suspicious and hostility, atypical perceptions/alienation/subjective cognitive difficulties, borderline personality traits/features, and penchant for aggression in addition to symptom over-endorsement/exaggeration. No differences between routine clinical and MEB patients across other SVT indicators were found. MEB status did not moderate the relationship between any of the SVTs.

Conclusion: Study results are broadly consistent with the prior published studies that documented low to moderately high base rates of noncredible task engagement during neuropsychological evaluations in military and veteran settings. Results are in contrast to prior studies that have suggested involvement in MEB is associated with increased likelihood of poor PVT performances. This is the first to show that MEB involvement did not enhance/strengthen the association between PVT performances and evidence of SVTs. Consistent with prior studies, these results do highlight that the same SMs who fail PVTs also tend to be the ones who go on to endorse a myriad of psychiatric symptoms and proclivities. Implications of variable or poor task engagement during routine clinical and MEB neuropsychological evaluation in military settings on treatment and disposition planning cannot be overstated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usy038DOI Listing
November 2018

Epidemiology of Pain in People With Dementia Living in Care Homes: Longitudinal Course, Prevalence, and Treatment Implications.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2017 May 18;18(5):453.e1-453.e6. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, St Luke's Campus, Exeter, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Knowledge regarding the longitudinal course, impact, or treatment implications of pain in people with dementia living in care homes is very limited.

Methods: We investigated the people with dementia living in 67 care homes in London and Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom. Pain, dementia severity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, agitation, and quality-of-life were measured using appropriate instruments at baseline (N = 967) and after 9 months (n = 629).

Results: Baseline prevalence of pain was 35.3% (95% CI 32.3-38.3). Pain severity was significantly correlated with dementia severity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, agitation, and quality of life at both time points. Regular treatment with analgesics significantly reduced pain severity. Pain was significantly associated with more antipsychotic prescriptions. Pain was significantly associated (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.18-1.85) with all-cause mortality during follow-up.

Conclusions: Pain is an important determinant of neuropsychiatric symptoms, mortality, quality-of-life, and antipsychotic prescriptions. Improved identification, monitoring, and treatment of pain are urgent priorities to improve the health and quality-of-life for people with dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2017.01.024DOI Listing
May 2017

Impact of antipsychotic review and non-pharmacological intervention on health-related quality of life in people with dementia living in care homes: WHELD-a factorial cluster randomised controlled trial.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2017 Oct 19;32(10):1094-1103. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Background: Very few interventional studies have directly examined the impact of treatment approaches on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with dementia. This is of particular importance in therapies to address behavioural symptoms, where HRQL is often severely affected.

Methods: Analysis within the WHELD cluster randomised factorial study in 16 UK care homes examining the impact of person-centred care in combination with antipsychotic review, social interaction and exercise interventions. This study analysed impact on HRQL through the DEMQOL-Proxy.

Results: Data on HRQL were available for 187 participants. People receiving antipsychotic review showed a significant worsening in two DEMQOL-Proxy domains (negative emotion: p = 0.02; appearance: p = 0.04). A best-case scenario analysis showed significant worsening for total DEMQOL-Proxy score. Social interaction intervention resulted in a significant benefit to HRQL (p = 0.04). There was no deterioration in HRQL in groups receiving both antipsychotic review and social interaction (p = 0.62).

Conclusions: This demonstrates an important detrimental impact of discontinuation of antipsychotics in dementia on HRQL, highlighting the need for careful review of best practice guidelines regarding antipsychotic use and emphasising the importance of providing evidence-based non-pharmacological interventions in conjunction with antipsychotic review. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4572DOI Listing
October 2017

Impact of Antipsychotic Review and Nonpharmacological Intervention on Antipsychotic Use, Neuropsychiatric Symptoms, and Mortality in People With Dementia Living in Nursing Homes: A Factorial Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial by the Well-Being and Health for People With Dementia (WHELD) Program.

Am J Psychiatry 2016 Mar 20;173(3):252-62. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

From the Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London; the Division of Psychiatry, University College London; the North Wales Organisation for Randomised Trials in Health and the Dementia Services Development Centre, Wales, Bangor University, Bangor, U.K.; the Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, U.K.; Psychological Services, Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, U.K.; and the Alzheimer's Society, London.

Objective: This study evaluated the impact of antipsychotic review, social interaction, and exercise, in conjunction with person-centered care, on antipsychotic use, agitation, and depression in people with dementia living in nursing homes.

Method: A cluster-randomized factorial controlled trial with two replications was conducted in people with dementia in 16 U.K. nursing homes. All homes received training in person-centered care. Eight homes were randomly assigned to antipsychotic review, to a social interaction intervention, and to an exercise intervention for 9 months, with most homes assigned to more than one intervention. The primary outcome measures were antipsychotic use, agitation, and depression. Secondary outcome measures were overall neuropsychiatric symptoms and mortality.

Results: Antipsychotic review significantly reduced antipsychotic use by 50% (odds ratio 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.60). Antipsychotic review plus the social interaction intervention significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.26, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.51) compared with the group receiving neither. The group receiving antipsychotic review but not the social intervention showed significantly worse outcome in neuropsychiatric symptoms compared with the group receiving neither (score difference +7.37, 95% CI 1.53 to 13.22). This detrimental impact was mitigated by concurrent delivery of the social intervention (-0.44, CI -4.39 to 3.52). The exercise intervention significantly improved neuropsychiatric symptoms (-3.59, 95% CI -7.08 to -0.09) but not depression (-1.21, CI -4.35 to 1.93). None of the interventions had a significant impact specifically on agitation.

Conclusions: While reductions in antipsychotic use can be achieved by using a "real world" intervention, this may not be of benefit to people with dementia in the current climate of more judicious prescribing unless nonpharmacological interventions such as social interaction or exercise are provided in parallel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15010130DOI Listing
March 2016

Improving Well-being and Health for People with Dementia (WHELD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2014 Jul 12;15:284. Epub 2014 Jul 12.

Psychological Services, Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Fulbrook Centre, Oxford OX3 7JU, UK.

Background: People with dementia living in care homes often have complex mental health problems, disabilities and social needs. Providing more comprehensive training for staff working in care home environments is a high national priority. It is important that this training is evidence based and delivers improvement for people with dementia residing in these environments. Well-being and Health for People with Dementia (WHELD) combines the most effective elements of existing approaches to develop a comprehensive but practical staff training intervention. This optimised intervention is based on a factorial study and qualitative evaluation, to combine: training on person-centred care, promoting person-centred activities and interactions, and providing care home staff and general practitioners with updated knowledge regarding the optimal use of psychotropic medications for persons with dementia in care homes.

Design: The trial will be a randomised controlled two-arm cluster single blind trial that will take place for nine months across 80 care homes in the United Kingdom.

Discussion: The overarching goal of this trial is to determine whether this optimised WHELD intervention is more effective in improving the quality of life and mental health than the usual care provided to people with dementia living in nursing homes. This study will be the largest and best powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the benefits of an augmented person-centred care training intervention in care homes worldwide.

Trial Registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN62237498 Date registered: 5 September 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-15-284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227075PMC
July 2014

Beyond the intensive care unit bundle: Implementation of a successful hospital-wide initiative to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections.

Am J Infect Control 2014 Jun;42(6):685-7

Infection Prevention and Healthcare Epidemiology Unit, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia.

A multimodal hospital-wide central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) risk reduction strategy was implemented over a 20-month period at an Australian center. Reduced CLABSI rates were observed in both intensive care units (ICUs) (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.39; P < .001) and non-ICU wards (IRR, 0.54; P < .001). The median time to CLABSI onset was 7.5 days for ICU events and 13 days for non-ICU events. The timing of infection demonstrates the need for more careful attention to postinsertion care and access of central venous catheters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2014.02.026DOI Listing
June 2014

The disconnect between evidence and practice: a systematic review of person-centred interventions and training manuals for care home staff working with people with dementia.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2014 Aug 18;29(8):797-807. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Psychological Services, Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Objective: The overall objective is to determine the availability of person-centred intervention and training manuals for dementia care staff with clinical trial evidence of efficacy.

Design: Interventions were identified using a search of electronic databases, augmented by mainstream search engines, reference lists, hand searching for resources and consultation with an expert panel. The specific search for published manuals was complemented by a search for randomised control trials focussing on training and activity-based interventions for people with dementia in care homes. Manuals were screened for eligibility and rated to assess their quality, relevance and feasibility.

Results: A meta-analysis of randomised control trials indicated that person-centred training interventions conferred significant benefit in improving agitation and reducing the use of antipsychotics. Each of the efficacious packages included a sustained period of joint working and supervision with a trained mental health professional in addition to an educational element. However, of the 170 manuals that were identified, 30 met the quality criteria and only four had been evaluated in clinical trials.

Conclusions: Despite the availability of a small number of evidence-based training manuals, there is a widespread use of person-centred intervention and training manuals that are not evidence-based. Clearer guidance is needed to ensure that commissioned training and interventions are based on robust evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4072DOI Listing
August 2014

Victims' psychosocial well-being after reporting sexual harassment in the military.

J Trauma Dissociation 2014 ;15(2):133-52

a National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Boston Healthcare System , Boston , Massachusetts , USA.

Given the importance of reporting to sexual harassment prevention and intervention efforts, it is not surprising that an extensive scientific literature has developed on predictors of victims' decisions about making a formal report to authorities about their experiences. In contrast, little empirical work has focused on how reporting affects victims, particularly their psychosocial well-being. This study used a national sample of 1,562 former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service to examine the relationship between reporting; experiences reporting; and psychosocial well-being, as indicated by post-harassment functioning, worst symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the harassment, and current symptoms of depression. Making a formal report was not associated with well-being, but among those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed by authorities was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD. Satisfaction with the reporting process showed the strongest association with well-being, demonstrating small but meaningful associations with depression and medium-to-large and medium associations with post-harassment functioning and PTSD, respectively. Although findings did not vary by gender, predictors accounted for more variance in well-being for men than women. In the whole sample, satisfaction with the reporting process mediated the relationship between victims' perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD. Findings suggest that a victim's perceptions of and satisfaction with the reporting process may impact well-being more strongly than whether the victim made a report to authorities. Men may be even more strongly impacted by their experiences with the reporting process than women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2014.867563DOI Listing
November 2014

Feasibility study of an optimised person-centred intervention to improve mental health and reduce antipsychotics amongst people with dementia in care homes: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2013 Jan 10;14:13. Epub 2013 Jan 10.

Psychological Services, Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Fulbrook Centre, Oxford OX3 7JU, United Kingdom.

Background: People living in care homes often have complex mental and physical health problems, disabilities and social needs which are compounded by the use of psychiatric and other drugs. In the UK dementia care is a national priority with a vast impact on services. WHELD combines the most effective elements of existing approaches to develop a comprehensive but practical intervention. This will be achieved by training care staff to provide care that is focused on an understanding of the individual and their needs; and by using additional components such as exercise, activities and social interaction to improve mental health and quality of life (QoL) and reduce the use of sedative drugs.

Design: Work Package 3 (WP3) is the pilot randomised trial and qualitative evaluation to help develop a future definitive randomised controlled clinical trial. The study design is a cluster randomised 2x2x2 factorial design with two replications in 16 care homes. Each care home is randomized to receive one of the eight possible permutations of the four key interventions, with each possible combination delivered in two of the 16 homes. Each cluster includes a minimum of 12 participants (depending upon size of the care home, the number of people with dementia and the number consenting).

Discussion: The overarching goal of the programme is to provide an effective, simple and practical intervention which improves the mental health of, and reduces sedative drug use in, people with dementia in care homes and which can be implemented nationally in all UK care homes as an NHS intervention.

Trial Registration: Current controlled trials ISRCTN40313497.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-14-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3617007PMC
January 2013

Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate relationship problems: a meta-analysis.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2011 Feb;79(1):22-33

Behavioral Science Division, National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA.

Objective: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of empirical studies investigating associations between indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intimate relationship problems to empirically synthesize this literature.

Method: A literature search using PsycINFO, Medline, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS), and Dissertation Abstracts was performed. The authors identified 31 studies meeting inclusion criteria.

Results: True score correlations (ρ) revealed medium-sized associations between PTSD and intimate relationship discord (ρ = .38, N = 7,973, K = 21), intimate relationship physical aggression perpetration (ρ = .42, N = 4,630, K = 19), and intimate relationship psychological aggression perpetration (ρ = .36, N = 1,501, K = 10). The strength of the association between PTSD and relationship discord was higher in military (vs. civilian) samples, and when the study was conducted in the United States (vs. other country), and the study represented a doctoral dissertation (vs. published article). The strength of the association between PTSD and physical aggression was higher in military (vs. civilian) samples, males (vs. females), community (vs. clinical) samples, studies examining PTSD symptom severity (vs. diagnosis), when the physical aggression measure focused exclusively on severe violence (vs. a more inclusive measure), and the study was published (vs. dissertation). For the PTSD-psychological aggression association, 98% of the variance was accounted for by methodological artifacts such as sampling and measurement error; consequently, no moderators were examined in this relationship.

Conclusions: Findings highlight a need for the examination of models explaining the relationship difficulties associated with PTSD symptomatology and interventions designed to treat problems in both areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022196DOI Listing
February 2011

Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: prevalence and health correlates.

J Rehabil Res Dev 2008 ;45(3):409-19

National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA.

The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/jrrd.2007.06.0088DOI Listing
March 2009

Sexual harassment experiences and harmful alcohol use in a military sample: differences in gender and the mediating role of depression.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2008 May;69(3):348-51

National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Women's Health Sciences Division (116B-3), 150 South Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02130, USA.

Objective: Researchers and clinicians alike are interested in the effects of sexual harassment on mental health, including associations with problem drinking. The aim of the current investigation was to examine depression symptoms as a mediator of the association between sexual harassment during military service and current harmful alcohol use in a sample of former military personnel, stratified by gender.

Method: Using a cross-sectional design, 3,946 former reservists were surveyed regarding their experiences of sexual harassment in the military and their current depression symptoms and harmful alcohol use. Fifty-nine percent of the final sample were female.

Results: As expected, women endorsed experiencing sexual harassment more than men, and men endorsed harmful drinking more than women. Sexual harassment was associated with increased depression symptoms among both men and women; however, depression symptoms mediated the association between sexual harassment and harmful alcohol use among women only. Sexual harassment was not a significant predictor of harmful alcohol use among men.

Conclusions: The associations between sexual harassment, depression symptoms, and harmful alcohol use differ between men and women in this sample. Consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, sexual harassment is associated with harmful drinking among women, and this association can be accounted for by symptoms of depression. The high prevalence of harmful drinking among men and the lack of an association with sexual harassment suggest that, in this sample, men's harmful drinking is influenced by factors other than sexual harassment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2008.69.348DOI Listing
May 2008

Attitudes toward women and tolerance for sexual harassment among reservists.

Violence Against Women 2007 Sep;13(9):879-900

VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA.

Women are more likely to experience sexual harassment in some work settings than others; specifically, work settings that have a large proportion of male workers, include a predominance of male supervisors, and represent traditional male occupations may be places in which there is greater tolerance for sexual harassment. The focus of the study was to document attitudes toward women among military personnel, to identify demographic and military characteristics associated with more positive attitudes toward women, and to examine associations between attitudes toward women and tolerance for sexual harassment. The study was based on data from 2,037 male and female former Reservists who reported minimal or no experiences of sexual harassment and no sexual assault in the military. Results suggest that attitudes toward women vary across content domains, are associated with several key demographic and military characteristics, and predict tolerance for sexual harassment. Implications of the findings and future directions are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801207305217DOI Listing
September 2007

Gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment: data from a male-dominated environment.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2007 Jun;75(3):464-74

Women's Health Sciences Division, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress DisorderVeterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA.

The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental health symptoms. As expected, women reported a higher frequency of sexual harassment. Further, women had increased odds of experiencing all subtypes of sexual harassment. Being female conferred the greatest risk for experiencing the most serious forms of harassment. For both men and women, sexual harassment was associated with more negative current mental health. However, at higher levels of harassment, associations with some negative mental health symptoms were stronger for men than women. Although preliminary, the results of this investigation suggest that although women are harassed more frequently than men, clinicians must increase their awareness of the potential for sexual harassment among men in order to provide the best possible care to all victims of harassment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.75.3.464DOI Listing
June 2007

Predicting alcohol and drug abuse in Persian Gulf War veterans: what role do PTSD symptoms play?

Addict Behav 2005 Mar;30(3):595-9

Boston University School of Medicine, USA.

This study is a prospective longitudinal examination of symptoms of drug and alcohol use (SUD) and PTSD symptoms in 1006 veterans in the 6 years (T3) following return from the Persian Gulf War (PGW). Both alcohol and drug use at T3 were significantly correlated with demographic variables and all three types of PTSD symptoms (reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal) as measured at T2. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine the self-medication hypothesis, which was supported for drug use but not for alcohol use at T3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.07.004DOI Listing
March 2005

Providing intensive care to children.

Authors:
Jane Stafford

Nurs N Z 2002 Aug;8(7):18-9

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August 2002

Defining hypnosis as a trance vs. cooperation: hypnotic inductions, suggestibility, and performance standards.

Am J Clin Hypn 2002 Jan-Apr;44(3-4):231-40

Psychology Department, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902, USA.

We compared participants' responsiveness to a standard administration of a hypnotic suggestibility scale (CURSS; Spanos, Radtke, Hodgins, Bertrand, Stam, & Moretti, 1983) that defined the ability to experience hypnosis in terms of cooperation (SI; standard induction, N = 27) with a version of the same scale administered with all references to cooperation removed (CR; cooperation removed, N = 34) and with a version of the scale with the "induction" removed (NI; no induction, N = 35). In a fourth condition, participants were informed that the ability to experience hypnosis depended on their ability to achieve an altered state of consciousness or "trance" (AS; altered state, N = 33). Removing instructions for cooperation had an effect on objective (CR < SI) but not on subjective hypnotic responding. Removing the hypnotic induction had no appreciable effect on any dimension of hypnotic responsivity. Consistent with predictions derived from performance standards theory (Lynn & Rhue, 1991), participants who received the altered state set responded to fewer suggestions than did participants who received the standard induction (SI). Estimates of suggestions passed that were assessed before and after test suggestions were administered were, respectively, weakly to moderately correlated with objective and subjective measures of hypnotic suggestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00029157.2002.10403483DOI Listing
March 2002

Cultural scripts, memories of childhood abuse, and multiple identities: a study of role-played enactments.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn 2002 Jan;50(1):67-85

Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, NY 13905, USA.

This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID) (n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal") (n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the normal role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207140208410091DOI Listing
January 2002