Publications by authors named "Jane Ling Miaw Yn"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Polysubstance use among adolescents in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(1):e0245593. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Polysubstance use is defined as the use of more than one non-prescribed licit or illicit substance either concurrently or simultaneously. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of single substance users and polysubstance users and 'their associated factors among adolescents in Malaysia.

Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017, a cross-sectional survey conducted among Malaysian school-going adolescents aged 13 to 17. The NHMS utilised a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Multivariate Multinomial Logistic Regression analysis was applied.

Results: The overall prevalence of single substance use and polysubstance use among adolescents were 17.2% and 5.1% respectively. The multinomial model showed a higher likelihood of being single or polysubstance user among male (single user OR = 3.0, poly user OR = 4.6), others Bumiputeras vs Malay (single user OR = 1.7, poly user OR = 5.3), those who live with a single parent (single user OR = 1.2, poly user OR = 1.4), involved in truancy (single user OR = 1.7, poly user OR = 3.6) and being bullied (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 3.4), those who had lack of peer support (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 1.4), poor parental bonding (single user OR = 1.4, poly user OR = 1.8), depression (single user OR = 1.4, poly user OR = 3.2) and those who had no close friend (single user OR = 1.3, poly user OR = 2.7).

Conclusion: Our study highlighted multiple significant associated factors of single and polysubstance use among adolescents in Malaysia. This result can assist in the development of specific intervention and prevention programs targeting high-risk groups.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245593PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819602PMC
January 2021

Self-reported diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among older persons in Malaysia.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:79-84

Institute for Public Health Malaysia, National Institutes of Health Malaysia, Ministry of Health, Selangor, Malaysia.

Aim: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of self-reported diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among older persons in Malaysia and their associated factors.

Methods: The study used data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2018. It was a cross-sectional study with two-staged stratified cluster sampling design. In total, 3977 adults aged ≥60 years were selected for this study. Respondents were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire. Self-reported diabetes, hypertension or hypercholesterolemia was defined as having ever been told they have these diseases by a medical doctor or paramedic. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25. The multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the factors associated with the prevalence of self-reporting.

Results: The prevalence of self-reported diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among older persons in Malaysia were 27.7%, 51.1% and 41.8% respectively. Presence of other comorbidities and being obese showed higher odds for all three diseases. Indians, unemployed, inactive had higher odds for diabetes. Other Bumiputras, unemployed, non-smoker, obese and inactive had higher odds for hypertension. Non-smoker had higher odds for hypercholesterolemia.

Conclusions: Health promotion, vigilance, attention and services targeting on the associated factors should be strengthened for older persons in Malaysia to ensure healthy aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 79-84.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13968DOI Listing
December 2020

Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among the elderly in Malaysia: Findings from The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238566. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Setia Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Obesity is a crucial public health problem and is rising globally. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among the elderly in Malaysia.

Methods: Data were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015. This was a cross sectional population-based study using a two stage stratified random sampling design. Elderly population aged 60 years and above was selected. Data were collected using pre-tested self-administered questionnaire in the form of sociodemographic profile, non-communicable diseases (NCD) comorbidities (status on hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia) and NCD risk factors (current smoker and physical activity). Obesity has been defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) Body Mass Index (BMI) guideline, 1998. A complex sampling design analysis was used for the descriptive statistics. The associated risk factors for obesity were identified using Multiple Logistic Regression analysis.

Results: A total of 3794 respondents were included in this study. The prevalence of obesity among Malaysian elderly was 30.2%. The prevalence of obesity among the elderly was significantly higher in females, respondents from urban areas and Indians. Approximately one third of the elderly with non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (33.1%) and diabetes (38.8%), respectively, were obese. Among elderly who were obese, majority of them (89.8%) had at least one NCD. The prevalence of obesity was 16.8% among current smokers (aOR 0.59). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that elderly females (aOR [adjusted odds ratio] 1.52), having secondary education (aOR 1.96) with household income of RM 3000 and above (aOR 1.57) as well as being hypertensive (aOR 1.61) and diabetic (aOR 1.50) were more likely to be obese. In contrast, the Chinese elderly respondents (aOR 0.62) and current smokers (aOR 0.59) were less likely to be obese. There were no significant associations of obesity with hypercholesterolemia or with physical activity.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Malaysian elderly were obese, and factors associated with obesity among them were being female, having secondary education with a household income of RM 3000 and above and being hypertensive or diabetic. Enhanced health promotion and education should be targeted at younger people in order to prevent obesity in the later years.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238566PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486079PMC
October 2020

Risk Factors for Illicit Drug Use Among Malaysian Male Adolescents.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 11 26;31(8_suppl):48S-56S. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Institute for Public Health, National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and its associated factors among male adolescents in Malaysia. Data of 13 135 adolescents were extracted from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017, a cross-sectional survey among school-going adolescents in Malaysia aged between 13 and 17 years, using a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling. A complex sample design analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied. The overall prevalence of lifetime illicit drug use among male adolescents was 6.6%. The multivariable model showed that illicit drug use among male adolescents were associated with younger age, rural school area, marital status of parent, current smoker, ever having sex, truancy, involved in physical fight, and lack of peer support. The findings from this study can assist community and relevant authorities in their efforts to combat illicit drug usage among adolescents using intervention programs that diminishes risk factors and enhances the protective factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519865053DOI Listing
November 2019

Perception of Harms and Benefits of Electronic Cigarettes Among Adult Malaysian Men: A Comparison by Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Status.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2019 10 21;31(7_suppl):32S-43S. Epub 2019 Jul 21.

International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Little is known about the perceptions of harm and benefit associated with the use of e-cigarettes in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample comprising 1987 males (≥18 years of age). Current, former, and never users of conventional cigarettes and/or e-cigarettes participated in a questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face interviews. The relationship between participant characteristics and perceptions of harm and benefit of e-cigarettes were determined with multivariable logistic regression. There were 950 current, 377 former, and 660 never users of e-cigarettes. Government employees (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-2.66, = .001), private sector employees (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.27-2.18, = .001), and the self-employed people (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.31-2.17, = .001) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as more harmful than conventional cigarettes compared with respondents who were not wage earners. All current users in the form of e-cigarette users (OR = 7.87, 95% CI = 3.23-19.18), conventional cigarette smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.39-2.33), and dual users (OR = 8.59, 95% CI = 4.76-15.52) were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as useful in quitting conventional cigarette smoking compared with former and never users. Our findings constitute an important snapshot into the perceptions of e-cigarette harms and benefits, which could inform targeted public health messaging strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539519860730DOI Listing
October 2019

Cause-specific mortality estimates for Malaysia in 2013: results from a national sample verification study using medical record review and verbal autopsy.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jan 24;19(1):110. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Global Health, Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background: Mortality indicators are essential for monitoring population health. Although Malaysia has a functional death registration system, the quality of information on causes of death still needs improvement, since approximately 30% of deaths are classified to poorly defined causes. This study was conducted to verify registered causes in a sample of deaths in 2013 and utilise the findings to estimate cause-specific mortality indicators for Malaysia in 2013.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving a nationally representative sample of 14,497 deaths distributed across 19 districts. Registered causes of deaths were verified using standard medical record review protocols for hospital deaths, and locally adapted international standard verbal autopsy procedures for deaths outside hospitals. The findings were used to measure the validity and reliability of the registration data, as well as to establish plausible cause-specific mortality fractions for hospital and non-hospital deaths, which were subsequently used as the basis for estimating national cause-specific mortality indicators.

Results: The overall response rate for the study was 67%. Verified causes of 5041 hospital deaths and 3724 deaths outside hospitals were used to derive national mortality estimates for 2013 by age, sex and cause. The study was able to reclassify most of the ill-defined deaths to a specific cause. The leading causes of deaths for males were Ischaemic Heart Disease (15.4%), Cerebrovascular diseases (13.7%), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (8.5%) and Road Traffic Accident (8.0%). Among females, the leading causes were Cerebrovascular diseases (18.3%), Ischaemic Heart Disease (12.7%), Lower Respiratory Infections (11.5%) and Diabetes Mellitus (7.2%).

Conclusions: Investigation of registered causes of death using verbal autopsy and medical record review yielded adequate information to enable estimation of cause-specific mortality indicators in Malaysia. Strengthening the national mortality statistics system must be made a priority as it is a core data source for policy and evaluation of the public health and healthcare sectors in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6384-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345029PMC
January 2019

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of hypertension in the Malaysian population: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2006-2015.

J Hum Hypertens 2018 09 13;32(8-9):617-624. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Institute for Public Health, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Hypertension is strongly associated with chronic diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The objective of this study is to determine the trend of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among Malaysian population since 2006 to 2015. The study used the data from National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2006, 2011, and 2015. It was a cross-sectional with two-stage stratified random sampling throughout Malaysia for eligible respondents 18 years old and above. Respondents were interviewed face to face and blood pressure was recorded as the average reading from two electronic pressure monitoring measurements. Data was analyzed using the Complex sample module in SPSS Version 20. The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia was 34.6% (95% CI: 33.9, 35.3) in 2006, 33.6% (95% CI: 32.6, 34.6) in 2011 and 35.3% (95% CI: 34.5, 36.3) in 2015. Awareness of hypertension in 2006, 2011, and 2015 was 35.6% (95% CI: 34.6, 36.6), 40.7% (95% CI: 39.3, 42.1), and 37.5% (95% CI: 36.1, 38.9) respectively. The trend of receiving treatment from 2006 to 2015 was 78.9% (95% CI: 77.5, 80.2) to 83.2% (95% CI: 81.3, 84.8). The control of hypertension increased significantly from 27.5% (95% CI: 25.9, 29.2) in 2006 to 37.4% (95% CI: 35.3, 39.5) in 2015. Despite higher proportions receiving treatment over time, the control of hypertension remained below 40% since NHMS 2006 until 2015. The strategies to further reduce the prevalence and increase awareness of hypertension should be enhanced particularly among the targeted age group to ensure early detection, treatment, and control thus preventing from long-term complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-018-0082-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150908PMC
September 2018

Smoking among school-going adolescents in selected secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia- findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyaHRB) study.

Tob Induc Dis 2017 31;15. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Allied Health College, Jalan Hospital, 47000 Sg. Buloh, Malaysia.

Background: A multitude of studies have revealed that smoking is a learned behaviour during adolescence and efforts to reduce the incidence of smoking has been identified as long-term measures to curb the smoking menace. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence as well as the intra and inter-personal factors associated with smoking among upper secondary school students in selected schools in Peninsular Malaysia.

Methods: A study was carried out in 2013, which involved a total of 40 secondary schools. They were randomly selected using a two-stage clustering sampling method. Subsequently, all upper secondary school students (aged 16 to 17 years) from each selected school were recruited into the study. Data was collected using a validated standardised questionnaire.

Results: This study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was 14.6% (95% CI:13.3-15.9), and it was significantly higher among males compared to females (27.9% vs 2.4%,  < 0.001). Majority of smokers initiated smoking during their early adolescent years (60%) and almost half of the respondents bought cigarettes themselves from the store. Multivariable analysis revealed that the following factors increased the likelihood of being a current smoker: being male (aOR 21. 51, 95% CI:13.1-35), perceived poor academic achievement (aOR 3.42, 95% CI:1.50-7.37) had one or both parents who smoked (aOR 1.80, 95% CI:1.32-2.45; aOR 6.50, 95 CI%:1.65-25.65), and always feeling lonely (aOR 2.23, 95% CI:1.21-4.43). In contrast, respondents with a higher religiosity score and protection score were less likely to smoke (aOR 0.51, 95% CI:0.15-0.92; aOR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian adolescents of school-going age was high, despite implementation of several anti-smoking measures in Malaysia. More robust measures integrating the factors identified in this study are strongly recommended to curb the smoking epidemic among adolescents in Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12971-016-0108-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5282817PMC
January 2017