Publications by authors named "Jane C Figueiredo"

147 Publications

Metagenomics and chemotherapy-induced nausea: A roadmap for future research.

Cancer 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting can reduce patients' quality of life and may result in premature discontinuation of chemotherapy. Although nausea and vomiting are commonly grouped together, research has shown that antiemetics are clinically effective against chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) but less so against chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). Nausea remains a problem for up to 68% of patients who are prescribed guideline-consistent antiemetics. Despite the high prevalence of CIN, relatively little is known regarding its etiology independent of CIV. This review summarizes a metagenomics approach to the study and treatment of CIN with the goal of encouraging future research. Metagenomics focuses on genetic risk factors and encompasses both human (ie, host) and gut microbial genetic variation. Little work to date has focused on metagenomics as a putative biological mechanism of CIN. Metagenomics has the potential to be a powerful tool in advancing scientific understanding of CIN by identifying new biological pathways and intervention targets. The investigation of metagenomics in the context of well-established demographic, clinical, and patient-reported risk factors may help to identify patients at risk and facilitate the prevention and management of CIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33892DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on exercise habits among cancer patients.

Res Sq 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Purpose There is limited information on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed health behaviors among cancer patients. We examined the impact of the pandemic on changes in exercise behaviors and identified characteristics associated with these changes among cancer patients. Methods Cancer patients (n   1,361) completed a survey from August-September 2020 to assess COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in health behaviors and psychosocial factors. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: exercising less, exercising did not change, and exercising more. Patient characteristics were compared by exercise groups. Results One-third of the patients reported a decreased amount of regular exercise, while 11% reported exercising more during the pandemic. Patients who exercised less were more likely to be unemployed/retired, undergoing active treatment, and had increased pandemic-related alcohol consumption and psychosocial stressors such as loneliness and financial stress (all  < 0.05). In contrast, patients who exercised more were younger, female, full-time employed, did not consume alcohol, and had good health status and more social interactions (all  < 0.05). Patients who were living in rural areas and did not experience changes in daily life, were also more likely not to experience changes in exercise habits (all  < 0.05). Conclusion Our results indicate that a significant proportion of cancer patients experienced changes in exercise habits during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Age, sex, employment status, health status, alcohol consumption, and psychosocial factors were associated with changes in exercise behaviors. Providers should monitor for changes in health behaviors, such as exercise, because of their importance in improving cancer survivorship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-704646/v1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475966PMC
September 2021

Clinical Applications of Minimal Residual Disease Assessments by Tumor-Informed and Tumor-Uninformed Circulating Tumor DNA in Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 10;13(18). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Medicine, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.

Emerging data suggest that circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) can detect colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific signals across both non-metastatic and metastatic settings. With the development of multiple platforms, including tumor-informed and tumor-agnostic ctDNA assays and demonstration of their provocative analytic performance to detect minimal residual disease, there are now ongoing, phase III randomized clinical trials to evaluate their role in the management paradigm of CRC. In this review, we highlight landmark studies that have formed the basis for ongoing studies on the clinically applicability of plasma ctDNA assays in resected, stage I-III CRC and metastatic CRC. We discuss clinical settings by which ctDNA may have the most immediate impact in routine clinical practice. These include the potential for ctDNA to (1) guide surveillance and intensification or de-intensification strategies of adjuvant therapy in resected, stage I-III CRC, (2) predict treatment response to neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer inclusive of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), and (3) predict response to systemic and surgical therapies in metastatic disease. We end by considering clinical variables that can influence our ability to reliably interpret ctDNA dynamics in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8471730PMC
September 2021

Association of Sugar Intake with Inflammation- and Angiogenesis-Related Biomarkers in Newly Diagnosed Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Aug 9:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, Population Sciences, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Evidence suggests a positive association between sugar intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. We sought to investigate inflammation and angiogenesis as underlying mechanisms behind increased sugar intake and worse CRC outcomes. Pre-surgery serum samples were obtained from 191 patients diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IV CRC. Biomarkers of inflammation (CRP, SAA, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNFα) and angiogenesis (VEGFA, VEGFD, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1) were analyzed (Meso-Scale-Discovery). Fructose, glucose, sucrose, and total sugar intake (calories/day, % total calories) were assessed by FFQ. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Patients were on average 64 years old, 64% were male, the majority was diagnosed with stage II-III (58%) cancers, and 67% were either overweight or obese. Among normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m), we observed a significant inverse association between VEGFD and any type of sugar intake in cal/day (sucrose:  = 0.01, glucose and fructose:  < 0.001) and MCP-1 and fructose intake ( = 0.05). The magnitude of reduction in VEGF ranged between -1.24 for sucrose to 4.49 for glucose intake, and -2.64 for fructose intake for MCP-1 levels. Sugar intake was associated with some inflammation or angiogenesis biomarkers, among CRC patients; differences were observed by adiposity that warrant further investigation.Supplemental data for this article is available online at at 10.1080/01635581.2021.1957133.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1957133DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer in the ColoCare Study: Differences by Age of Onset.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;13(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 37996, USA.

Early-onset colorectal cancer has been on the rise in Western populations. Here, we compare patient characteristics between those with early- (<50 years) vs. late-onset (≥50 years) disease in a large multinational cohort of colorectal cancer patients ( = 2193). We calculated descriptive statistics and assessed associations of clinicodemographic factors with age of onset using mutually-adjusted logistic regression models. Patients were on average 60 years old, with BMI of 29 kg/m, 52% colon cancers, 21% early-onset, and presented with stage II or III (60%) disease. Early-onset patients presented with more advanced disease (stages III-IV: 63% vs. 51%, respectively), and received more neo and adjuvant treatment compared to late-onset patients, after controlling for stage (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 2.30 (1.82-3.83) and 2.00 (1.43-2.81), respectively). Early-onset rectal cancer patients across all stages more commonly received neoadjuvant treatment, even when not indicated as the standard of care, e.g., during stage I disease. The odds of early-onset disease were higher among never smokers and lower among overweight patients (1.55 (1.21-1.98) and 0.56 (0.41-0.76), respectively). Patients with early-onset colorectal cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage disease, to have received systemic treatments regardless of stage at diagnosis, and were less likely to be ever smokers or overweight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345133PMC
July 2021

Race, ethnicity, community-level socioeconomic factors, and risk of COVID-19 in the United States and the United Kingdom.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Aug 17;38:101029. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 100 Cambridge Street, 15th Floor, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Background: There is limited prior investigation of the combined influence of personal and community-level socioeconomic factors on racial/ethnic disparities in individual risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis nested within a prospective cohort of 2,102,364 participants from March 29, 2020 in the United States (US) and March 24, 2020 in the United Kingdom (UK) through December 02, 2020 via the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application. We examined the contribution of community-level deprivation using the Neighborhood Deprivation Index (NDI) and the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) to observe racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT04331509.

Findings: Compared with non-Hispanic White participants, the risk for a positive COVID-19 test was increased in the US for non-Hispanic Black (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.47) and Hispanic participants (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.33-1.52) and in the UK for Black (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.34), South Asian (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.30-1.49), and Middle Eastern participants (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61). This elevated risk was associated with living in more deprived communities according to the NDI/IMD. After accounting for downstream mediators of COVID-19 risk, community-level deprivation still mediated 16.6% and 7.7% of the excess risk in Black compared to White participants in the US and the UK, respectively.

Interpretation: Our results illustrate the critical role of social determinants of health in the disproportionate COVID-19 risk experienced by racial and ethnic minorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285255PMC
August 2021

Temporal variations in the severity of COVID-19 illness by race and ethnicity.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 22;4(1):166-173. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cardiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Introduction: Early reports highlighted racial/ethnic disparities in the severity of COVID-19 seen across the USA; the extent to which these disparities have persisted over time remains unclear. Our research objective was to understand temporal trends in racial/ethnic variation in severity of COVID-19 illness presenting over time.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using longitudinal data from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, a high-volume health system in Southern California. We studied patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 illness from 4 March 2020 through 5 December 2020. Our primary outcome was COVID-19 severity of illness among hospitalised patients, assessed by racial/ethnic group status. We defined overall illness severity as an ordinal outcome: hospitalisation but no intensive care unit (ICU) admission; admission to the ICU but no intubation; and intubation or death.

Results: A total of 1584 patients with COVID-19 with available demographic and clinical data were included. Hispanic/Latinx compared with non-Hispanic white patients had higher odds of experiencing more severe illness among hospitalised patients (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.22) and this disparity persisted over time. During the initial 2 months of the pandemic, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to suffer severe illness than non-Hispanic whites (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.78); this disparity improved by May, only to return later in the pandemic.

Conclusion: In our patient sample, the severity of observed COVID-19 illness declined steadily over time, but these clinical improvements were not seen evenly across racial/ethnic groups; greater illness severity continues to be experienced among Hispanic/Latinx patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985979PMC
March 2021

No Difference in Penetrance between Truncating and Missense/Aberrant Splicing Pathogenic Variants in and : A Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 28;10(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Medical Genetics, Institute for Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic predisposition for hereditary cancer. Carriers of pathogenic changes in mismatch repair (MMR) genes have an increased risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial, ovarian, urinary tract, prostate, and other cancers, depending on which gene is malfunctioning. In Lynch syndrome, differences in cancer incidence (penetrance) according to the gene involved have led to the stratification of cancer surveillance. By contrast, any differences in penetrance determined by the type of pathogenic variant remain unknown.

Objective: To determine cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants of the and genes.

Methods: Carriers of pathogenic variants of () and () genes filed in the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) were categorized as truncating or missense/aberrant splicing according to the InSiGHT criteria for pathogenicity.

Results: Among 5199 carriers, 1045 had missense or aberrant splicing variants, and 3930 had truncating variants. Prospective observation years for the two groups were 8205 and 34,141 years, respectively, after which there were no significant differences in incidences for cancer overall or for colorectal cancer or endometrial cancers separately.

Conclusion: Truncating and missense or aberrant splicing pathogenic variants were associated with similar average cumulative incidences of cancer in carriers of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10132856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269121PMC
June 2021

Nongenetic Determinants of Risk for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Jun 20;5(3):pkab029. Epub 2021 May 20.

Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite.

Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite.

Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27;  = .04).

Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134523PMC
June 2021

Assessment of a Polygenic Risk Score for Colorectal Cancer to Predict Risk of Lynch Syndrome Colorectal Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Apr 8;5(2):pkab022. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

It was not known whether the polygenic risk scores (PRSs) that predict colorectal cancer could predict colorectal cancer for people with inherited pathogenic variants in DNA mismatch repair genes-people with Lynch syndrome. We tested a PRS comprising 107 established single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer in European populations for 826 European-descent carriers of pathogenic variants in DNA mismatch repair genes (293 , 314 , 126 , 71 , and 22 ) from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, of whom 504 had colorectal cancer. There was no evidence of an association between the PRS and colorectal cancer risk, irrespective of which DNA mismatch repair gene was mutated, or sex (all 2-sided >.05). The hazard ratio per standard deviation of the PRS for colorectal cancer was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.88 to 1.06; 2-sided =.51). Whereas PRSs are predictive of colorectal cancer in the general population, they do not predict Lynch syndrome colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062848PMC
April 2021

Postoperative Complications Are Associated with Long-Term Changes in the Gut Microbiota Following Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Changes in the gut microbiome have already been associated with postoperative complications in major abdominal surgery. However, it is still unclear whether these changes are transient or a long-lasting effect. Therefore, the aim of this prospective clinical pilot study was to examine long-term changes in the gut microbiota and to correlate these changes with the clinical course of the patient. Methods: In total, stool samples of 62 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients undergoing primary tumor resection were analyzed by 16S-rDNA next-generation sequencing. Stool samples were collected preoperatively in order to determine the gut microbiome at baseline as well as at 6, 12, and 24 months thereafter to observe longitudinal changes. Postoperatively, the study patients were separated into two groups-patients who suffered from postoperative complications ( = 30) and those without complication ( = 32). Patients with postoperative complications showed a significantly stronger reduction in the alpha diversity starting 6 months after operation, which does not resolve, even after 24 months. The structure of the microbiome was also significantly altered from baseline at six-month follow-up in patients with complications ( = 0.006). This was associated with a long-lasting decrease of a large number of species in the gut microbiota indicating an impact in the commensal microbiota and a long-lasting increase of . The microbial composition of the gut microbiome shows significant changes in patients with postoperative complications up to 24 months after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11030246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002283PMC
March 2021

Uptake of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in carriers of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Eur J Cancer 2021 05 17;148:124-133. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany; MGZ- Medical Genetics Center, Munich, Germany; The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT), The Polyposis Registry, St Mark's Hospital, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex, HA1 3UJ, UK; European Hereditary Tumour Group (EHTG), C/o Lindsays, Caledonian Exchange, 19A Canning Street, Edinburgh, EH3 8HE, United Kingdom.

Purpose: This study aimed to report the uptake of hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to prevent gynaecological cancers (risk-reducing surgery [RRS]) in carriers of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD) was used to investigate RRS by a cross-sectional study in 2292 female path_MMR carriers aged 30-69 years.

Results: Overall, 144, 79, and 517 carriers underwent risk-reducing hysterectomy, BSO, or both combined, respectively. Two-thirds of procedures before 50 years of age were combined hysterectomy and BSO, and 81% of all procedures included BSO. Risk-reducing hysterectomy was performed before age 50 years in 28%, 25%, 15%, and 9%, and BSO in 26%, 25%, 14% and 13% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 carriers, respectively. Before 50 years of age, 107 of 188 (57%) BSO and 126 of 204 (62%) hysterectomies were performed in women without any prior cancer, and only 5% (20/392) were performed simultaneously with colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery.

Conclusion: Uptake of RRS before 50 years of age was low, and RRS was rarely undertaken in association with surgical treatment of CRC. Uptake of RRS aligned poorly with gene- and age-associated risk estimates for endometrial or ovarian cancer that were published recently from PLSD and did not correspond well with current clinical guidelines. The reasons should be clarified. Decision-making on opting for or against RRS and its timing should be better aligned with predicted risk and mortality for endometrial and ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.02.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1490-1502

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited.

Objectives: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions.

Results: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk.

Conclusions: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168352PMC
June 2021

Prior COVID-19 Infection and Antibody Response to Single Versus Double Dose mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination.

medRxiv 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

The double dose regimen for mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 presents both a hope and a challenge for global efforts to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. With supply chain logistics impacting the rollout of population-scale vaccination programs, increasing attention has turned to the potential efficacy of single versus double dose vaccine administration for select individuals. To this end, we examined response to Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine in a large cohort of healthcare workers including those with versus without prior COVID-19 infection. For all participants, we quantified circulating levels of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike (S) protein IgG at baseline prior to vaccine, after vaccine dose 1, and after vaccine dose 2. We observed that the anti-S IgG antibody response following a single vaccine dose in persons who had recovered from confirmed prior COVID-19 infection was similar to the antibody response following two doses of vaccine in persons without prior infection (P≥0.58). Patterns were similar for the post-vaccine symptoms experienced by infection recovered persons following their first dose compared to the symptoms experienced by infection naïve persons following their second dose (P=0.66). These results support the premise that a single dose of mRNA vaccine could provoke in COVID-19 recovered individuals a level of immunity that is comparable to that seen in infection naïve persons following a double dose regimen. Additional studies are needed to validate our findings, which could allow for public health programs to expand the reach of population wide vaccination efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.23.21252230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924304PMC
February 2021

Causal Effects of Lifetime Smoking on Breast and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Mendelian Randomization Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 05 2;30(5):953-964. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Observational evidence has shown that smoking is a risk factor for breast and colorectal cancer. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine causal associations between smoking and risks of breast and colorectal cancer.

Methods: Genome-Wide Association Study summary data were used to identify genetic variants associated with lifetime amount of smoking ( = 126 variants) and ever having smoked regularly ( = 112 variants). Using two-sample MR, we examined these variants in relation to incident breast (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and colorectal cancer (52,775 cases/45,940 controls).

Results: In inverse-variance weighted models, a genetic predisposition to higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with breast cancer risk [OR per 1-SD increment: 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.26; = 0.04]; although heterogeneity was observed. Similar associations were found for estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Higher lifetime amount of smoking was positively associated with colorectal cancer (OR per 1-SD increment, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40; = 0.01), colon cancer (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.11-1.55; < 0.01), and rectal cancer (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07-1.73; = 0.01). Ever having smoked regularly was not associated with risks of breast (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.14; = 0.85) or colorectal cancer (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.86-1.10; = 0.68).

Conclusions: These findings are consistent with prior observational evidence and support a causal role of higher lifetime smoking amount in the development of breast and colorectal cancer.

Impact: The results from this comprehensive MR analysis indicate that lifetime smoking is a causal risk factor for these common malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611442PMC
May 2021

Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct.

Gut 2021 Jul 25;70(7):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.

Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.

Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.

Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223655PMC
July 2021

Rare Variants in the DNA Repair Pathway and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 05 24;30(5):895-903. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Background: Inherited susceptibility is an important contributor to colorectal cancer risk, and rare variants in key genes or pathways could account in part for the missing proportion of colorectal cancer heritability.

Methods: We conducted an exome-wide association study including 2,327 cases and 2,966 controls of European ancestry from three large epidemiologic studies. Single variant associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for appropriate study-specific covariates. In addition, we examined the aggregate effects of rare coding variation at the gene and pathway levels using Bayesian model uncertainty techniques.

Results: In an exome-wide gene-level analysis, we identified as the top associated gene based on the Bayesian risk index (BRI) method [summary Bayes factor (BF) = 2604.23]. A rare coding variant in this gene, rs139401613, was the top associated variant ( = 1.01 × 10) in an exome-wide single variant analysis. Pathway-level association analyses based on the integrative BRI (iBRI) method found extreme evidence of association with the DNA repair pathway (BF = 17852.4), specifically with the nonhomologous end joining (BF = 437.95) and nucleotide excision repair (BF = 36.96) subpathways. The iBRI method also identified , and as the top associated DNA repair genes (summary BF ≥ 10), with rs28988897, rs8178232, rs141369732, and rs201642761 being the most likely associated variants in these genes, respectively.

Conclusions: We identified novel variants and genes associated with colorectal cancer risk and provided additional evidence for a role of DNA repair in colorectal cancer tumorigenesis.

Impact: This study provides new insights into the genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer, which has potential for translation into improved risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102340PMC
May 2021

Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare workers: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 02 12;11(2):e043584. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Center for Neural Science and Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, Department of Neurology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objective: We sought to determine the extent of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and the factors associated with seroprevalence across a diverse cohort of healthcare workers.

Design: Observational cohort study of healthcare workers, including SARS-CoV-2 serology testing and participant questionnaires.

Settings: A multisite healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County.

Participants: A diverse and unselected population of adults (n=6062) employed in a multisite healthcare delivery system located in Los Angeles County, including individuals with direct patient contact and others with non-patient-oriented work functions.

Main Outcomes: Using Bayesian and multivariate analyses, we estimated seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity and antibody levels, including pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics; potential COVID-19 illness-related exposures; and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection.

Results: We observed a seroprevalence rate of 4.1%, with anosmia as the most prominently associated self-reported symptom (OR 11.04, p<0.001) in addition to fever (OR 2.02, p=0.002) and myalgias (OR 1.65, p=0.035). After adjusting for potential confounders, seroprevalence was also associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.98, p=0.001) and African-American race (OR 2.02, p=0.027) as well as contact with a COVID-19-diagnosed individual in the household (OR 5.73, p<0.001) or clinical work setting (OR 1.76, p=0.002). Importantly, African-American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with antibody positivity even after adjusting for personal COVID-19 diagnosis status, suggesting the contribution of unmeasured structural or societal factors.

Conclusion And Relevance: The demographic factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among our healthcare workers underscore the importance of exposure sources beyond the workplace. The size and diversity of our study population, combined with robust survey and modelling techniques, provide a vibrant picture of the demographic factors, exposures and symptoms that can identify individuals with susceptibility as well as potential to mount an immune response to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883610PMC
February 2021

Associations of Aspirin and Non-Aspirin Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs With Colorectal Cancer Mortality After Diagnosis.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul;113(7):833-840

Department of Population Science, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Aspirin use reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but there is limited evidence regarding associations of aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with CRC-specific survival.

Methods: This prospective analysis includes women and men from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer free at baseline (1992 or 1993) and diagnosed with CRC during incidence follow-up through 2015. Detailed information on aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use was self-reported on questionnaires at baseline, in 1997, and every 2 years thereafter. Pre- and postdiagnosis data were available for 2686 and 1931 participants without distant metastases, respectively, among whom 512 and 251 died from CRC during mortality follow-up through 2016. Secondary analyses examined associations between prediagnosis aspirin use and stage at diagnosis (distant metastatic vs localized or regional). All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Long-term regular use of aspirin (>15 times per month) before diagnosis was associated with lower CRC-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.52 to 0.92). Postdiagnosis regular aspirin use was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC-specific mortality overall (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.09), although participants who began regular aspirin use only after their diagnosis were at lower risk than participants who did not use aspirin at both the pre- and postdiagnosis periods (HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.98). Long-term aspirin use before diagnosis was also associated with lower odds of diagnosis with distant metastases (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.99).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that long-term aspirin use before a diagnosis of nonmetastatic colorectal cancer may be associated with lower CRC-specific mortality after diagnosis, consistent with possible inhibition of micrometastases before diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246799PMC
July 2021

Associations of Height With the Risks of Colorectal and Endometrial Cancer in Persons With Lynch Syndrome.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 02;190(2):230-238

People with Lynch syndrome (LS), who carry a pathogenic mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene, have increased risks of colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). A high reported variability in cancer risk suggests the existence of factors that modify cancer risk for persons with LS. We aimed to investigate the associations between height and CRC and EC risk for persons with LS using data from 2 large studies. Information on 1,115 men and 1,553 women with LS from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (1998-2007) and the GEOLynch Cohort Study (2006-2017) was harmonized. We used weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models with age on the time axis to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for each 5-cm increment in self-reported height. CRC was diagnosed in 947 persons during 65,369 person-years of observation, and 171 women were diagnosed with EC during 39,227 person-years. Height was not associated with CRC for either men (per 5-cm increment, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.11) or women (per 5-cm increment, HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11), nor was height associated with EC (per 5-cm increment, HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.24). Hence, we observed no evidence for an association of height with either CRC or EC among persons with LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210745PMC
February 2021

Adiposity, metabolites, and colorectal cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study.

BMC Med 2020 12 17;18(1):396. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood.

Methods: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models.

Results: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01855-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745469PMC
December 2020

A Combined Proteomics and Mendelian Randomization Approach to Investigate the Effects of Aspirin-Targeted Proteins on Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 03 14;30(3):564-575. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

Background: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk.

Methods: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL ( = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium ( = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls).

Results: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively).

Conclusions: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis.

Impact: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086774PMC
March 2021

Risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in female heterozygotes of pathogenic mismatch repair variants: a Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database report.

Genet Med 2021 04 1;23(4):705-712. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Campus Innenstadt, Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants.

Methods: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages.

Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.

Conclusion: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01029-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026395PMC
April 2021

Genetic Variants in the Regulatory T cell-Related Pathway and Colorectal Cancer Prognosis.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 12 2;29(12):2719-2728. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Colorectal Oncogenomics Group, Department of Clinical Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis.

Methods: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC).

Results: A significant association of the SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed.

Conclusions: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as and was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.

Impact: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976673PMC
December 2020

Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Molecularly Defined Subtypes and Tumor Location.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Aug 19;4(5):pkaa042. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Laboratory Genetics, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. As CRC is a heterogeneous disease, we evaluated whether the association of HT and CRC differs across etiologically relevant, molecularly defined tumor subtypes and tumor location.

Methods: We pooled data on tumor subtypes (microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype status, and mutations, pathway: adenoma-carcinoma, alternate, serrated), tumor location (proximal colon, distal colon, rectum), and HT use among 8220 postmenopausal women (3898 CRC cases and 4322 controls) from 8 observational studies. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of ever vs never HT use with each tumor subtype compared with controls. Models were adjusted for study, age, body mass index, smoking status, and CRC family history. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Among postmenopausal women, ever HT use was associated with a 38% reduction in overall CRC risk (OR =0.62, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.69). This association was similar according to microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype and or status. However, the association was attenuated for tumors arising through the serrated pathway (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.01) compared with the adenoma-carcinoma pathway (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.73; =.04) and alternate pathway (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.72). Additionally, proximal colon tumors had a weaker association (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.80) compared with rectal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.63) and distal colon (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.66; =.01) tumors.

Conclusions: We observed a strong inverse association between HT use and overall CRC risk, which may predominantly reflect a benefit of HT use for tumors arising through the adenoma-carcinoma and alternate pathways as well as distal colon and rectal tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477374PMC
August 2020

Cancer health disparities in racial/ethnic minorities in the United States.

Br J Cancer 2021 01 9;124(2):315-332. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

There are well-established disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes by race/ethnicity that result from the interplay between structural, socioeconomic, socio-environmental, behavioural and biological factors. However, large research studies designed to investigate factors contributing to cancer aetiology and progression have mainly focused on populations of European origin. The limitations in clinicopathological and genetic data, as well as the reduced availability of biospecimens from diverse populations, contribute to the knowledge gap and have the potential to widen cancer health disparities. In this review, we summarise reported disparities and associated factors in the United States of America (USA) for the most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colon), and for a subset of other cancers that highlight the complexity of disparities (gastric, liver, pancreas and leukaemia). We focus on populations commonly identified and referred to as racial/ethnic minorities in the USA-African Americans/Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics/Latinos. We conclude that even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the factors underlying cancer health disparities, marked inequities persist. Additional efforts are needed to include participants from diverse populations in the research of cancer aetiology, biology and treatment. Furthermore, to eliminate cancer health disparities, it will be necessary to facilitate access to, and utilisation of, health services to all individuals, and to address structural inequities, including racism, that disproportionally affect racial/ethnic minorities in the USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01038-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852513PMC
January 2021

Intake of Dietary Fruit, Vegetables, and Fiber and Risk of Colorectal Cancer According to Molecular Subtypes: A Pooled Analysis of 9 Studies.

Cancer Res 2020 10 14;80(20):4578-4590. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in and genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of -mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not -wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, -wildtype, and -wildtype tumors ( range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, -mutated, or -mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572895PMC
October 2020

Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 09 5;107(3):432-444. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477007PMC
September 2020
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