Publications by authors named "Jane A Davis"

27 Publications

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Training clinicians in a problem-solving fatigue programme for patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis.

J Ren Care 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Personal Energy Planning is a problem-solving based programme that guides people receiving maintenance haemodialysis treatment to use energy management strategies to address life participation challenges. The feasibility of training dialysis clinicians to become Personal Energy Planning coaches (i.e., programme administrators) is currently unknown.

Objectives: To explore the feasibility of training dialysis clinicians to administer the Personal Energy Planning programme.

Design: Feasibility study involving an adherence evaluation of two trained dialysis clinician coaches' problem-solving facilitation skills, and one qualitative interview with each coach.

Participants: Two Personal Energy Planning coaches with nursing backgrounds who administered the programme to 10 patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis treatment over a total of 34 sessions.

Approach: Audio recordings of one session per treatment recipient (n = 10) were evaluated using an established treatment adherence checklist. The proportion of treatment sessions where the item was observed by two adherence raters was calculated. In addition, coaches were interviewed about their experiences learning and administering the programme; interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

Findings: Some core facilitation skills (e.g., patient-centred goal setting and analysis of performance breakdowns) were consistently used; however, other facilitation skills (e.g., guided discovery and global problem-solving strategy) were not regularly implemented. The coaches discussed challenges (e.g., supporting patient problem-solving and fluctuating patient health) with administering the intervention. Certain training resources (e.g., coaching handbook and expert consultation) were identified as valuable to their learning.

Conclusions: With modifications to training materials, it might be feasible to train dialysis clinicians to administer Personal Energy Planning with people receiving maintenance haemodialysis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jorc.12398DOI Listing
September 2021

Exploring the occupational lives of Syrians under temporary protection in Turkey.

Aust Occup Ther J 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Persons who become displaced due to situations such as war and natural disasters face extreme challenges in maintaining their occupational repertoires. This study aimed to explore the occupational lives of Syrians under temporary protection in Turkey.

Methods: This mixed method study used a cross-sectional design with a predominantly qualitative focus. Syrians living under temporary protection in Turkey were interviewed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to identify their perceived performance problems in the areas of self-care, productivity, and leisure. Additional probes were used to explore participants' reasoning for the choice of occupations and scoring, and occupational changes since arriving in Turkey. Socio-demographics were collected on the participants' age, gender, educational level, marital status, monthly house budget, social security, and number of persons within the household. Thematic analysis was used to undercover themes from the qualitative data.

Results: Thirty Syrians living under temporary protection in Turkey in Hatay province participated in this study (mean age: 29.66 ± 7.97 years [range = 18 to 50 years]): 16 women (mean age: 28.64 ± 8.04 years) and 14 men (mean age: 30.56 ± 8.05 years). Participants identified more significant problems in their performance of productive and leisure occupations than in self-care occupations. The following themes emerged: (a) having a house of our own: meeting basic needs and completing activities of daily living; (b) no money for shopping: past everyday occupations now luxuries; (c) feeling valued and important: having the ability but no job; (d) living day to day: Education, career, and marriage on hold; and (e) enjoyment in life: leaving behind family, friends, and occupational spaces.

Conclusion: Syrians living in temporary protection in Turkey experience uncertainty within their occupational lives. Participants were able to meet their basic needs; however, precarity of employment limited their participation in previous occupations contracting their repertoires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12756DOI Listing
July 2021

Short-Term Impact of Social Distancing Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Cognitive Function and Health Perception of Brazilian Older Adults: A Pre-Post Study.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 09 26;40(9):934-942. Epub 2021 May 26.

University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

Social distancing, a critical measure to manage COVID-19 transmission, is consistently associated with social isolation, a major health issue. Social isolation negatively impacts mental and physical health, particularly among older adults. A pre-post comparison study examined changes in cognitive function and perceived health among 36 community-dwelling Brazilian older adults, assessed pre and post social distancing measures enacted due to COVID-19. A significant increase in cognitive function was found 1 month into social distancing ( = 16.3, = .002, power = 0.88), with declining scores for vitality ( = -29.3, < .001, power = 0.99) and mental health ( = -38.1, < .001, power = 0.99), particularly among participants who lived alone ( = -3.8, = .001). Older adults exhibit rapid changes in perceived health when excluded from participation in social activities. Health care professionals should consider holistic approaches when addressing the impacts of social isolation on this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07334648211015458DOI Listing
September 2021

Interventions for Women With Substance Abuse Issues: A Scoping Review.

Am J Occup Ther 2018 Mar/Apr;72(2):7202205030p1-7202205030p8

Jane A. Davis, MSc, OT Reg. (Ont.), OTR, is Lecturer, Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: The aim of this scoping review was to describe the characteristics and features of substance abuse interventions for women in North America and discuss the findings from an occupational perspective.

Method: A scoping review was conducted to examine North American peer-reviewed literature published between 2001 and 2014. Four databases were searched using terms related to intervention, substance abuse, and women only. Descriptive statistics of categorical groupings were used to describe the data sources and characteristics and features of the interventions.

Results: Forty-two articles met the inclusion criteria, with the majority citing a harm-reduction approach and using multifaceted interventions with various targets for change.

Conclusion: Substance abuse interventions for women are typically multifaceted and follow a harm-reduction philosophy. Further research into the efficacy of interventions that more specifically target occupation beyond substance use is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2018.022863DOI Listing
May 2018

Clarifying the Construct of Occupational Engagement for Occupational Therapy Practice.

OTJR (Thorofare N J) 2017 04 16;37(2):98-108. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

2 University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Occupational engagement (OE) has been presented as a core construct in occupational therapy; however, its broad conceptualization and confounding definitions are problematic. Clarifying the construct of OE would help occupational therapists to explicate the nature of their practice. The purpose of this study was to explore occupational therapists' perspectives of the construct of OE. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used to collect data using semistructured interviews with nine practicing occupational therapists in the Greater Toronto Area. Qualitative content analysis, using an inductive approach, was employed to uncover emerging categories. Participants spoke about transitioning from therapeutic engagement to OE with a client by following a client's path of choice. The essential elements and influencers of OE were highlighted, and the relationship between OE and occupational performance was discussed. The findings provide an initial understanding of essential elements necessary to enable clients to initiate engagement in therapy and then, subsequently, in occupations of their choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1539449216688201DOI Listing
April 2017

Toward the reconceptualization of the relationship between occupation and health and well-being

Can J Occup Ther 2016 10 25;83(4):249-259. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

Background: Foundational to the occupational therapy profession is the belief that engagement in occupation is health promoting; however, this belief fails to account for occupational engagement that may be risky or illness producing. Consensus regarding the nature of the relationship between occupation and health has yet to be achieved.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive description of how the relationship between occupation and health and well-being is discussed within the occupational therapy and occupational science literature.

Method: The methodological framework outlined by Arksey and O'Malley served as the basis for this scoping review of the occupational therapy and occupational science literature.

Findings: One hundred and twelve articles were identified as meeting the criteria for inclusion. The dominant discourse portrays the relationship between occupation and health as positive.

Implications: The broader literature suggests that occupational engagement can have both positive and negative effects on health and well-being. As such, the reconceptualization of the relationship between occupation and health and well-being is warranted to enable occupational therapists to practise in a more client-centred manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0008417415625425DOI Listing
October 2016

Toward the reconceptualization of the relationship between occupation and health and well-being.

Can J Occup Ther 2016 Oct 20;83(4):249-259. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Background: Foundational to the occupational therapy profession is the belief that engagement in occupation is health promoting; however, this belief fails to account for occupational engagement that may be risky or illness producing. Consensus regarding the nature of the relationship between occupation and health has yet to be achieved.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive description of how the relationship between occupation and health and well-being is discussed within the occupational therapy and occupational science literature.

Method: The methodological framework outlined by Arksey and O'Malley served as the basis for this scoping review of the occupational therapy and occupational science literature.

Findings: One hundred and twelve articles were identified as meeting the criteria for inclusion. The dominant discourse portrays the relationship between occupation and health as positive.

Implications: The broader literature suggests that occupational engagement can have both positive and negative effects on health and well-being. As such, the reconceptualization of the relationship between occupation and health and well-being is warranted to enable occupational therapists to practise in a more client-centred manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0008417415625425DOI Listing
October 2016

Methodological coherence: establishing a unified research frame.

Authors:
Jane A Davis

Can J Occup Ther 2012 Jun;79(3):131-3

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2182/cjot.2012.79.3.1DOI Listing
June 2012

Passion in the performing arts: clarifying active occupational participation.

Work 2012 ;41(1):15-25

Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Unlabelled: Active participation in daily occupations is a vital part of everyday life, social participation and healthy life long human development; however, enablers of active participation are not well understood. Passion, a strong tendency towards an activity that a person finds meaningful and spends a lot of time doing, is a potential enabler. Accordingly, it is important to understand how an individual's passion for a specific occupation plays out across the occupational life course.

Objective: To explore the experience of passion across the life course of older adults involved in the performing arts.

Participants: Seven older adults involved in, or retired from, the performing arts, who consider themselves passionate about their occupation.

Methods: A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to explore, through interviews with older adults, passion for performing arts across the life course.

Results: Emerging themes supported development of an initial theoretical framework explicating active participation and passion. It centers on passion as an enabler of occupational participation through different modes, and suggests barriers to that enablement process.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that passion has an important role in continued active participation in an occupation; however, barriers, such as social and financial, can derail the pursuit of a passionate occupation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-1236DOI Listing
May 2012

The influence of context: a naturalistic study of Ugandan children's doings in outdoor spaces.

Occup Ther Int 2011 Sep 1;18(3):124-32. Epub 2010 Dec 1.

Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada.

The purpose of this study was to explore children's everyday outdoor occupations in context. A naturalistic observational approach was employed to record the observed outdoor occupations of children in Mbarara, Uganda. Thematic analysis, through pattern formation and constant comparative analysis, was used to uncover categories and themes in the data. Patterns emerged from the data revealing two overarching categories containing three themes: 1) types of occupations: play, work and nothing in particular and 2) characteristics of occupational engagement: being in peer groups, having fun and using materials in the environment. The themes reveal that children's occupations are both similar and different across minority and majority world cultures and that children's occupations are contextually situated and flexible in nature. A limitation of the study was that the observational approach made identification of children's ages subjective. Subsequent studies should explore children's experiences of occupational engagement using interviews and focus groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oti.310DOI Listing
September 2011

'There's a real plan here, and I am responsible for that plan': participant experiences with a novel cognitive-based treatment approach for adults living with chronic stroke.

Disabil Rehabil 2010 ;32(7):540-50

Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: This study was part of a larger mixed methods project aimed at adapting the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) treatment approach, originally designed for children with performance problems, for use with adults with stroke. In CO-OP, the client focuses on learning strategies and skills, rather than on remediating impairments. Therapists use guided discovery to teach cognitive strategy use. The purpose of this study was to explore participants' experiences with the approach.

Method: Semistructured interviews were conducted with five participants. Transcriptions were coded by two members of the research team. Data analysis was conducted in two distinct phases: Directed content analysis was conducted to apply codes to predetermined categories; Thematic analysis was conducted to allow themes grounded in the data to emerge.

Results: Participants reported learning and transferring the strategies taught, and made suggestions for modifications to the approach, such as increasing the number of sessions. One theme emerged, Balancing the need for autonomy with the need for support.

Conclusions: The findings suggest the cognitive strategies were well learned and effectively used. CO-OP was able to provide participants with increased decision-making autonomy, but may require modifications to better support their transition to higher levels of independence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09638280903180189DOI Listing
June 2010

The representations of work-life balance in Canadian newspapers.

Work 2009 ;32(4):431-42

Rehabilitation Services, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Work-life balance has become a topic of increasing interest in the media as well as a concern among working Canadians. Since print media discourse can both reflect and shape societal values, cultural norms and ideals of workers in this country, it is important to understand this representation and its potential influence on the occupational engagement and life transitions of Canadian workers. Articles from four major Canadian newspapers published between 2003 and 2005 were used as data sources to examine the media construction of "work-life balance". Thematic analysis of 100 articles was performed using a modified affinity diagramming process. Representations within the Canadian print media conveyed both themes pertaining to the perceived experiences of imbalance and balance, as well as, a process of life balance. Obtaining balance was portrayed as an ongoing process during which an individual negotiates and sacrifices in an attempt to achieve his or her ideal level of balance. Environmental expectations and individual practices and perceptions were conveyed as reasons for the success or derailment of balance. The representations of work-life balance found in the Canadian print media were predominantly of professionals, focused on the demands of work and family, and did not appear to be a broad representation of the multiple realities that all Canadians face.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2009-0854DOI Listing
July 2009

Meeting the responsibility that comes with the privilege: introducing a taxonomic code for understanding occupation.

Can J Occup Ther 2004 Dec;71(5):261-8

Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Rehabilitation Sciences Building, ON, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000841740407100503DOI Listing
December 2004

Enhancing research use through online action research.

Can J Occup Ther 2004 Oct;71(4):230-7

School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Ottawa, ON.

Background: Many health professionals, including occupational therapists, have difficulty utilizing research findings in daily practice.

Purpose: To determine if an online action research project could enhance research use among occupational therapists working in similar practice areas.

Methods: Four groups of 12-14 occupational therapists met online for approximately one year. They discussed barriers and facilitators to research utilization, defined practice questions, and attempted to search for, synthesize and apply relevant research findings. Online communications and post-group interviews were thematically analyzed.

Results: Only half of the participants who began the project were still online with the research project at completion. These participants believed that their involvement in the group led to increased personal awareness, motivation and confidence regarding the use of research evidence in practice and knowledge to be used in practice. Time to review, critique and synthesize research evidence continued to be a major barrier to enhanced research utilization.

Practice Implications: Online meetings designed to enhance research use among occupational therapists appear to hold some promise, but refinements are needed to ensure their ultimate success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000841740407100408DOI Listing
October 2004
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