Publications by authors named "Jana Kukutschová"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Source apportionment of magnetite particles in roadside airborne particulate matter.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 21;752:141828. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Nanotechnology Centre, VŜB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33, Ostrava, Poruba, Czech Republic; Regional Materials Science and Technology Centre, VŜB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33, Ostrava, Poruba, Czech Republic.

Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurological problems. Magnetite, a mixed Fe/Fe oxide, is ubiquitous and abundant in PM in urban environments, and might play a specific role in both neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. We collected samples of vehicle exhaust emissions, and of heavily-trafficked roadside and urban background dusts from Lancaster and Birmingham, U.K. Then, we measured their saturation magnetic remanence and used magnetic component analysis to separate the magnetite signal from other contributing magnetic components. Lastly, we estimated the contributions made by specific traffic-related sources of magnetite to the total airborne magnetite in the roadside environment. The concentration of magnetite in exhaust emissions is much lower (3-14 x lower) than that in heavily- trafficked roadside PM. The magnetite concentration in petrol-engine exhaust emissions is between ~0.06 and 0.12 wt%; in diesel-engine exhaust emissions ~0.08-0.18 wt%; in background dust ~0.05-0.20 wt% and in roadside dust ~0.18-0.95 wt%. Here, we show that vehicle brake wear is responsible for between ~68 and 85% of the total airborne magnetite at the two U.K. roadside sites. In comparison, diesel-engine exhaust emissions account for ~7% - 12%, petrol-engine exhaust emissions for ~2% - 4%, and background dust for 6% - 10%. Thus, vehicle brake wear is by far the most dominant source of airborne magnetite in the roadside environment at the two sites examined. Given the potential risk posed, post-inhalation, by ultrafine magnetite and co-associated transition metal-rich particles to human cardiovascular and neurological health, the high magnetite content of vehicle brake wear might need to be reduced in order to mitigate such risk, especially for vulnerable population groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141828DOI Listing
January 2021

Metal particles in mucus and hypertrophic tissue of the inferior nasal turbinates from the human upper respiratory tract.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 15;27(22):28146-28154. Epub 2020 May 15.

Center of Advanced Innovation Technologies, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Poruba, 708 33, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Mucosal surfaces are the first mechanical barrier preventing the entry of foreign particles into the organism. The study addresses the detection and analysis of metal-based solid particles in cytological mucus samples from the surface of human hypertrophic tissue in the inferior nasal turbinates in patients diagnosed with chronic rhinitis. Solid particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy; all the biological samples were also subjected to vibration magnetometry. Since the upper airways are the first part of the respiratory tract, which is exposed to inhaled particles, it can be assumed that inhaled particles may be partially deposited in this region. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of metal-based solid particles/clusters in the majority of the analysed cytological mucus samples and also in hypertrophic tissues; in all groups, the particles were of submicron size. Raman microspectroscopy detected the presence of particles/clusters based on amorphous carbon, graphite, calcium carbonate, anatase and barite only in the hypertrophic tissue. The obtained results show that the composition of some of the solid particles (i.e. Ba, Zn, Fe and Ti) detected in the mucus from the surface of the hypertrophic tissues resembled the particles found in the hypertrophic tissue itself. It can be assumed that after the capture of the inhaled particles by the mucus, they penetrate into the deeper layers of tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09156-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Settled Dust from Urban and Suburban Roads in an Industrial City Area: Location and Seasonal Differences in Metal Content.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 May;19(5):3035-3040

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠ B-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.

Settled road dust, present on all roads surfaces in a relatively high abundance, is a complex of particles-ranging from nanosized to microsized-from both natural and anthropogenic sources and may pose possible risk to the biosphere as well as influence the atmosphere because of the road dust resuspension. Geographical and seasonal differences in heavy metal content of the settled road dust were studied at two sites: urban site with a heavy traffic in the industrial city of Ostrava, Czech Republic and suburban site of Ostrava with a negligible traffic load in settlement Ludgeřovice. Dust samples were collected monthly during the period from March to October 2015. Obtained dust samples were homogenized and subsequently analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy; the results were then assessed by multivariate statistical methods (Principal components analysis, Factorial analysis on mixed data). The difference in the content of Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn was explainable mainly by the factor of the site only the content of Fe was significantly dependent on the month of sampling. The contents of the particular elements and the correlations found among them confirm the assumption that heavy metals detected in the road dust samples from the urban site most likely originated primarily from the traffic-and particularly from the non-combustion processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15843DOI Listing
May 2019

Synthesis and Characterization of Erbium Oxide Nanocrystallites.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 May;19(5):2934-2937

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava - Poruba, Czech Republic.

The present article describes a method of the preparation of erbium oxide nanocrystallites (nano Er₂O₃) via thermal decomposition of a transient complex formed from Er(NO₃)₃·5H₂O and glycine. Decomposition of the complex occurred at about of (250±10) °C. Ultra-fine light pink powder of erbium oxide nanocrystallites was obtained via this method. The resulting nanocrystallites were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction analysis, which showed the nanocrystallites having the crystallite size equal to 10 nm. Morphology of the nanocrystallites was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction observed in transmission electron microscopy corresponds to the results obtained from X-ray diffraction analysis. The elemental composition of the product was confirmed by EDS analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15857DOI Listing
May 2019

Determination of Oxidative Potential Caused by Brake Wear Debris in Non-Cellular Systems.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 May;19(5):2869-2875

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.

Wear debris from automotive brake systems represents a major source of non-exhaust emissions from road traffic and its production increases with number of cars worldwide. However, impact of brake wear debris on the environment and organisms is still not clear. One of the most possible ways by which these particles may affect living organisms is oxidative stress. Production of reactive oxidative species may cause damage of basic cell components, lipids, proteins, etc. Aim of this study is to perform characterization of airborne and nonairborne fractions of brake wear debris generated during standard dynamometer tests and evaluation of its potential to induce oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation and carbonylation of proteins in non-cellular system. Elemental and phase composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Carbon in amorphous form and graphite, copper, and iron in form of oxides were identified as major components in both studied fractions. Characteristic size of studied wear particles was evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Both airborne and nonairborne samples showed ability to induce oxidative stress which results from determination of carbonylated proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15866DOI Listing
May 2019

Detection of Micron and Submicron Particles in Human Bronchogenic Carcinomas.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 May;19(5):2460-2466

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.

Metal based particles were detected in pulmonary tumor tissue samples and reference lung tissue samples (lung tissue without carcinoma) by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Many of these particles were in the size below 1 m. Using scanning electron microscopy, particles based on iron were found in the majority of samples. Siderite was determined as the form of the iron in several samples by Raman microspectroscopy. The hypothesis that significant statistical dependence exists between the presence of metals in the lung tissue and lung cancer incidence was not proved. However, statistical dependence between smoking and lung cancer incidence was determined as well as insignificant correlation between the presence of titanium based particles and lung cancer incidence. Titanium-based compounds were identified as TiO₂ in the form of anatase and rutile. Both the reference and the carcinoma samples exhibited magnetic properties as confirmed by vibration magnetometry measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15842DOI Listing
May 2019

Settled iron-based road dust and its characteristics and possible association with detection in human tissues.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jan 30;26(3):2950-2959. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Advanced Innovation Technologies, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava,, 70800, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Settled road dust was examined to detect the presence of non-airborne submicron and nano-sized iron-based particles and to characterize these particles. Samples were collected from a road surface near a busy road junction in the city of Ostrava, Czech Republic, once a month from March to October. The eight collected samples were subjected to a combination of experimental techniques including elemental analysis, Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, and magnetometry. The data thereby obtained confirmed the presence of non-agglomerated spherical nano-sized iron-based particles, with average sizes ranging from 2 down to 490 nm. There are several sources in road traffic which generate road dust particles, including exhaust and non-exhaust processes. Some of them (e.g., brake wear) produce iron as the dominant metallic element. Raman microspectroscopy revealed forms of iron (mainly as oxides, FeO, and mixtures of FeO and FeO). Moreover, FeO was also detected in samples of human tissues from the upper and lower respiratory tract. In view of the fact that no agglomeration of those particles was found by SEM, it is supposed that these particles may be easily resuspended and represent a risk to human health due to inhalation exposure, as proved by the detection of particles with similar morphology and phase composition in human tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3841-xDOI Listing
January 2019

Biological response of an in vitro human 3D lung cell model exposed to brake wear debris varies based on brake pad formulation.

Arch Toxicol 2018 07 10;92(7):2339-2351. Epub 2018 May 10.

BioNanomaterials Group, Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Chemin des Verdiers 4, 1700, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Wear particles from automotive friction brake pads of various sizes, morphology, and chemical composition are significant contributors towards particulate matter. Knowledge concerning the potential adverse effects following inhalation exposure to brake wear debris is limited. Our aim was, therefore, to generate brake wear particles released from commercial low-metallic and non-asbestos organic automotive brake pads used in mid-size passenger cars by a full-scale brake dynamometer with an environmental chamber simulating urban driving and to deduce their potential hazard in vitro. The collected fractions were analysed using scanning electron microscopy via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Raman microspectroscopy. The biological impact of the samples was investigated using a human 3D multicellular model consisting of human epithelial cells (A549) and human primary immune cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) mimicking the human epithelial tissue barrier. The viability, morphology, oxidative stress, and (pro-)inflammatory response of the cells were assessed following 24 h exposure to ~ 12, ~ 24, and ~ 48 µg/cm of non-airborne samples and to ~ 3.7 µg/cm of different brake wear size fractions (2-4, 1-2, and 0.25-1 µm) applying a pseudo-air-liquid interface approach. Brake wear debris with low-metallic formula does not induce any adverse biological effects to the in vitro lung multicellular model. Brake wear particles from non-asbestos organic formulated pads, however, induced increased (pro-)inflammatory mediator release from the same in vitro system. The latter finding can be attributed to the different particle compositions, specifically the presence of anatase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2218-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015608PMC
July 2018

Toxicity and mutagenicity of low-metallic automotive brake pad materials.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2016 Sep 13;131:37-44. Epub 2016 May 13.

VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, Nanotechnology Centre, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic; Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes, Carbondale, IL 62901-4343, USA.

Organic friction materials are standardly used in brakes of small planes, railroad vehicles, trucks and passenger cars. The growing transportation sector requires a better understanding of the negative impact related to the release of potentially hazardous materials into the environment. This includes brakes which can release enormous quantities of wear particulates. This paper addresses in vitro detection of toxic and mutagenic potency of one model and two commercially available low-metallic automotive brake pads used in passenger cars sold in the EU market. The model pad made in the laboratory was also subjected to a standardized brake dynamometer test and the generated non-airborne wear particles were also investigated. Qualitative "organic composition" was determined by GC/MS screening of dichloromethane extracts. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity of four investigated sample types were assessed in vitro by bioluminescence assay using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and by two bacterial bioassays i) Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium His(-) and ii) SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. Screening of organic composition revealed a high variety of organic compounds present in the initial brake pads and also in the generated non-airborne wear debris. Several detected compounds are classified by IARC as possibly carcinogenic to humans, e. g. benzene derivatives. Acute toxicity bioassay revealed a response of bacterial cells after exposure to all samples used. Phenolic resin and wear debris were found to be acutely toxic; however in term of mutagenicity the response was negative. All non-friction exposed brake pad samples (a model pad and two commercial pad samples) were mutagenic with metabolic activation in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.05.003DOI Listing
September 2016

Automotive airborne brake wear debris nanoparticles and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes: A pilot study.

Environ Res 2016 07 29;148:443-449. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

Health Effects Laboratory, Department of Environmental Chemistry, NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Instituttveien 18, 2007 Kjeller, Norway.

Motor vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust processes play a significant role in environmental pollution, as they are a source of the finest particulate matter. Emissions from non-exhaust processes include wear-products of brakes, tires, automotive hardware, road surface, and traffic signs, but still are paid little attention to. Automotive friction composites for brake pads are composite materials which may consist of potentially hazardous materials and there is a lack of information regarding the potential influence of the brake wear debris (BWD) on the environment, especially on human health. Thus, we focused our study on the genotoxicity of the airborne fraction of BWD using a brake pad model representing an average low-metallic formulation available in the EU market. BWD was generated in the laboratory by a full-scale brake dynamometer and characterized by Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy showing that it contains nano-sized crystalline metal-based particles. Genotoxicity tested in human lymphocytes in different testing conditions showed an increase in frequencies of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBNCs) exposed for 48h to BWD nanoparticles (NPs) (with 10% of foetal calf serum in culture medium) compared with lymphocytes exposed to medium alone, statistically significant only at the concentration 3µg/cm(2) (p=0.032).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.04.022DOI Listing
July 2016

Oxidative stress markers are elevated in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles during iron oxide pigment production.

J Breath Res 2016 Feb 1;10(1):016004. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Department of Occupational Medicine, Na Bojišti 1, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine samples of 14 workers (mean age 43  ±  7 years) exposed to iron oxide aerosol for an average of 10  ±  4 years and 14 controls (mean age 39  ±  4 years) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) after solid-phase extraction. Aerosol exposure in the workplace was measured by particle size spectrometers, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), and by aerosol concentration monitors, P-TRAK and DustTRAK DRX. Total aerosol concentrations in workplace locations varied greatly in both time and space. The median mass concentration was 0.083 mg m(-3) (IQR 0.063-0.133 mg m(-3)) and the median particle concentration was 66 800 particles cm(-3) (IQR 16,900-86,900 particles cm(-3)). In addition, more than 80% of particles were smaller than 100 nm in diameter. Markers of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenale (HHE), 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenale (HNE), 8-isoProstaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and aldehydes C6-C12, in addition to markers of nucleic acid oxidation, including 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), 5-hydroxymethyl uracil (5-OHMeU), and of proteins, such as o-tyrosine (o-Tyr), 3-chlorotyrosine (3-ClTyr), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NOTyr) were analysed in EBC and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Almost all markers of lipid, nucleic acid and protein oxidation were elevated in the EBC of workers comparing with control subjects. Elevated markers were MDA, HNE, HHE, C6-C10, 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, 8-OHG, 5-OHMeU, 3-ClTyr, 3-NOTyr, o-Tyr (all p  <  0.001), and C11 (p  <  0.05). Only aldehyde C12 and the pH of samples did not differ between groups. Markers in urine were not elevated. These findings suggest the adverse effects of nano iron oxide aerosol exposure and support the utility of oxidative stress biomarkers in EBC. The analysis of urine oxidative stress biomarkers does not support the presence of systemic oxidative stress in iron oxide pigment production workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/10/1/016004DOI Listing
February 2016

ZnO/graphite composites and its antibacterial activity at different conditions.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Oct 22;151:256-63. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic; Regional Materials Science and Technology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.

The paper reports laboratory preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphite nanocomposites. Zinc chloride and sodium carbonate served as precursors for synthesis of zinc oxide, while micromilled and natural graphite were used as the matrix for ZnO nanoparticles anchoring. During the reaction of ZnCl2 with saturated aqueous solution of Na2CO3a new compound is created. During the calcination at the temperature of 500 °C this new precursors decomposes and ZnO nanoparticles are formed. Composites ZnO/graphite with 50 wt.% of ZnO particles were prepared. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman microspectroscopy served as phase-analytical methods. Scanning electron microscopy technique was used for morphology characterization of the prepared samples and EDS mapping for visualization of elemental distribution. A developed modification of the standard microdilution test was used for in vitro evaluation of daylight induced antibacterial activity and antibacterial activity at dark conditions. Common human pathogens served as microorganism for antibacterial assay. Antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphite composites could be based on photocatalytic reaction; however there is a role of Zn(2+) ions on the resulting antibacterial activity which proved the experiments in dark condition. There is synergistic effect between Zn(2+) caused and reactive oxygen species caused antibacterial activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.08.017DOI Listing
October 2015

Raman microspectroscopy of exhaled breath condensate and urine in workers exposed to fine and nano TiO2 particles: a cross-sectional study.

J Breath Res 2015 Jul 14;9(3):036008. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Department of Occupational Medicine, Na Bojisti 1, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

The health effects of engineered nanoparticles in humans are not well-understood; however experimental data support the theory of oxidative stress promoting fibrogenesis and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to detect TiO2 particles in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine samples to ascertain their presence and potential persistence and excretion in urine.EBC and urine samples were collected from 20 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol; among them, 16 had a higher risk level of exposure (production workers) and four had medium risk level (research workers); in addition to 20 controls. Titanium levels in EBC and urine were analysed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. A Raman microspectroscopic analysis was performed in EBC and urine to identify the phase composition of TiO2 particles observed. Aerosol exposure in the workplaces was measured using SMPS and APS spectrometers and P-TRAK and DustTRAK DRX monitors.The median concentration of TiO2 aerosol was 1.98 × 10(4) particles cm(-3), the interquartile range (IQR) was 1.50 × 10(4) - 3.01 × 10(4) particles cm(-3) and the median mass concentration was 0.65 mg m(-3) (IQR 0.46-.0.83 mg m(-3)); 70-82% of the particles were smaller than 100 nm in diameter. In any part of the plant, the median TiO2 air concentration did not exceed the national airborne exposure limit of 10 mg m(-3) for inert dust. Particles of rutile and/or anatase were found in the EBC of exposed workers in 8/20 (40%) of the pre-shift and 14/20 (70%) of the post-shift samples. In the urine of workers, TiO2 particles were detected in 2/20 post-shift urine samples only. The mean concentration of titanium in the EBC in production workers was 24.1 ± 1.8 µg/l. In the research workers the values were below the limit of quantitation; LOQ = 4.0 ± 0.2 µg/l), as well as in the controls. In the urine samples of all of the subjects, titanium was under the limit of detection (LOD = 1.2 µg/l). Raman microanalysis of EBC in the workers confirmed the presence of TiO2 anatase and/or rutile crystal phases in the pre-shift samples and their persistence from previous shifts in the workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/9/3/036008DOI Listing
July 2015

Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study.

Biomed Res Int 2015 1;2015:505986. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Ostrava, 17. Listopadu 1790, 708 52 Ostrava, Czech Republic ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Syllabova 19, 703 00 Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Objective: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa.

Methods: Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history.

Results: In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition.

Conclusions: This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/505986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4466340PMC
March 2016

Nanostructured composite material graphite/TiO2 and its antibacterial activity under visible light irradiation.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Aug 19;149:265-71. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic; Regional Materials Science and Technology Centre, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.

The paper addresses laboratory preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of graphite/TiO2 nanocomposites. Composites graphite/TiO2 with various ratio of TiO2 nanoparticles (30wt.%, and 50wt.%) to graphite were prepared using a thermal hydrolysis of titanylsulfate in the presence of graphite particles, and subsequently dried at 80°C. X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy served as phase-analytical methods distinguishing anatase and rutile phases in the prepared composites. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for characterization of morphology of the prepared samples. A developed modification of the standard microdilution test was used for in vitro evaluation of daylight induced antibacterial activity, using four common human pathogenic bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Antibacterial activity of the graphite/TiO2 nanocomposites could be based mainly on photocatalytic reaction with subsequent potential interaction of reactive oxygen species with bacterial cells. During the antibacterial activity experiments, the graphite/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited antibacterial activity, where differences in the onset of activity and activity against bacterial strains were observed. The highest antibacterial activity evaluated as minimum inhibitory concentration was observed against P. aeruginosa after 180min of irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.06.018DOI Listing
August 2015

Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties of ZnO/kaoline nanocomposites.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Jul 13;148:113-117. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.

This paper describes laboratory preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity testing of ZnO/kaoline composites. ZnO/kaoline composites with 50 wt.% of ZnO were laboratory prepared, dried at 105 °C and calcined at 500 °C. XRPD analysis revealed that thermal treatment caused the phase transformation of Zn containing precursor into ZnO. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used for characterization of morphology of the prepared samples. A standard microdilution test was used for evaluation of antibacterial activity using four common human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Daylight was used for induction photocatalytically based antibacterial activity. Second possible explanation of antibacterial activity of ZnO/kaoline could be the presence of biologically available forms of zinc. During the antibacterial activity assays the ZnO/kaoline composites exhibited antibacterial activity, where differences in an onset of the antibacterial activity and activity against bacterial strains were observed. The highest antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus, where the lowest value of minimum inhibitory concentration was determined equal to 0.41 mg/ml.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.03.034DOI Listing
July 2015

Iron-based granules in body of bumblebees.

Biometals 2015 Feb 28;28(1):89-99. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

IT4Innovations Centre and Institute of Physics, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33, Ostrava, Czech Republic,

The paper deals with the presence of iron-based granules in body parts of bumblebees. Two groups of bumblebees were collected from their natural habitat, industrial landscape, and from a breeding station. Detection of the magnetic particles was performed by a vibratory magnetometer and their morphology and elemental composition was analysed by scanning electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis. By means of the EDX spectra, wild bumblebees were found to have many magnetic and non-magnetic particles on their body, containing Fe, O, Al, Si, Bi, Mg, K, and Ni, likely having origin in the industrial pollution of the environment. In the case of bred bumblebees the presence of iron-rich granules, which occurred more abundantly in subsurface tissues on the head and wings, was observed. Phase analysis based on X-ray diffraction shows that iron-based granules contain magnetite and wuestite and Mössbauer spectroscopy admits a superparamagnetic form of these minerals. Magnetoreception, i.e. the sensory function of these granules, is discussed within the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-014-9805-9DOI Listing
February 2015

Antibacterial activity of kaolinite/nanoTiO2 composites in relation to irradiation time.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2014 Jun 18;135:17-22. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Poruba, Czech Republic.

The paper addresses laboratory preparation and antibacterial activity testing of kaolinite/nanoTiO2 composite in respect of the daylight irradiation time. Kaolinite/nanoTiO2 composites with 20 and 40 wt% of TiO2 were laboratory prepared, dried at 105 °C and calcined at 600 °C. The calcination caused transformation of kaolinite to metakaolinite and origination of the metakaolinite/nanoTiO2 composite. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman and FTIR spectroscopic methods revealed titanium dioxide only in the form of anatase in all evaluated samples (non-calcined and calcined) and also transformation of kaolinite to metakaolinite after the calcination treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used as a method for characterization of morphology and elemental composition of the studied samples. A standard microdilution test was used to determine the antibacterial activity using four human pathogenic bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A lamp with a wide spectrum bulb simulating daylight was used for induction of photocatalysis. The antibacterial assays found all the KATI samples to have antibacterial potency with different onset of the activity when calcined samples exhibited antibacterial activity earlier than the non-calcined. Significant difference in antibacterial activity of KATI samples for different bacterial strains was not observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.04.004DOI Listing
June 2014

Detection of nano- and micro-sized particles in routine biopsy material - pilot study.

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 2015 Mar 10;159(1):87-92. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Syllabova 19, 703 00 Ostrava, Czech RepublicbFaculty Hospital Ostrava, 17.listopadu 1790, 708 52 Ostrava cNanotechnology Center, VSB - Technical University Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava.

Background: Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison.

Methods: . Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material.

Results: Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 µm. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure.

Conclusions: The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5507/bp.2012.104DOI Listing
March 2015

Possible role of nano-sized particles in chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar carcinoma: a pilot study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Feb 8;270(2):705-9. Epub 2012 Jun 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital Ostrava, 17. Listopadu 1790, 708 52 Ostrava, Czech Republic.

This study aimed to evaluate the palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillitis and spinocellular carcinoma to determine the presence of nano-sized particles. Tonsil samples from adult patients with chronic tonsillitis and spinocellular carcinoma of the palatine tonsil were dried and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with the X-ray microprobe of an energy-dispersive spectroscope. Demographic data and smoking histories were obtained. The principal metals found in almost all tissues analyzed were iron, chromium, nickel, aluminum, zinc, and copper. No significant difference in elemental composition was found between the group of patients with chronic tonsillitis and the group with spinocellular carcinoma of the palatine tonsil. Likewise, no significant difference was found between the group of smokers and the group of nonsmokers. The presence of various micro- and nano-sized metallic particles in human tonsils was confirmed. These particles may potentially cause an inflammatory response as well as neoplastic changes in human palatine tonsils similar to those occurring in the lungs. Further and more detailed studies addressing this issue, including studies designed to determine the chemical form of the metals detected, studies devoted to quantitative analysis, biokinetics, and to the degradation and elimination of nanoparticles are needed for a more detailed prediction of the relation between the diagnosis and the presence of specific metal nanoparticles in tonsillar tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-012-2069-5DOI Listing
February 2013

On airborne nano/micro-sized wear particles released from low-metallic automotive brakes.

Environ Pollut 2011 Apr 17;159(4):998-1006. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Technical University Ostrava, Nanotechnology Center, Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.

The paper addresses the wear particles released from commercially available "low-metallic" automotive brake pads subjected to brake dynamometer tests. Particle size distribution was measured in situ and the generated particles were collected. The collected fractions and the original bulk material were analyzed using several chemical and microscopic techniques. The experiments demonstrated that airborne wear particles with sizes between 10 nm and 20 μm were released into the air. The numbers of nanoparticles (< 100 nm) were by three orders of magnitude larger when compared to the microparticles. A significant release of nanoparticles was measured when the average temperature of the rotor reached 300°C, the combustion initiation temperature of organics present in brakes. In contrast to particle size distribution data, the microscopic analysis revealed the presence of nanoparticles, mostly in the form of agglomerates, in all captured fractions. The majority of elements present in the bulk material were also detected in the ultra-fine fraction of the wear particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.11.036DOI Listing
April 2011