Publications by authors named "Jan-Willem R Pott"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of upper blepharoplasty, with or without orbicularis oculi muscle removal, on tear film dynamics and dry eye symptoms: A randomized controlled trial.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Upper blepharoplasty may be related to dry eye symptoms since the function of the orbicularis oculi muscle may affect the tear film. We aimed to assess the effect of blepharoplasty with or without the removal of a strip of orbicularis oculi muscle on tear film dynamics and dry eye symptoms.

Methods: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing upper blepharoplasty without (group A) or with (group B) orbicularis oculi muscle excision was performed on 54 healthy Caucasian patients. Tear film dynamics and dry eye symptoms were evaluated using multiple dry eye parameters, i.e. tear osmolarity, Schirmer test I, corneal/conjunctival staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), Oxford Scheme, Sicca Ocular Staining Score and Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. All the parameters were assessed preoperatively and 6 and 12 months after upper blepharoplasty. All the groups' outcomes were compared.

Results: The differences were not significant between the two upper blepharoplasty techniques regarding most of the above-mentioned outcomes. Subjective symptoms of ocular irritation, consistent with dry eye disease and vision-related impairment, were reduced after upper blepharoplasty independent of the type of the technique applied, while the pre and postoperative outcomes of the objective tear dynamics did not differ 12 months after surgery. However, group B demonstrated a significant increase in tear osmolarity and TBUT at the 6-month follow-up visit.

Conclusion: An upper blepharoplasty alleviates subjective dry eye complaints in the long term, while not changing the tear dynamics. The improvement was independent of the blepharoplasty technique used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.15036DOI Listing
October 2021

Stargardt disease: monitoring incidence and diagnostic trends in the Netherlands using a nationwide disease registry.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To assess the incidence of Stargardt disease (STGD1) and to evaluate demographics of incident cases.

Methods: For this retrospective cohort study, demographic, clinical and genetic data of patients with a clinical diagnosis of STGD1 were registered between September 2010 and January 2020 in a nationwide disease registry. Annual incidence (2014-2018) and point prevalence (2018) were assessed on the basis of this registry.

Results: A total of 800 patients were registered, 56% were female and 83% were of European ancestry. The incidence was 1.67-1.95:1,000,000 per year and the point prevalence in 2018 was approximately 1:22,000-1:19,000 (with and without 10% of potentially unregistered cases). Age at onset was associated with sex (p = 0.027, Fisher's exact); 1.9x more women than men were observed (140 versus 74) amongst patients with an age at onset between 10 and 19 years, while the sex ratio in other age-at-onset categories approximated one. Late-onset STGD1 (≥45 years) constituted 33% of the diagnoses in 2014-2018 compared to 19% in 2004-2008. Diagnostic delay (≥2 years between the first documentation of macular abnormalities and diagnosis) was associated with older age of onset (p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney). Misdiagnosis for age-related macular degeneration (22%) and incidental STGD1 findings (14%) was common in patients with late-onset STGD1.

Conclusion: The observed prevalence of STGD1 in real-world data was lower than expected on the basis of population ABCA4 allele frequencies. Late-onset STGD1 was more frequently diagnosed in recent years, likely due to higher awareness of its phenotype. In this pretherapeutic era, mis- and underdiagnosis of especially late-onset STGD1 and the role of sex in STGD1 should receive special attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14996DOI Listing
August 2021

Recognizing differentiating clinical signs of CLN3 disease (Batten disease) at presentation.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 18;99(4):397-404. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Bartiméus Diagnostic Center for Complex Visual Disorders, Zeist, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To help differentiate CLN3 (Batten) disease, a devastating childhood metabolic disorder, from the similarly presenting early-onset Stargardt disease (STGD1). Early clinical identification of children with CLN3 disease is essential for adequate referral, counselling and rehabilitation.

Methods: Medical chart review of 38 children who were referred to a specialized ophthalmological centre because of rapid vision loss. The patients were subsequently diagnosed with either CLN3 disease (18 patients) or early-onset STGD1 (20 patients).

Results: Both children who were later diagnosed with CLN3 disease, as children who were later diagnosed with early-onset STGD1, initially presented with visual acuity (VA) loss due to macular dystrophy at 5-10 years of age. VA in CLN3 disease decreased significantly faster than in STGD1 (p = 0.01). Colour vision was often already severely affected in CLN3 disease while unaffected or only mildly affected in STGD1. Optic disc pallor on fundoscopy and an abnormal nerve fibre layer on optical coherence tomography were common in CLN3 disease compared to generally unaffected in STGD1. In CLN3 disease, dark-adapted (DA) full-field electroretinogram (ERG) responses were either absent or electronegative. In early-onset STGD1, DA ERG responses were generally unaffected. None of the STGD1 patients had an electronegative ERG.

Conclusion: Already upon presentation at the ophthalmologist, the retina in CLN3 disease is more extensively and more severely affected compared to the retina in early-onset STGD1. This results in more rapid VA loss, severe colour vision abnormalities and abnormal DA ERG responses as the main differentiating early clinical features of CLN3 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8359263PMC
June 2021

Late-Onset Stargardt Disease Due to Mild, Deep-Intronic ABCA4 Alleles.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 10;60(13):4249-4256

Department of Ophthalmology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To investigate the role of two deep-intronic ABCA4 variants, that showed a mild splice defect in vitro and can occur on the same allele as the low penetrant c.5603A>T, in Stargardt disease (STGD1).

Methods: Ophthalmic data were assessed of 18 STGD1 patients who harbored c.769-784C>T or c.4253+43G>A in combination with a severe ABCA4 variant. Subjects carrying c.[769-784C>T; 5603A>T] were clinically compared with a STGD1 cohort previously published carrying c.5603A>T noncomplex. We calculated the penetrances of the intronic variants using ABCA4 allele frequency data of the general population and investigated the effect of c.769-784C>T on splicing in photoreceptor progenitor cells (PPCs).

Results: Mostly, late-onset, foveal-sparing STGD1 was observed among subjects harboring c.769-784C>T or c.4253+43G>A (median age of onset, 54.5 and 52.0 years, respectively). However, ages of onset, phenotypes in fundo, and visual acuity courses varied widely. No significant clinical differences were observed between the c.[769-784C>T; 5603A>T] cohort and the c.4253+43G>A or the c.5603A>T cohort. The penetrances of c.769-784C>T (20.5%-39.6%) and c.4253+43G>A (35.8%-43.1%) were reduced, when not considering the effect of yet unidentified or known factors in cis, such as c.5603A>T (identified in 7/7 probands with c.769-784C>T; 1/8 probands with c.4253+43G>A). Variant c.769-784C>T resulted in a pseudo-exon insertion in 15% of the total mRNA (i.e., ∼30% of the c.769-784C>T allele alone).

Conclusions: Two mild intronic ABCA4 variants could further explain missing heritability in late-onset STGD1, distinguishing it from AMD. The observed clinical variability and calculated reduced penetrance urge research into modifiers within and outside of the ABCA4 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.19-27524DOI Listing
October 2019

Deep-intronic ABCA4 variants explain missing heritability in Stargardt disease and allow correction of splice defects by antisense oligonucleotides.

Genet Med 2019 08 15;21(8):1751-1760. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Using exome sequencing, the underlying variants in many persons with autosomal recessive diseases remain undetected. We explored autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) as a model to identify the missing heritability.

Methods: Sequencing of ABCA4 was performed in 8 STGD1 cases with one variant and p.Asn1868Ile in trans, 25 cases with one variant, and 3 cases with no ABCA4 variant. The effect of intronic variants was analyzed using in vitro splice assays in HEK293T cells and patient-derived fibroblasts. Antisense oligonucleotides were used to correct splice defects.

Results: In 24 of the probands (67%), one known and five novel deep-intronic variants were found. The five novel variants resulted in messenger RNA pseudoexon inclusions, due to strengthening of cryptic splice sites or by disrupting a splicing silencer motif. Variant c.769-784C>T showed partial insertion of a pseudoexon and was found in cis with c.5603A>T (p.Asn1868Ile), so its causal role could not be fully established. Variant c.4253+43G>A resulted in partial skipping of exon 28. Remarkably, antisense oligonucleotides targeting the aberrant splice processes resulted in (partial) correction of all splicing defects.

Conclusion: Our data demonstrate the importance of assessing noncoding variants in genetic diseases, and show the great potential of splice modulation therapy for deep-intronic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0414-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752325PMC
August 2019

Clinical Characterization of 66 Patients With Congenital Retinal Disease Due to the Deep-Intronic c.2991+1655A>G Mutation in CEP290.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 09;59(11):4384-4391

Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To describe the phenotypic spectrum of retinal disease caused by the c.2991+1655A>G mutation in CEP290 and to compare disease severity between homozygous and compound heterozygous patients.

Methods: Medical records were reviewed for best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), age of onset, fundoscopy descriptions. Foveal outer nuclear layer (ONL) and ellipsoid zone (EZ) presence was assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Differences between compound heterozygous and homozygous patients were analyzed based on visual performance and visual development.

Results: A total of 66 patients were included. The majority of patients had either light perception or no light perception. In the remaining group of 14 patients, median BCVA was 20/195 Snellen (0.99 LogMAR; range 0.12-1.90) for the right eye, and 20/148 Snellen (0.87 LogMAR; range 0.22-1.90) for the left. Homozygous patients tended to be more likely to develop light perception compared to more severely affected compound heterozygous patients (P = 0.080) and are more likely to improve from no light perception to light perception (P = 0.022) before the age of 6 years. OCT data were available in 12 patients, 11 of whom had retained foveal ONL and EZ integrity up to 48 years (median 23 years) of age.

Conclusions: Homozygous patients seem less severely affected compared to their compound-heterozygous peers. Improvement of visual function may occur in the early years of life, suggesting a time window for therapeutic intervention up to the approximate age of 17 years. This period may be extended by an intact foveal ONL and EZ on OCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-24817DOI Listing
September 2018

The Common ABCA4 Variant p.Asn1868Ile Shows Nonpenetrance and Variable Expression of Stargardt Disease When Present in trans With Severe Variants.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 07;59(8):3220-3231

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To assess the occurrence and the disease expression of the common p.Asn1868Ile variant in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD1) harboring known, monoallelic causal ABCA4 variants.

Methods: The coding and noncoding regions of ABCA4 were sequenced in 67 and 63 STGD1 probands respectively, harboring monoallelic ABCA4 variants. In case p.Asn1868Ile was detected, segregation analysis was performed whenever possible. Probands and affected siblings harboring p.Asn1868Ile without additional variants in cis were clinically evaluated retrospectively. Two asymptomatic siblings carrying the same ABCA4 variants as their probands were clinically examined. The penetrance of p.Asn1868Ile was calculated using allele frequency data of ABCA4 variants in non-Finnish European individuals.

Results: The p.Asn1868Ile variant was found in cis with known variants in 14/67 probands. In 27/67 probands, we identified p.Asn1868Ile without additional variants in cis, in combination with known, mainly severe ABCA4 variants. In 23/27 probands, the trans configuration was established. Among 27 probands and 6/7 STGD1 siblings carrying p.Asn1868Ile, 42% manifested late-onset disease (>44 years). We additionally identified four asymptomatic relatives carrying a combination of a severe variant and p.Asn1868Ile; ophthalmologic examination in two persons did not reveal STGD1. Based on ABCA4 allele frequency data, we conservatively estimated the penetrance of p.Asn1868Ile, when present in trans with a severe variant, to be below 5%.

Conclusions: A significant fraction of genetically unexplained STGD1 cases carries p.Asn1868Ile as a second variant. Our findings suggest exceptional differences in disease expression or even nonpenetrance of this ABCA4 variant, pointing toward an important role for genetic or environmental modifiers in STGD1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.18-23881DOI Listing
July 2018

International Consensus Statement on the Clinical and Therapeutic Management of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

J Neuroophthalmol 2017 12;37(4):371-381

IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna (VC, MC, CLM), Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy; Unit of Neurology (VC, CLM), Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Department of Neurology (IFdC), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit (AK), University of Lausanne, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland; Department of Neurology (TK), Friedreich-Baur-Institute, Ludwing-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy) (TK), Munich, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) (TK), Munich, Germany; Eye Center (WAL), Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Breisgau, Germany; Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology and Neurological Surgery (NJN), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Ophthalmology (CO); Referral Center for Rare Diseases OPHTARA, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; Department of Ophthalmology (JWRP), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; Doheny Eye Institute (AAS), Los Angeles, California; Department of Ophthalmology (AAS), David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California; Department of Neuro-ophthalmology (JvE), The Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Rotterdam Ophthalmic Institute (ROI) (JvE), Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild (CV-C), Paris, France; School of Optometry and Vision Sciences (MV), Cardiff University, and Cardiff Eye Clinic, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom; Wellcome Trust Center for Mitochondrial Research (PY-W-M), Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom; Newcastle Eye Center (PY-W-M), Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom; NIHR Biomedical Research Center at Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology (PY-W-M), London, United Kingdom; Department of Clinical Neurosciences (PY-W-M), School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Ophthalmology (PB), San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; and Studio Oculistico d'Azeglio (PB), Bologna, Italy.

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is currently estimated as the most frequent mitochondrial disease (1 in 27,000-45,000). Its molecular pathogenesis and natural history is now fairly well understood. LHON also is the first mitochondrial disease for which a treatment has been approved (idebenone-Raxone, Santhera Pharmaceuticals) by the European Medicine Agency, under exceptional circumstances because of the rarity and severity of the disease. However, what remains unclear includes the optimal target population, timing, dose, and frequency of administration of idebenone in LHON due to lack of accepted definitions, criteria, and general guidelines for the clinical management of LHON. To address these issues, a consensus conference with a panel of experts from Europe and North America was held in Milan, Italy, in 2016. The intent was to provide expert consensus statements for the clinical and therapeutic management of LHON based on the currently available evidence. We report the conclusions of this conference, providing the guidelines for clinical and therapeutic management of LHON.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000000570DOI Listing
December 2017

De novo intrachromosomal gene conversion from OPN1MW to OPN1LW in the male germline results in Blue Cone Monochromacy.

Sci Rep 2016 06 24;6:28253. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Centre for Ophthalmology, Tuebingen, Germany.

X-linked cone dysfunction disorders such as Blue Cone Monochromacy and X-linked Cone Dystrophy are characterized by complete loss (of) or reduced L- and M- cone function due to defects in the OPN1LW/OPN1MW gene cluster. Here we investigated 24 affected males from 16 families with either a structurally intact gene cluster or at least one intact single (hybrid) gene but harbouring rare combinations of common SNPs in exon 3 in single or multiple OPN1LW and OPN1MW gene copies. We assessed twelve different OPN1LW/MW exon 3 haplotypes by semi-quantitative minigene splicing assay. Nine haplotypes resulted in aberrant splicing of ≥20% of transcripts including the known pathogenic haplotypes (i.e. 'LIAVA', 'LVAVA') with absent or minute amounts of correctly spliced transcripts, respectively. De novo formation of the 'LIAVA' haplotype derived from an ancestral less deleterious 'LIAVS' haplotype was observed in one family with strikingly different phenotypes among affected family members. We could establish intrachromosomal gene conversion in the male germline as underlying mechanism. Gene conversion in the OPN1LW/OPN1MW genes has been postulated, however, we are first to demonstrate a de novo gene conversion within the lineage of a pedigree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep28253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4919619PMC
June 2016

A Nonsense Mutation in FAM161A Is a Recurrent Founder Allele in Dutch and Belgian Individuals With Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015 Nov;56(12):7418-26

The Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To identify mutations in FAM161A underlying autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in the Dutch and Belgian populations and to investigate whether common FAM161A-associated phenotypic features could be identified.

Methods: Homozygosity mapping, amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis, and Sanger sequencing were performed to identify mutations in FAM161A. Microsatellite and SNP markers were genotyped for haplotype analysis. Patients with biallelic mutations underwent detailed ophthalmologic examinations, including measuring best-corrected visual acuity, extensive fundus photography with reflectance and autofluorescence imaging, and optical coherence tomography.

Results: Homozygosity mapping in 230 Dutch individuals with suspected arRP yielded five individuals with a homozygous region harboring FAM161A. Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1309A>T; p.[Arg437*]) in one individual. Subsequent ARMS analysis and Sanger sequencing in Dutch and Belgian arRP patients resulted in the identification of seven additional individuals carrying the p.(Arg437*) mutation, either homozygously or compound heterozygously with another mutation. Haplotype analysis identified a shared haplotype block of 409 kb surrounding the p.(Arg437*) mutation in all patients, suggesting a founder effect. Although the age of onset was variable among patients, all eight developed pronounced outer retinal loss with severe visual field defects and a bull's eye-like maculopathy, followed by loss of central vision within 2 decades after the initial diagnosis in five subjects.

Conclusions: A founder mutation in FAM161A p.(Arg437*) underlies approximately 2% of arRP cases in the Dutch and Belgian populations. The age of onset of the retinal dystrophy appears variable, but progression can be steep, with almost complete loss of central vision later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.15-17920DOI Listing
November 2015

Methylmalonic acid and homocysteine assessment in the detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with bilateral visual loss - authors' reply.

Acta Ophthalmol 2014 Feb 31;92(1):e75-6. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.12169DOI Listing
February 2014

Novel membrane frizzled-related protein gene mutation as cause of posterior microphthalmia resulting in high hyperopia with macular folds.

Acta Ophthalmol 2014 May 7;92(3):276-81. Epub 2013 Jun 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The NetherlandsDepartment of Clinical Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The NetherlandsDepartment of Biomedical Sciences Center of Excellence for Neuroscience, Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas, USA.

Purpose: We present a genetic and clinical analysis of two sisters, 3 and 4 years of age, with nanophthalmos and macular folds.

Methods: Ophthalmological examination, general paediatric examination and molecular genetic analysis of the MFRP gene were performed in both affected siblings.

Results: Clinical analysis showed high hyperopia (+11 D and +12 D), short axial lengths (15 mm) and the presence of macular folds and optic nerve head drusen. Autofluorescence of the retina was generally normal with subtle macular abnormalities. Sequence analysis showed compound heterozygosity for severe MFRP mutations in both sisters: a previously reported p.Asn167fs (c.498dupC) and a novel stop codon mutation p.Gln91X (c.271C>T).

Conclusion: These are the youngest nanophthalmos patients in the literature identified with severe loss of MFRP function, showing already the known structural abnormalities for this disease. Adult patients affected by homozygous or compound heterozygous MFRP mutations generally show signs of retinal dystrophy, with ERG disturbances and RPE abnormalities on autofluorescence imaging. ERG examination could not be performed in these children, but extensive RPE abnormalities were not seen at this young age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.12105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3773268PMC
May 2014

Detection of vitamin B12 deficiency in alcohol abuse.

Acta Ophthalmol 2014 Feb 11;92(1):e76-7. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.12076DOI Listing
February 2014

Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290.

Mol Vis 2012 10;18:412-25. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

The Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA).

Methods: Eighteen patients with LCA from 14 families with mutations in the CEP290 gene were identified with sequencing or with heteroduplex analysis. Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all patients. Scans of the central nervous system were reassessed in three patients and obtained in two. Renal function was evaluated in all patients. Ultrasonography of the kidneys was performed in six patients.

Results: Eight patients (from five families) carried the c.2991+1655A>G mutation homozygously. Nine solitary patients carried this variant combined with a nonsense, frameshift, or splice site mutation on the second allele. One new nonsense mutation was identified: c.1078C>T. Fourteen patients (from 12 families) had been completely blind from birth or had light perception. The best-recorded visual acuity was 20/200. Peripheral fundus changes appeared to be progressive with a relatively preserved posterior pole. Novel ophthalmic features for the CEP290 phenotype were Coats-like exudative vasculopathy in two patients, a small chorioretinal coloboma in one patient, and well defined, small, atrophic spots at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium causing a dot-like appearance in five patients. Some CEP290 patients exhibited systemic abnormalities. We found abnormal proprioception in two patients and mild mental retardation in one. One patient was infertile due to immobile spermatozoa. No renal abnormalities were detected.

Conclusions: CEP290-associated LCA has a severe, progressive, and clinically identifiable phenotype. Distinct extra-ocular findings were noted, which may be attributed to ciliary dysfunction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3283211PMC
April 2012

Clinical course, genetic etiology, and visual outcome in cone and cone-rod dystrophy.

Ophthalmology 2012 Apr 20;119(4):819-26. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical course, genetic etiology, and visual prognosis in patients with cone dystrophy (CD) and cone-rod dystrophy (CRD).

Design: Clinic-based, longitudinal, multicenter study.

Participants: Consecutive probands with CD (N = 98), CRD (N = 83), and affected relatives (N = 41 and N = 17, respectively) from various ophthalmogenetic clinics in The Netherlands, Belgium, and the United Kingdom.

Methods: Data on best-corrected Snellen visual acuity, color vision, ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, Goldmann perimetry, and full-field standard electroretinogram (ERG) from all patients were registered from medical charts over a mean follow-up of 19 years. The ABCA4, CNGB3, KCNV2, PDE6C, and RPGR genes were analyzed by direct sequencing in autosomal recessive (AR) and X-linked (XL), respectively. Genotyping was not undertaken for autosomal-dominant cases.

Main Outcome Measures: The 10-year progression of all clinical parameters and cumulative lifetime risk of low vision and legal blindness were assessed.

Results: The mean age onset for CD was 16 years (standard deviation, 11), and of CRD 12 years (standard deviation, 11; P = 0.02). The pattern of inheritance was AR in 92% of CD and 90% of CRD. Ten years after diagnosis, 35% of CD and 51% of CRD had a bull's eye maculopathy; 70% of CRD showed absolute peripheral visual field defects and 37% of CD developed rod involvement on ERG. The mean age of legal blindness was 48 (standard error [SE], 3.1) years in CD, and 35 (SE, 1.1; P<0.001) years in CRD. ABCA4 mutations were found in 8 of 90 (9%) of AR-CD, and in 17 of 65 (26%) of AR-CRD. Other mutations were detected in CNGB3 (3/90; 3%), KCNV2 (4/90; 4%), and in PDE6C (1/90; 1%). The RPGR gene was mutated in the 2 XL-CD and in 4 of 5 (80%) of XL-CRD. ABCA4 mutations as well as age of onset <20 years were significantly associated with a faster progression to legal blindness (P<0.001).

Conclusions: Although CD had a slightly more favorable clinical course than CRD, both disorders progressed to legal blindness in the majority of patients. Mutations in the ABCA4 gene and early onset of disease were independent prognostic parameters for visual loss. Our data may serve as an aid in counseling patients with progressive cone disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.10.011DOI Listing
April 2012

A novel nonsense mutation in CEP290 induces exon skipping and leads to a relatively mild retinal phenotype.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010 Jul 3;51(7):3646-52. Epub 2010 Feb 3.

Rotterdam Eye Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

PURPOSE. To identify the genetic defect in a family with variable retinal phenotypes. The proband had a diagnosis of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), whereas her two cousins had an early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD) with useful vision. A distant family member had retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS. DNA samples of the affected family members were genotyped with 250 K genome-wide SNP microarrays. Genetic defects were localized by linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping, and candidate genes were analyzed by sequencing. Patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination. RESULTS. Compound heterozygous mutations in CEP290 were identified in the proband and her two cousins: the frequent c.2991+1655A>G founder mutation and a novel nonsense mutation in exon 7 (c.451C>T, p.Arg151X). The proband had nystagmus, hyperopia, a flat electroretinogram (ERG), and decreased visual acuity (20/250) from birth. The two cousins had minimal scotopic ERG responses at the age of 2. In one of these patients, visual acuity had reached a level of 20/32 at age 5, which is high for patients with CEP290 mutations. Analysis of the CEP290 mRNA in affected individuals revealed altered splice forms in which either exon 7 or exons 7 and 8 were skipped. In both mutant cDNA products, the open reading frame was not disrupted. Furthermore, homozygosity mapping and mutation analysis in the distant family member affected by RP revealed a homozygous mutation in MERTK, but no CEP290 mutations. This MERTK mutation was heterozygously present in the most severely affected (LCA) patient, but was absent in the two more mildly affected cousins. CONCLUSIONS. A novel nonsense mutation in CEP290 results in nonsense-associated altered splicing. That the remaining open reading frame is intact may explain the less severe phenotype observed in the two affected cousins. The additional heterozygous mutation in MERTK may clarify the more severe phenotype in the proband. This study extends the phenotypic spectrum of CEP290-associated diseases at the mild end.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.09-5074DOI Listing
July 2010

Six patients with bradyopsia (slow vision): clinical features and course of the disease.

Ophthalmology 2007 Dec 12;114(12):2323-31. Epub 2007 Sep 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Objective: Recently, it was discovered that subjects who showed a prolonged response suppression on their electroretinogram (ERG) and had symptoms of photophobia, problems adjusting to bright light, and difficulties seeing moving objects shared a mutation in the RGS9 (regulator of G-protein signaling 9) gene that is involved in the deactivation of photoreceptor responses. The disorder was termed bradyopsia (slow vision). This paper reports the clinical presentation and long-term follow-up of 6 bradyopsia patients.

Design: Retrospective observational case series with a follow-up ranging from 6 to 30 years.

Participants: Six patients with a homozygous mutation in the RGS9 gene.

Methods: Clinical symptoms and signs were compared between the subjects and between their visits over time.

Main Outcome Measures: Symptoms, visual acuity (VA), ocular findings, visual fields, dark-adaptation tests, color tests, fluorescein angiography, and ERG findings.

Results: Data showed a consistency in the individual symptoms and ERG recordings, but an extreme variation in VA between visits. Beside some irregularities in the macula in some patients, no other related eye abnormalities were seen. The low-to-subnormal VA varied with background luminance and typically increased by 2 to 3 lines when pinholes were used. Dark-adaptation tests, color tests, and fluorescein angiography were normal. Visual field tests showed a minor diffuse sensitivity loss. No progressive changes were seen over time.

Conclusions: No signs of progression were noted in the 6 bradyopsia patients. Photophobia, impaired movement perception, variable reduced VA that improved with the use of pinholes and ERG abnormalities were typical for the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.04.057DOI Listing
December 2007

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2006 Oct 8;244(10):1357-9. Epub 2006 Mar 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is also believed that several epigenetic factors have an influence on the development of LHON.

Methods: A case series was observed.

Results: Three patients who developed bilateral optic neuropathy are presented. All patients had a primary LHON mutation in their mtDNA, but also a subnormal vitamin B12 serum level at the time of presentation.

Conclusions: The clinical picture of optic neuropathy associated with vitamin B12 deficiency shows similarity to that of LHON. Both involve the nerve fibres of the papillomacular bundle. The present case reports suggest that optic neuropathy in patients carrying a primary LHON mtDNA mutation may be precipitated by vitamin B12 deficiency. Therefore, known carriers should take care to have an adequate dietary intake of vitamin B12 and malabsorption syndromes like those occurring in familial pernicious anaemia or after gastric surgery should be excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-006-0269-7DOI Listing
October 2006

Lack of radiation optic neuropathy in 72 patients treated for pituitary adenoma.

J Neuroophthalmol 2004 Sep;24(3):200-5

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, PPO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

The incidence of radiation optic neuropathy (RON) after external photon beam radiation therapy for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) is not well-studied. Retrospective review of ophthalmological and imaging data in 72 patients with NFA treated between 1985 and 1998 with external beam radiation therapy after surgery Clinical follow-up after radiation therapy had to be at least 18 months. RON was defined as a sudden and profound irreversible visual loss affecting the optic nerve or chiasm A review of previously published cases of RON was then performed. In our cohort, no patient had RON. A total of 11 adequately documented series reports of RON were found in the medical literature on radiation-treated NFAs. The incidence of RON in NFA from these series is 0.53% (95% CI, 0.26%-0.96%). An additional 14 single RON cases have been reported, bringing the total of adequately documented RON cases to 25. RON is a rare complication after external beam radiation therapy for NFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00041327-200409000-00003DOI Listing
September 2004

Radiation optic neuropathy after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly: report of two cases.

Radiother Oncol 2003 Aug;68(2):101-3

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

For diagnosing radiation optic neuropathy (RON) ophthalmological and imaging data were evaluated from 63 acromegalic patients, irradiated between 1967 and 1998. Two patients developed RON: one patient in one optic nerve 10 years and another patient in both optic nerves 5 months after radiation therapy. RON is a rare complication after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly, which can occur after a considerable latency period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0167-8140(03)00201-9DOI Listing
August 2003

Radiation optic neuropathy after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly.

Radiother Oncol 2003 Aug;68(2):95-100

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0167-8140(03)00202-0DOI Listing
August 2003

The polaroid suppression test in a pediatric population with ophthalmologic disorders.

J AAPOS 2003 Apr;7(2):137-41

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The Polaroid suppression test (PST) is a new method for early detection of amblyogenic factors by screening for suppression. The apparatus can elicit suppression with the use of Polaroid filters. The aim of the present study was to examine a population of children with known ophthalmologic disorders using the PST to determine the rate of false-negative results of the PST.

Methods: Six hundred four children, varying in age between 3 and 15 years (mean, 7.9) were examined using the PST. Ophthalmologic disorders ranged from strabismus and amblyopia to refractive disorders.

Results: Mean testing time for the PST was 43 seconds. The PST could not be administered to 34 children (5.6%); 443 children (73.3%) had abnormal results; and 127 children (22.2%) showed no suppression. The suppression in constant strabismus was detected in almost all cases. The sensitivity for accommodative forms of strabismus was lower, but amblyopia was never missed in these cases. In children with normal eye alignment, only 2.7% with an interocular acuity difference of more than 0.1 logMAR had no suppression. Of all 119 children with clinical defined amblyopia, only 1 (0.8%) did not have suppression. Overall sensitivity of the PST for strabismus and/or abnormal interocular acuity difference was 96.2% and specificity was 41.1%.

Conclusions: The PST has great potential as a visual screening tool in young children. Only few children with amblyogenic factors were missed. Thus, the test can differentiate those children at risk for amblyopia from normally sighted children. Because specificity is lower, all children showing suppression with the PST in a screening situation should have further examination by the health care worker before being referred to the ophthalmologist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/mpa.2003.S1091853103000077DOI Listing
April 2003
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