Publications by authors named "Jan-Niklas May"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Influence of MRI Examinations on Animal Welfare and Study Results.

Invest Radiol 2020 08;55(8):507-514

From the Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging.

Objectives: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered to be well tolerated by laboratory animals. However, no systematic study has been performed yet, proving this assumption. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of longitudinal native and contrast-enhanced (CE) 1-T and 7-T MRI examinations on mouse welfare as well as 4T1 breast cancers progression and therapy response.

Material And Methods: Forty-seven healthy and 72 breast cancer-bearing mice (4T1) were investigated. One-Tesla (ICON) and 7-T (Biospec) MRI measurements were performed thrice per week under isoflurane anesthesia in healthy BALB/c mice for 4 weeks and 3 times within 2 weeks in tumor-bearing animals. Animal welfare was examined by an observational score sheet, rotarod performance, heart rate measurements, and assessment of fecal corticosterone metabolites. Furthermore, we investigated whether CE-MRI influences the study outcome. Therefore, hemograms and organ weights were obtained, and 4T1 tumor growth, perfusion, immune cell infiltration, as well as response to the multikinase inhibitor regorafenib were investigated. Statistical comparisons between groups were performed using analysis of variance and Tukey or Bonferroni post hoc tests.

Results: Mice showed no alterations in the observational score sheet rating, rotarod performance, heart rate, and fecal corticosterone metabolites (P > 0.05) after repeated MRI at both field strengths. However, spleen weights were reduced in all healthy mouse groups that received isoflurane anesthesia (P < 0.001) including the groups investigated by 1-T and 7-T MRI (P = 0.02). Neither tumor progression nor response to the regorafenib treatment was affected by isoflurane anesthesia or CE-MRI monitoring. Furthermore, immunohistological tumor analysis did not indicate an effect of isoflurane and MRI on macrophage infiltration of tumors, perfusion of tumor vessels, and apoptotic cell rate (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Repeated MRI did not influence the welfare of mice and did not affect tumor growth and therapy response of 4T1 tumors. However, systemic immunological effects of isoflurane anesthesia need to be considered to prevent potential bias.
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August 2020

Multimodal and multiscale optical imaging of nanomedicine delivery across the blood-brain barrier upon sonopermeation.

Theranostics 2020 12;10(4):1948-1959. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging (ExMI), University Clinic and Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for drug delivery to the brain. Sonopermeation, which relies on the combination of ultrasound and microbubbles, has emerged as a powerful tool to permeate the BBB, enabling the extravasation of drugs and drug delivery systems (DDS) to and into the central nervous system (CNS). When aiming to improve the treatment of high medical need brain disorders, it is important to systematically study nanomedicine translocation across the sonopermeated BBB. To this end, we here employed multimodal and multiscale optical imaging to investigate the impact of DDS size on brain accumulation, extravasation and penetration upon sonopermeation. : Two prototypic DDS, i.e. 10 nm-sized pHPMA polymers and 100 nm-sized PEGylated liposomes, were labeled with fluorophores and intravenously injected in healthy CD-1 nude mice. Upon sonopermeation, computed tomography-fluorescence molecular tomography, fluorescence reflectance imaging, fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy and stimulated emission depletion nanoscopy were used to study the effect of DDS size on their translocation across the BBB. : Sonopermeation treatment enabled safe and efficient opening of the BBB, which was confirmed by staining extravasated endogenous IgG. No micro-hemorrhages, edema and necrosis were detected in H&E stainings. Multimodal and multiscale optical imaging showed that sonopermeation promoted the accumulation of nanocarriers in mouse brains, and that 10 nm-sized polymeric DDS accumulated more strongly and penetrated deeper into the brain than 100 nm-sized liposomes. : BBB opening via sonopermeation enables safe and efficient delivery of nanomedicine formulations to and into the brain. When looking at accumulation and penetration (and when neglecting issues such as drug loading capacity and therapeutic efficacy) smaller-sized DDS are found to be more suitable for drug delivery across the BBB than larger-sized DDS. These findings are valuable for better understanding and further developing nanomedicine-based strategies for the treatment of CNS disorders.
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February 2021

Tumor targeting via EPR: Strategies to enhance patient responses.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2018 05 19;130:17-38. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University Clinic, Aachen, Germany; Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Targeted Therapeutics, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The tumor accumulation of nanomedicines relies on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. In the last 5-10 years, it has been increasingly recognized that there is a large inter- and intra-individual heterogeneity in EPR-mediated tumor targeting, explaining the heterogeneous outcomes of clinical trials in which nanomedicine formulations have been evaluated. To address this heterogeneity, as in other areas of oncology drug development, we have to move away from a one-size-fits-all tumor targeting approach, towards methods that can be employed to individualize and improve nanomedicine treatments. To this end, efforts have to be invested in better understanding the nature, the complexity and the heterogeneity of the EPR effect, and in establishing systems and strategies to enhance, combine, bypass and image EPR-based tumor targeting. In the present manuscript, we summarize key studies in which these strategies are explored, and we discuss how these approaches can be employed to enhance patient responses.
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May 2018