Publications by authors named "Jan Wild"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Topographic Wetness Index calculation guidelines based on measured soil moisture and plant species composition.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 14;757:143785. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Zámek 1, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 21, Prague 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic.

Soil moisture controls environmental processes and species distributions, but it is difficult to measure and interpolate across space. Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) derived from digital elevation model is therefore often used as a proxy for soil moisture. However, different algorithms can be used to calculate TWI and this potentially affects TWI relationship with soil moisture and species assemblages. To disentangle insufficiently-known effects of different algorithms on TWI relation with soil moisture and plant species composition, we measured the root-zone soil moisture throughout a growing season and recorded vascular plants and bryophytes in 45 temperate forest plots. For each plot, we calculated 26 TWI variants from a LiDAR-based digital terrain model and related these TWI variants to the measured soil moisture and moisture-controlled species assemblages of vascular plants and bryophytes. A flow accumulation algorithm determined the ability of the TWI to predict soil moisture, while the flow width and slope algorithms had only a small effects. The TWI calculated with the most often used single-flow D8 algorithm explained less than half of the variation in soil moisture and species composition explained by the TWI calculated with the multiple-flow FD8 algorithm. Flow dispersion used in the FD8 algorithm strongly affected the TWI performance, and a flow dispersion close to 1.0 resulted in the TWI best related to the soil moisture and species assemblages. Using downslope gradient instead of the local slope gradient can strongly decrease TWI performance. Our results clearly showed that the method used to calculate TWI affects study conclusion. However, TWI calculation is often not specified and thus impossible to reproduce and compare among studies. We therefore provide guidelines for TWI calculation and recommend the FD8 flow algorithm with a flow dispersion close to 1.0, flow width equal to the raster cell size and local slope gradient for TWI calculation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143785DOI Listing
February 2021

SoilTemp: A global database of near-surface temperature.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Nov 24;26(11):6616-6629. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Current analyses and predictions of spatially explicit patterns and processes in ecology most often rely on climate data interpolated from standardized weather stations. This interpolated climate data represents long-term average thermal conditions at coarse spatial resolutions only. Hence, many climate-forcing factors that operate at fine spatiotemporal resolutions are overlooked. This is particularly important in relation to effects of observation height (e.g. vegetation, snow and soil characteristics) and in habitats varying in their exposure to radiation, moisture and wind (e.g. topography, radiative forcing or cold-air pooling). Since organisms living close to the ground relate more strongly to these microclimatic conditions than to free-air temperatures, microclimatic ground and near-surface data are needed to provide realistic forecasts of the fate of such organisms under anthropogenic climate change, as well as of the functioning of the ecosystems they live in. To fill this critical gap, we highlight a call for temperature time series submissions to SoilTemp, a geospatial database initiative compiling soil and near-surface temperature data from all over the world. Currently, this database contains time series from 7,538 temperature sensors from 51 countries across all key biomes. The database will pave the way toward an improved global understanding of microclimate and bridge the gap between the available climate data and the climate at fine spatiotemporal resolutions relevant to most organisms and ecosystem processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15123DOI Listing
November 2020

A meta-analysis of global fungal distribution reveals climate-driven patterns.

Nat Commun 2019 11 13;10(1):5142. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 14220, Praha 4, Czech Republic.

The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes, in contrast with the opposite pattern previously shown for plants and other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi appear to have narrower climatic tolerances than pathogenic fungi. We speculate that climate change could affect ecosystem functioning because of the narrow climatic tolerances of key fungal taxa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13164-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853883PMC
November 2019

Forest disturbances under climate change.

Nat Clim Chang 2017 Jun 31;7:395-402. Epub 2017 May 31.

Potsdam-Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 60 12 03, D-14412 Potsdam, Germany.

Forest disturbances are sensitive to climate. However, our understanding of disturbance dynamics in response to climatic changes remains incomplete, particularly regarding large-scale patterns, interaction effects and dampening feedbacks. Here we provide a global synthesis of climate change effects on important abiotic (fire, drought, wind, snow and ice) and biotic (insects and pathogens) disturbance agents. Warmer and drier conditions particularly facilitate fire, drought and insect disturbances, while warmer and wetter conditions increase disturbances from wind and pathogens. Widespread interactions between agents are likely to amplify disturbances, while indirect climate effects such as vegetation changes can dampen long-term disturbance sensitivities to climate. Future changes in disturbance are likely to be most pronounced in coniferous forests and the boreal biome. We conclude that both ecosystems and society should be prepared for an increasingly disturbed future of forests.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5572641PMC
June 2017

Understory Dwarf Bamboo Affects Microbial Community Structures and Soil Properties in a Betula ermanii Forest in Northern Japan.

Microbes Environ 2017 Jun 28;32(2):103-111. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University.

In order to understand the relationships between understory bamboo and soil properties, we compared microbial community structures in the soil of a Betula ermanii boreal forest with Sasa kurilensis present and removed using high-throughput DNA sequencing. The presence of understory S. kurilensis strongly affected soil properties, including total carbon, total nitrogen, nitrate, and the C:N ratio as well as relative soil moisture. Marked differences were also noted in fungal and bacterial communities between plots. The relative abundance of the fungal phylum Ascomycota was 13.9% in the Sasa-intact plot and only 0.54% in the Sasa-removed plot. Among the Ascomycota fungi identified, the most prevalent were members of the family Pezizaceae. We found that the abundance of Pezizaceae, known to act as mycorrhizal fungi, was related to the amount of total carbon in the Sasa-intact plot. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly higher, whereas those of Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria were lower in the Sasa-intact plot than in the Sasa-removed plot. Furthermore, the results obtained suggest that some species of the phylum Planctomycetes are more likely to occur in the presence of S. kurilensis. Collectively, these results indicate that the presence of S. kurilensis affects microbial communities and soil properties in a B. ermanii boreal forest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.ME16154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478532PMC
June 2017

Life and death of Picea abies after bark-beetle outbreak: ecological processes driving seedling recruitment.

Ecol Appl 2017 01;27(1):156-167

Geobotany, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Universität München TUM, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354, Freising, Germany.

The severity and spatial extent of bark-beetle outbreaks substantially increased in recent decades worldwide. The ongoing controversy about natural forest recovery after these outbreaks highlights the need for individual-based long-term studies, which disentangle processes driving forest regeneration. However, such studies have been lacking. To fill this gap, we followed the fates of 2,552 individual seedlings for 12 years after a large-scale bark-beetle outbreak that caused complete canopy dieback in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in southeast Germany. We explore the contribution of advance, disturbance-related, and post-disturbance regeneration to forest recovery. Most seedlings originated directly within the three-year dieback of canopy trees induced by bark-beetle outbreak. After complete canopy dieback, the establishment of new seedlings was minimal. Surprisingly, advance regeneration formed only a minor part of all regeneration. However, because it had the highest survival rate, its importance increased over time. The most important factor influencing the survival of seedlings after disturbance was their height. Survival was further modified by microsite: seedlings established on dead wood survived best, whereas almost all seedlings surrounded by graminoids died. For 5 cm tall seedlings, annual mortality ranged from 20 to 50% according to the rooting microsite. However, for seedlings taller than 50 cm, annual mortality was below 5% at all microsites. While microsite modified seedling mortality, it did not affect seedling height growth. A model of regeneration dynamics based on short-term observations accurately predicts regeneration height growth, but substantially underestimates mortality rate, thus predicting more surviving seedlings than were observed. We found that P. abies forests were able to regenerate naturally even after severe bark-beetle outbreaks owing to advance and particularly disturbance-related regeneration. This, together with microsite-specific mortality, yields structurally and spatially diverse forests. Our study thus highlights the so far unrecognized importance of disturbance-related regeneration for stand recovery after bark-beetle outbreaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1429DOI Listing
January 2017

Measuring size and composition of species pools: a comparison of dark diversity estimates.

Ecol Evol 2016 06 20;6(12):4088-101. Epub 2016 May 20.

Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences University of Tartu Lai 40 51005 Tartu Estonia.

Ecological theory and biodiversity conservation have traditionally relied on the number of species recorded at a site, but it is agreed that site richness represents only a portion of the species that can inhabit particular ecological conditions, that is, the habitat-specific species pool. Knowledge of the species pool at different sites enables meaningful comparisons of biodiversity and provides insights into processes of biodiversity formation. Empirical studies, however, are limited due to conceptual and methodological difficulties in determining both the size and composition of the absent part of species pools, the so-called dark diversity. We used >50,000 vegetation plots from 18 types of habitats throughout the Czech Republic, most of which served as a training dataset and 1083 as a subset of test sites. These data were used to compare predicted results from three quantitative methods with those of previously published expert estimates based on species habitat preferences: (1) species co-occurrence based on Beals' smoothing approach; (2) species ecological requirements, with envelopes around community mean Ellenberg values; and (3) species distribution models, using species environmental niches modeled by Biomod software. Dark diversity estimates were compared at both plot and habitat levels, and each method was applied in different configurations. While there were some differences in the results obtained by different methods, particularly at the plot level, there was a clear convergence, especially at the habitat level. The better convergence at the habitat level reflects less variation in local environmental conditions, whereas variation at the plot level is an effect of each particular method. The co-occurrence agreed closest the expert estimate, followed by the method based on species ecological requirements. We conclude that several analytical methods can estimate species pools of given habitats. However, the strengths and weaknesses of different methods need attention, especially when dark diversity is estimated at the plot level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877358PMC
June 2016

Vegetation dynamics at the upper elevational limit of vascular plants in Himalaya.

Sci Rep 2016 05 4;6:24881. Epub 2016 May 4.

Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

A rapid warming in Himalayas is predicted to increase plant upper distributional limits, vegetation cover and abundance of species adapted to warmer climate. We explored these predictions in NW Himalayas, by revisiting uppermost plant populations after ten years (2003-2013), detailed monitoring of vegetation changes in permanent plots (2009-2012), and age analysis of plants growing from 5500 to 6150 m. Plant traits and microclimate variables were recorded to explain observed vegetation changes. The elevation limits of several species shifted up to 6150 m, about 150 vertical meters above the limit of continuous plant distribution. The plant age analysis corroborated the hypothesis of warming-driven uphill migration. However, the impact of warming interacts with increasing precipitation and physical disturbance. The extreme summer snowfall event in 2010 is likely responsible for substantial decrease in plant cover in both alpine and subnival vegetation and compositional shift towards species preferring wetter habitats. Simultaneous increase in summer temperature and precipitation caused rapid snow melt and, coupled with frequent night frosts, generated multiple freeze-thaw cycles detrimental to subnival plants. Our results suggest that plant species responses to ongoing climate change will not be unidirectional upward range shifts but rather multi-dimensional, species-specific and spatially variable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep24881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4855180PMC
May 2016

Legacy of Pre-Disturbance Spatial Pattern Determines Early Structural Diversity following Severe Disturbance in Montane Spruce Forests.

PLoS One 2015 30;10(9):e0139214. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood science, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic; Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington, United States of America.

Background: Severe canopy-removing disturbances are native to many temperate forests and radically alter stand structure, but biotic legacies (surviving elements or patterns) can lend continuity to ecosystem function after such events. Poorly understood is the degree to which the structural complexity of an old-growth forest carries over to the next stand. We asked how pre-disturbance spatial pattern acts as a legacy to influence post-disturbance stand structure, and how this legacy influences the structural diversity within the early-seral stand.

Methods: Two stem-mapped one-hectare forest plots in the Czech Republic experienced a severe bark beetle outbreak, thus providing before-and-after data on spatial patterns in live and dead trees, crown projections, down logs, and herb cover.

Results: Post-disturbance stands were dominated by an advanced regeneration layer present before the disturbance. Both major species, Norway spruce (Picea abies) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), were strongly self-aggregated and also clustered to former canopy trees, pre-disturbance snags, stumps and logs, suggesting positive overstory to understory neighbourhood effects. Thus, although the disturbance dramatically reduced the stand's height profile with ~100% mortality of the canopy layer, the spatial structure of post-disturbance stands still closely reflected the pre-disturbance structure. The former upper tree layer influenced advanced regeneration through microsite and light limitation. Under formerly dense canopies, regeneration density was high but relatively homogeneous in height; while in former small gaps with greater herb cover, regeneration density was lower but with greater heterogeneity in heights.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that pre-disturbance spatial patterns of forests can persist through severe canopy-removing disturbance, and determine the spatial structure of the succeeding stand. Such patterns constitute a subtle but key legacy effect, promoting structural complexity in early-seral forests as well as variable successional pathways and rates. This influence suggests a continuity in spatial ecosystem structure that may well persist through multiple forest generations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139214PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589365PMC
June 2016

Variability in the contribution of different life stages to population growth as a key factor in the invasion success of Pinus strobus.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(2):e56953. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Průhonice, Czech Republic.

Background: Despite the increasing number of studies attempting to model population growth in various organisms, we still know relatively little about the population dynamics of long-lived species that reproduce only in the later stages of their life cycle, such as trees. Predictions of the dynamics of these species are, however, urgently needed for planning management actions when species are either endangered or invasive. In long-lived species, a single management intervention may have consequences for several decades, and detailed knowledge of long-term performance can therefore elucidate possible outcomes during the management planning phase.

Methodology And Principal Findings: We studied the population dynamics of an invasive tree species, Pinus strobus, in three habitat types represented by their position along the elevation gradient occupied by the species. In agreement with previous studies on the population dynamics of long-lived perennials, our results show that the survival of the largest trees exhibits the highest elasticity in all of the studied habitats. In contrast, life table response experiments (LTRE) analysis showed that different stages contribute the most to population growth rates in different habitats, with generative reproduction being more important in lower slopes and valley bottoms and survival being more important on rock tops and upper slopes.

Conclusions: The results indicate that P. strobus exhibits different growth strategies in different habitats that result in similar population growth rates. We propose that this plasticity in growth strategies is a key factor in the invasion success of the white pine. In all of the investigated habitats, the population growth rates are above 1, indicating that the population of the species is still increasing and has the ability to spread and occupy a wide range of habitats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0056953PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3585251PMC
August 2013

Colonization of high altitudes by alien plants over the last two centuries.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Jan 28;108(2):439-40. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1017682108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021013PMC
January 2011

Disentangling the role of environmental and human pressures on biological invasions across Europe.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Jul 7;107(27):12157-62. Epub 2010 Jun 7.

Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-252 43 Průhonice, Czech Republic.

The accelerating rates of international trade, travel, and transport in the latter half of the twentieth century have led to the progressive mixing of biota from across the world and the number of species introduced to new regions continues to increase. The importance of biogeographic, climatic, economic, and demographic factors as drivers of this trend is increasingly being realized but as yet there is no consensus regarding their relative importance. Whereas little may be done to mitigate the effects of geography and climate on invasions, a wider range of options may exist to moderate the impacts of economic and demographic drivers. Here we use the most recent data available from Europe to partition between macroecological, economic, and demographic variables the variation in alien species richness of bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, terrestrial insects, aquatic invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Only national wealth and human population density were statistically significant predictors in the majority of models when analyzed jointly with climate, geography, and land cover. The economic and demographic variables reflect the intensity of human activities and integrate the effect of factors that directly determine the outcome of invasion such as propagule pressure, pathways of introduction, eutrophication, and the intensity of anthropogenic disturbance. The strong influence of economic and demographic variables on the levels of invasion by alien species demonstrates that future solutions to the problem of biological invasions at a national scale lie in mitigating the negative environmental consequences of human activities that generate wealth and by promoting more sustainable population growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1002314107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901442PMC
July 2010

Prospective randomized comparison of CarboMedics and St. Jude Medical bileaflet mechanical heart valve prostheses: ten-year follow-up.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007 Mar;133(3):614-22

Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Objective: This is the final report of a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of CarboMedics (CarboMedics Inc., Austin, Tex) and St. Jude Medical (St. Jude Medical Inc, St Paul, Minn) bileaflet mechanical heart valve prostheses 10 years after surgery.

Methods: Between 1992 and 1996, 485 patients undergoing mechanical heart valve replacement were randomized to receive CarboMedics (n = 234) or St. Jude Medical (n = 251) prostheses for aortic (n = 288), mitral (n = 160), or double (n = 37) valve replacements. Patients were followed annually to the end of 2004.

Results: Demographic, preoperative, and operative characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The median follow-up was 10 years in both groups (CarboMedics 99% complete, St. Jude Medical 98% complete; 3879 patient-years of follow-up). Overall, 165 patients died, 25 of valve-related causes. Ten-year survivals were 66.4% (95% confidence interval: 59.6%-72.3%) and 64.7% (95% confidence interval: 58.0%-70.6%) in the CarboMedics and St. Jude Medical groups, respectively (P = .94). Freedom at 10 years from valve-related mortality was 95.0% (95% confidence interval: 90.8%-97.3%) in the CarboMedics group and 93.0% (95% confidence interval: 88.3%-95.9%) in the St. Jude Medical group. During follow-up, 34 patients had a thromboembolic event, 79 patients had at least 1 bleeding event, and 14 patients required reoperation. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to freedom from complications (P > or = .12); freedom from thromboembolism at 10 years (CarboMedics: 91.5%, 95% confidence interval: 86.5%-94.7%; St. Jude Medical: 92.2%, 95% confidence interval: 87.5%-95.2%); freedom from bleeding events (CarboMedics: 83.0%, 95% confidence interval: 76.6%-87.8%; St. Jude Medical: 77.5%, 95% confidence interval: 71.1%-82.7%); and freedom from death or valve-related complication (CarboMedics: 51.6%, 95% confidence interval: 44.7%-58.0%; St. Jude Medical: 46.2%, 95% confidence interval: 39.7%-52.4%). Linearized rates per patient-year were 1.1% in the CarboMedics group and 0.8% in the St. Jude Medical group for thromboembolism; 2.3% in the CarboMedics group and 3.2% in the St. Jude Medical group for bleeding events; and 0.72% in the CarboMedics group and 0.47% in the St. Jude Medical group for nonstructural valve dysfunction. International normalized ratio values were similar between the 2 groups throughout the study period.

Conclusion: At 10 years, the clinical outcome was similar with respect to these 2 mechanical bileaflet prostheses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.08.075DOI Listing
March 2007

Prospective randomized comparison of CarboMedics and St Jude Medical bileaflet mechanical heart valve prostheses: an interim report.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002 Jan;123(1):21-32

Bristol Heart Institute, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Objective: This is a midterm report of a study comparing the clinical performance of CarboMedics and St Jude Medical heart valve prostheses through a projected 10-year period.

Methods: Between 1992 and 1996, a total of 485 patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement were prospectively randomly assigned to receive either CarboMedics (n = 234) or St Jude Medical (n = 251) prostheses for aortic (n = 288), mitral (n = 160), or double (n = 37) valve replacements and were followed up annually.

Results: Baseline and operative characteristics were similar between the two groups with respect to major demographic characteristics, preoperative clinical status, and operative data. Mean follow-up was 50 +/- 22 months for the CarboMedics group (97% complete) and 47 +/- 20 months for the St Jude Medical group (96% complete), yielding a total of 1959 patient-years. The 30-day mortality, and 5-year actuarial survival, and linearized survival were 6.0%, 82.4% +/- 2.6%, and 4.3% per patient-year in the CarboMedics group and 4.4%, 79.9% +/- 2.8%, and 4.7% per patient-year in the St Jude Medical group (log-rank P =.7). Freedom at 5 years from valve-related mortality, major thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and other nonstructural valve dysfunction was, respectively, 96.7% +/- 1.4% (0.7% per patient-year), 90.9% +/- 2.1% (2.2% per patient-year), 87.3% +/- 2.5% (3.6% per patient-year), and 96.1% +/- 1.4% (0.7% per patient-year) in the CarboMedics group and 95.9% +/- 1.5% (1.0% per patient-year), 92.5% +/- 1.8% (2.0% per patient-year), 82.6% +/- 2.8% (4.3% per patient-year), and 96.0% +/- 1.3% (0.6% per patient-year) in the St Jude Medical group, with no overall intergroup differences. No statistically significant intergroup differences in international normalized ratio values were detected during the study period.

Conclusions: This study shows no significant differences in the early and midterm clinical outcomes between patients who received CarboMedics valve prostheses and those who received St Jude Medical mechanical prostheses. Choices with respect to valve type can be based on considerations other than patient outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mtc.2002.119703DOI Listing
January 2002
-->