Publications by authors named "Jan Welink"

28 Publications

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2020 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: BAV Guidance, CLSI H62, Biotherapeutics Stability, Parallelism Testing, CyTOF and Regulatory Feedback ( - Recommendations on Biotherapeutics Stability, PK LBA Regulated Bioanalysis, Biomarkers Assays, Cytometry Validation & Innovation - Regulatory Agencies' Inputs on Bioanalysis, Biomarkers, Immunogenicity, Gene & Cell Therapy and Vaccine).

Bioanalysis 2021 Mar 29;13(5):295-361. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

The 14 edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (14 WRIB) was held virtually on June 15-29, 2020 with an attendance of over 1000 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. The 14 WRIB included three Main Workshops, seven Specialized Workshops that together spanned 11 days in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy and vaccine. Moreover, a comprehensive vaccine assays track; an enhanced cytometry track and updated Industry/Regulators consensus on BMV of biotherapeutics by LCMS were special features in 2020. As in previous years, this year's WRIB continued to gather a wide diversity of international industry opinion leaders and regulatory authority experts working on both small and large molecules to facilitate sharing and discussions focused on improving quality, increasing regulatory compliance and achieving scientific excellence on bioanalytical issues. This 2020 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the Global Bioanalytical Community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2020 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication covers the recommendations on (Part 2A) BAV, PK LBA, Flow Cytometry Validation and Cytometry Innovation and (Part 2B) Regulatory Input. Part 1 (Innovation in Small Molecules, Hybrid LBA/LCMS & Regulated Bioanalysis), Part 3 (Vaccine, Gene/Cell Therapy, NAb Harmonization and Immunogenicity) are published in volume 13 of Bioanalysis, issues 4, and 6 (2021), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2021-0005DOI Listing
March 2021

2020 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: BMV of Hybrid Assays, Acoustic MS, HRMS, Data Integrity, Endogenous Compounds, Microsampling and Microbiome ( - Recommendations on Industry/Regulators Consensus on BMV of Biotherapeutics by LCMS, Advanced Application in Hybrid Assays, Regulatory Challenges in Mass Spec, Innovation in Small Molecules, Peptides and Oligos).

Bioanalysis 2021 Feb 20;13(4):203-238. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Merck, West Point, PA, USA.

The 14 edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (14 WRIB) was held virtually on June 15-29, 2020 with an attendance of over 1000 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. The 14 WRIB included three Main Workshops, seven Specialized Workshops that together spanned 11 days in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy, cell therapy and vaccine. Moreover, a comprehensive vaccine assays track; an enhanced cytometry track and updated Industry/Regulators consensus on BMV of biotherapeutics by Mass Spectrometry (hybrid assays, LCMS and HRMS) were special features in 2020. As in previous years, this year's WRIB continued to gather a wide diversity of international industry opinion leaders and regulatory authority experts working on both small and large molecules to facilitate sharing and discussions focused on improving quality, increasing regulatory compliance and achieving scientific excellence on bioanalytical issues. This 2020 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop and is aimed to provide the Global Bioanalytical Community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2020 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication covers the recommendations on (Part 1) Hybrid Assays, Innovation in Small Molecules, & Regulated Bioanalysis. Part 2A (BAV, PK LBA, Flow Cytometry Validation and Cytometry Innovation), Part 2B (Regulatory Input) and Part 3 (Vaccine, Gene/Cell Therapy, NAb Harmonization and Immunogenicity) are published in volume 13 of Bioanalysis, issues 5, and 6 (2021), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2020-0324DOI Listing
February 2021

2019 White Paper On Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: FDA BMV Guidance, ICH M10 BMV Guideline and Regulatory Inputs ( - Recommendations on 2018 FDA BMV Guidance, 2019 ICH M10 BMV Draft Guideline and Regulatory Agencies' Input on Bioanalysis, Biomarkers and Immunogenicity).

Bioanalysis 2019 Dec 9;11(23):2099-2132. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

US FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The 2019 13 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) took place in New Orleans, LA on 1-5 April 2019 with an attendance of over 1000 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, week-long event - a full immersion week of bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity and gene therapy. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small- and large-molecule bioanalysis involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA cell-based/flow cytometry assays and qPCR approaches. This 2019 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2019 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 2) covers the recommendations on the 2018 FDA BMV guidance, 2019 ICH M10 BMV draft guideline and regulatory agencies' input on bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity and gene therapy. Part 1 (Innovation in small molecules and oligonucleotides and mass spectrometry method development strategies for large molecules bioanalysis) and Part 3 (New insights in biomarker assay validation, current and effective strategies for critical reagent management, flow cytometry validation in drug discovery and development and CLSI H62, interpretation of the 2019 FDA immunogenicity guidance and gene therapy bioanalytical challenges) are published in volume 10 of , issues 22 and 24 (2019), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0270DOI Listing
December 2019

Overview of the European Medicines Agency's Experience With Biowaivers in Centralized Applications.

Clin Transl Sci 2019 09 27;12(5):490-496. Epub 2019 May 27.

Medicines Evaluation Board, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The waiver of the in vivo demonstration of bioequivalence (biowaiver) is an established tool in drug development and regulatory assessment. This study reviews the use of different biowaiver approaches in centralized applications for marketing authorization to the European Medicines Agency for generic and innovator medicinal products in 2016 and 2017. The focus was to provide insight into the applicability of biowaivers for medicines development. The results show that as expected, biowaivers were most frequently used in applications for generic medicines, in particular for the approval of additional strengths when in vivo bioequivalence has been demonstrated using a single, usually the highest, strength. Biowaivers have, however, also been used in applications for innovator medicines in different phases of clinical development. This review confirms the existing key roles and further potential for biowaivers in regulatory submissions in that they are useful in streamlining the often challenging processes of clinical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6742938PMC
September 2019

2018 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: focus on immunogenicity assays by hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory feedback (Part 2 - PK, PD & ADA assays by hybrid LBA/LCMS & regulatory agencies' inputs on bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity).

Bioanalysis 2018 Dec 29;10(23):1897-1917. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

F Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland.

The 2018 12 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis took place in Philadelphia, PA, USA on April 9-13, 2018 with an attendance of over 900 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, week-long event - a full immersion week of bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small- and large-molecule bioanalysis involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS and LBA/cell-based assays approaches. This 2018 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2018 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 2) covers the recommendations for PK, PD and ADA assays by hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory agencies' input. Part 1 (LCMS for small molecules, peptides, oligonucleotides and small molecule biomarkers) and Part 3 (LBA/cell-based assays: immunogenicity, biomarkers and PK assays) are published in volume 10 of , issues 22 and 24 (2018), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0285DOI Listing
December 2018

2018 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: 'A global bioanalytical community perspective on last decade of incurred samples reanalysis (ISR)' (Part 1 - small molecule regulated bioanalysis, small molecule biomarkers, peptides & oligonucleotide bioanalysis).

Bioanalysis 2018 Nov 29;10(22):1781-1801. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

UK MHRA, London, UK.

The 2018 12 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (12th WRIB) took place in Philadelphia, PA, USA on April 9-13, 2018 with an attendance of over 900 representatives from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day full immersion in bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small- and large-molecule bioanalysis involving LC-MS, hybrid ligand binding assay (LBA)/LC-MS and LBA/cell-based assays approaches. This 2018 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2018 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 1) covers the recommendations for LC-MS for small molecules, peptides, oligonucleotides and small molecule biomarkers. Part 2 (hybrid LBA/LC-MS for biotherapeutics and regulatory agencies' inputs) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity using LBA and cell-based assays) are published in volume 10 of Bioanalysis, issues 23 and 24 (2018), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0268DOI Listing
November 2018

Summary report of second EUFEPS/AAPS conference on global harmonization in bioequivalence.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan 18;127:24-28. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Medicines Evaluation Board, the Netherlands.

The Global Bioequivalence Harmonization Initiative (GBHI) was launched by the Network on Bioavailability and Biopharmaceutics (BABP) under the auspices of European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) several years ago. Since 2015, EUFEPS in collaboration with the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) has organized three international conferences to support global harmonization of regulatory requirements for bioequivalence (BE) assessment. These conferences provided an open forum for pharmaceutical scientists from academia, industry and regulatory agencies to discuss various BE topics at issue. The current report summarizes the discussion of BE issues at the 2nd GBHI conference held in 2016, Rockville, USA. Three important BE topics were discussed at the meeting: (a) prodrugs and compounds with pre-systemic extraction, (b) scaling procedures and two-stage designs, and (c) exclusion of pharmacokinetic data in BE assessment. The presentations and discussions of these issues have enhanced the mutual understanding of scientific background for BE evaluation and further facilitated harmonization of regulatory approaches for establishing BE of multisource drug products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2018.10.019DOI Listing
January 2019

Overview of the European Medicines Agency's Development of Product-Specific Bioequivalence Guidelines.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 09 9;104(3):539-545. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Medicines Evaluation Board, The Netherlands; Chair of the Pharmacokinetics Working Party of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) at the European Medicines Agency, London, UK.

The European Medicines Agency's (EMA) product-specific bioequivalence guidelines outline harmonized regulatory requirements for studies to demonstrate bioequivalence for products that may have particular needs due to their pharmacokinetics, in addition to those outlined in general guidance. As such they are potentially very useful to the pharmaceutical industry in the development of generic medicinal products and to regulatory authorities for harmonized decision-making. Since their introduction in 2013, EMA product-specific bioequivalence guidelines continue to increase in number, and as of June 2017, encompass a number of different pharmacotherapeutic groups and pharmaceutical forms. This article further elucidates the processes involved for stakeholders and reviews the Agency's experience with the development of these guidelines, including the scientific issues witnessed with their advancement. A comparison with the United States Food and Drug Administration approach to similar guidelines is also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175295PMC
September 2018

2017 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: a global perspective on immunogenicity guidelines & biomarker assay performance (Part 3 - LBA: immunogenicity, biomarkers and PK assays).

Bioanalysis 2017 Dec 5;9(24):1967-1996. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

BioMarin Pharmaceutical, San Rafael, CA, USA.

The 2017 11th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis took place in Los Angeles/Universal City, California, on 3-7 April 2017 with participation of close to 750 professionals from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, week-long event - a full immersion week of bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small- and large-molecule analysis involving LC-MS, hybrid ligand-binding assay (LBA)/LC-MS and LBA approaches. This 2017 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2017 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 3) covers the recommendations for large-molecule bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity using LBA. Part 1 (LC-MS for small molecules, peptides and small molecule biomarkers) and Part 2 (hybrid LBA/LC-MS for biotherapeutics and regulatory agencies' inputs) are published in volume 9 of Bioanalysis, issues 22 and 23 (2017), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2017-4974DOI Listing
December 2017

2017 White Paper: rise of hybrid LBA/LCMS immunogenicity assays (Part 2: hybrid LBA/LCMS biotherapeutics, biomarkers & immunogenicity assays and regulatory agencies' inputs).

Bioanalysis 2017 Dec 5;9(23):1895-1912. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Celgene, Summit, NJ, USA.

The 2017 11th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (11th WRIB) took place in Los Angeles/Universal City, California on 3-7 April 2017 with participation of close to 750 professionals from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, weeklong event - a full immersion week of bioanalysis, biomarkers and immunogenicity. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small and large molecule analysis involving LCMS, hybrid ligand binding assay (LBA)/LCMS and LBA approaches. This 2017 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2017 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 2) covers the recommendations for biotherapeutics, biomarkers and immunogenicity assays using hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory agencies' inputs. Part 1 (LCMS for small molecules, peptides and small molecule biomarkers) and Part 3 (LBA: immunogenicity, biomarkers and pharmacokinetic assays) are published in Volume 9 of Bioanalysis, issues 22 and 24 (2017), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2017-4973DOI Listing
December 2017

2017 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: aren't BMV guidance/guidelines 'Scientific'? (Part 1 - LCMS: small molecules, peptides and small molecule biomarkers).

Bioanalysis 2017 Nov 17;9(22):1807-1825. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

UK MHRA, London, UK.

The 2017 11th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (11th WRIB) took place in Los Angeles/Universal City, California from 3 April 2017 to 7 April 2017 with participation of close to 750 professionals from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, weeklong event - A Full Immersion Week of Bioanalysis, Biomarkers and Immunogenicity. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small and large molecule analysis involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS and ligand-binding assay (LBA) approaches. This 2017 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2017 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 1) covers the recommendations for Small Molecules, Peptides and Small Molecule Biomarkers using LCMS. Part 2 (Biotherapeutics, Biomarkers and Immunogenicity Assays using Hybrid LBA/LCMS and Regulatory Agencies' Inputs) and Part 3 (LBA: Immunogenicity, Biomarkers and PK Assays) are published in volume 9 of Bioanalysis, issues 23 and 24 (2017), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2017-4975DOI Listing
November 2017

The Global Bioequivalence Harmonization Initiative: Summary report for EUFEPS international conference.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Jan 28;111:153-157. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Medicines Evaluation Board, The Netherlands.

Bioequivalence (BE) is considered one of the key questions in new and generic drug product development and registration worldwide. However, the regulations and jurisdiction vary from country to country and continent to continent. Harmonization of regulatory requirements and criteria for BE determination may avoid unnecessary repetition of BE studies and minimize drug exposure to humans. Harmonization around the globe may be achieved by a better understanding of scientific principles and expectations from different regulatory authorities. To facilitate global harmonization, the Network on Bioavailability and Biopharmaceutics (BABP) under the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) launched a Global Bioequivalence Harmonization Initiative (GBHI) several years ago. This international conference was the first in a series of workshops organized by EUFEPS/BABP under GBHI. The workshop provided a forum for pharmaceutical scientists from academia, industry and regulatory agencies to have open discussions on selected BE issues in the hope of identifying common ground and arriving at a harmonized view on these topics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2017.09.047DOI Listing
January 2018

2016 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on biomarker assay validation (BAV): (Part 3 - LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity).

Bioanalysis 2016 Dec;8(23):2475-2496

OncoMed Pharmaceuticals, Redwood City, CA, USA.

The 2016 10th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (10th WRIB) took place in Orlando, Florida with participation of close to 700 professionals from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a weeklong event - A Full Immersion Week of Bioanalysis for PK, Biomarkers and Immunogenicity. As usual, it is specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small and large molecules involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, and LBA approaches, with the focus on PK, biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2016 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. This White Paper is published in 3 parts due to length. This part (Part 3) discusses the recommendations for large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity. Parts 1 (small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS) and Part 2 (Hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory inputs from major global health authorities) have been published in the Bioanalysis journal, issues 22 and 23, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2016-4989DOI Listing
December 2016

2016 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on biomarker assay validation (BAV): (Part 2 - Hybrid LBA/LCMS and input from regulatory agencies).

Bioanalysis 2016 Dec;8(23):2457-2474

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland.

The 2016 10th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (10 WRIB) took place in Orlando, Florida with participation of close to 700 professionals from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, weeklong event - A Full Immersion Week of Bioanalysis including Biomarkers and Immunogenicity. As usual, it is specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small and large molecules involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, and LBA approaches, with the focus on biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2016 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. This White Paper is published in 3 parts due to length. This part (Part 2) discusses the recommendations for Hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory inputs from major global health authorities. Parts 1 (small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity) have been published in the Bioanalysis journal, issues 22 and 23, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2016-4988DOI Listing
December 2016

2016 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on biomarker assay validation (BAV) (Part 1 - small molecules, peptides and small molecule biomarkers by LCMS).

Bioanalysis 2016 Nov 7;8(22):2363-2378. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Novartis, Emeryville, CA, USA.

The 2016 10 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (10 WRIB) took place in Orlando, Florida with participation of close to 700 professionals from pharmaceutical/biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations, and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5-day, weeklong event - A Full Immersion Week of Bioanalysis including Biomarkers and Immunogenicity. As usual, it was specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest including both small and large molecule analysis involving LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, and LBA approaches, with the focus on biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2016 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. This white paper is published in 3 parts due to length. This part (Part 1) discusses the recommendations for small molecules, peptides and small molecule biomarkers by LCMS. Part 2 (Hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory inputs from major global health authorities) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity) will be published in the Bioanalysis journal, issue 23.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2016-4992DOI Listing
November 2016

Interchangeability between first-line generic antiretroviral products prequalified by WHO using adjusted indirect comparisons.

Antivir Ther 2017 20;22(2):135-144. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

División de Farmacología y Evaluación Clínica, Departamento de Medicamentos de Uso Humano, Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The scaling-up of access to antiretroviral therapy, particularly in low- to middle-income countries, was facilitated by the introduction and widespread use of generic antiretroviral medicines and fixed-dose combinations. Generic medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on the demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator or reference product, as well as meeting quality standards. In clinical practice, however, it is not unusual for generics to be interchanged between each other. This study investigated the differences in bioavailability between WHO-prequalified first-line antiretroviral generics by means of adjusted indirect comparisons to ensure interchangeability between these generics.

Methods: Data on 34 products containing emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and efavirenz in single formulations or fixed-dose combinations were included in the analysis. The 90% CI for the adjusted indirect comparisons was calculated using the homoscedastic method that uses the conventional t-test, and assumes homogeneity of variances between the studies and small sample sizes. The combined standard deviation of both bioequivalence studies was calculated from the variability of each individual study.

Results: The adjusted indirect comparisons between generics showed that the differences, expressed as 90% CIs, are less than 30%. Confidence in the interchangeability of two generic products was reduced if the mean difference between the test and reference in the original studies is more than 10%.

Conclusions: From a bioequivalence perspective, the generic antiretroviral medicines prequalified by WHO are interchangeable with the reference, as well as between each other without safety or efficacy concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP3089DOI Listing
June 2017

2015 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on new technologies and biomarkers (Part 3--LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity).

Bioanalysis 2015 Dec 4;7(24):3107-24. Epub 2015 Dec 4.

Sanofi, Framingham, MA, USA.

The 2015 9th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (9th WRIB) took place in Miami, Florida with participation of 600 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. WRIB was once again a 5 day, week-long event - A Full Immersion Bioanalytical Week - specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS and LBA approaches, including the focus on biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2015 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2015 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts. Part 3 discusses the recommendations for large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity. Part 1 (small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS) and Part 2 (hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory inputs from major global health authorities) have been published in volume 7, issues 22 and 23 of Bioanalysis, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.15.226DOI Listing
December 2015

2015 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on new technologies and biomarkers (Part 2 - hybrid LBA/LCMS and input from regulatory agencies).

Bioanalysis 2015 Dec 2;7(23):3019-34. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Germany BfArM, Bonn, Germany.

The 2015 9th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (9th WRIB) took place in Miami, Florida with participation of over 600 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. It is once again a 5-day week long event - a full immersion bioanalytical week - specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA approaches including the focus on biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2015 White Paper encompasses recommendations that emerged from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed at providing the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to advance scientific excellence, improve quality and deliver better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2015 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts. Part 2 covers the recommendations for hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory agencies' inputs. Part 1 (small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity) will be published in volume 7 of Bioanalysis, issues 22 and 24, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.15.214DOI Listing
December 2015

2015 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on new technologies and biomarkers (Part 1 - small molecules by LCMS).

Bioanalysis 2015 17;7(22):2913-25. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Merck Research Labs, West Point, PA, USA.

The 2015 9th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (9th WRIB) took place in Miami, Florida with participation of over 600 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. It is once again a 5-day week long event - a full immersion bioanalytical week - specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA approaches including the focus on biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2015 White Paper encompasses recommendations that emerged from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to advance scientific excellence, improve quality and deliver better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2015 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the recommendations for small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS. Part 2 (hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory agencies' inputs) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity) will also be published in volume 7 of Bioanalysis, issues 23 and 24, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.15.204DOI Listing
September 2016

Influence of point estimates and study power of bioequivalence studies on establishing bioequivalence between generics by adjusted indirect comparisons.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2015 Sep 24;71(9):1083-9. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences (UIPS), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Adjusted indirect comparisons can be used to investigate bioequivalence between generic products that are bioequivalent with a common reference product. In previous work with generic tuberculosis medicines prequalified by the WHO, it was observed that although indirect comparisons are an effective approach for confirming the interchangeability of generics, the approach is subject to less precision than direct comparisons. The objective of this investigation was to explore this by examining the influence of point estimates and power of bioequivalence studies versus the reference on the ability to show equivalence in indirect comparisons.

Methods: Power was considered as a determining factor instead of variability and sample size, because sample size is calculated based on variability and desired power. Scenarios were computed combining a range of point estimate differences (0-14 %) and statistical power of the studies (50-99.99 %).

Results: The indirect comparisons could conclude equivalence between generics only when (a) point estimate differences between generics were low (≤ 5.5 %) for any sufficiently powered study (> 80 %), or (b) the differences were large (but less than 14 %) and both bioequivalence studies were overpowered (e.g., 10 % difference and power ≥ 95 %).

Conclusions: In summary, the ability to demonstrate interchangeability between generics is dependent not only on the real differences between the products but also on the design of the original generic vs. reference bioequivalence studies being combined, as earmarked by their respective power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-015-1889-9DOI Listing
September 2015

2014 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: a full immersion in bioanalysis (Part 2 - hybrid LBA/LCMS, ELN & regulatory agencies' input).

Bioanalysis 2014 ;6(23):3237-49

Pfizer, Andover, MA, USA.

The 2014 8th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (8th WRIB), a 5-day full immersion in the evolving field of bioanalysis, took place in Universal City, California, USA. Close to 500 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide convened to share, review, discuss and agree on approaches to address current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA approaches and immunogenicity. From the prolific discussions held during the workshop, specific recommendations are presented in this 2014 White Paper. As with the previous years' editions, this paper acts as a practical tool to help the bioanalytical community continue advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2014 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 2) covers the recommendations for Hybrid LBA/LCMS, Electronic Laboratory Notebook and Regulatory Agencies' Input. Part 1 (Small molecules bioanalysis using LCMS) was published in the Bioanalysis issue 6(22) and Part 3 (Large molecules bioanalysis using LBA and Immunogenicity) will be published in the Bioanalysis issue 6(24).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.14.279DOI Listing
August 2015

2014 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: a full immersion in bioanalysis (Part 1--small molecules by LCMS).

Bioanalysis 2014 ;6(22):3039-49

Pfizer, Pearl River, NY, USA.

The 2014 8th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (8th WRIB), a 5-day full immersion in the evolving field of bioanalysis, took place in Universal City, California, USA. Close to 500 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide convened to share, review, discuss and agree on approaches to address current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA approaches and immunogenicity. From the prolific discussions held during the workshop, specific recommendations are presented in this 2014 White Paper. As with the previous years' editions, this paper acts as a practical tool to help the bioanalytical community continue advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2014 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 1) covers the recommendations for small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS. Part 2 (Hybrid LBA/LCMS, Electronic Laboratory Notebook and Regulatory Agencies' input) and Part 3 (Large molecules bioanalysis using LBA and Immunogenicity) will be published in the upcoming issues of Bioanalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.14.265DOI Listing
July 2015

2013 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: 'hybrid'--the best of LBA and LCMS.

Bioanalysis 2013 Dec 10;5(23):2903-18. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

Biogen Idec Inc.,Cambridge, MA, USA.

The 2013 7th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis was held in Long Beach, California, USA, where close to 500 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, CROs and regulatory agencies convened to discuss current topics of interest in bioanalysis. These 'hot' topics, which covered both small and large molecules, were the starting point for fruitful exchanges of knowledge, and sharing of ideas among speakers, panelists and attendees. The discussions led to specific recommendations pertinent to bioanalytical science. Such as the previous editions, this 2013 White Paper addresses important bioanalytical issues and provides practical answers to the topics presented, discussed and agreed upon by the global bioanalytical community attending the 7th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.13.238DOI Listing
December 2013

2012 white paper on recent issues in bioanalysis and alignment of multiple guidelines.

Bioanalysis 2012 Sep;4(18):2213-26

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Over 400 professionals representing pharmaceutical companies, CROs, and multiple regulatory agencies participated in the 6th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB). Like the previous sessions, this event was in the format of a practical, focused, highly interactive and informative workshop aiming for high-quality, improved regulatory compliance and scientific excellence. Numerous 'hot' topics in bioanalysis of both small and large molecules were shared and discussed, leading to consensus and recommendations among panelists and attendees representing the bioanalytical community. The major outcome of this year's workshop was the noticeable alignment of multiple bioanalytical guidance/guidelines from different regulatory agencies. This represents a concrete step forward in the global harmonization of bioanalytical activities. The present 2012 White Paper acts as a practical and useful reference document that provides key information and solutions on several topics and issues in the constantly evolving world of bioanalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.205DOI Listing
September 2012

Statistical approaches to indirectly compare bioequivalence between generics: a comparison of methodologies employing artemether/lumefantrine 20/120 mg tablets as prequalified by WHO.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2012 Dec 21;68(12):1611-8. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

Evaluation and Registration Unit, Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare different methods of adjusted indirect comparisons that can be used to investigate the relative bioavailability of different generic products. To achieve this goal, generic artemether/lumefantrine 20/120 mg tablets that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) were selected as model products for study.

Methods: Data from three bioequivalence studies conducted independently that compared three generics with the same reference product were used to indirectly determine the relative bioavailability between the generics themselves.

Results: The different methods of indirect comparison examined in this study provide consistent results. Methods based on the assumption of a large sample size give slightly narrower 90 % confidence intervals. Therefore, the use of methods based on the t test is recommended. Given the precision of the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) data, it is possible to conclude that the extent of exposure of artemether and lumefantrine is bioequivalent between the different generics studied. However, given the precision of the drug peak concentration (C(max)) data, it is not possible to demonstrate equivalence within the conventional acceptance range for all comparisons; it is possible to conclude bioequivalence within the widened acceptance range 75-133 %.

Conclusions: From a clinical viewpoint, not only are these prequalified generics bioequivalent and interchangeable with the reference product (Coartem, Novartis), but also the existing indirect evidence makes it possible to conclude that these WHO prequalified products are bioequivalent between themselves with respect to the AUC. The lack of the necessary precision to demonstrate bioequivalence between generics with respect to the C(max) within the conventional acceptance range does not preclude considering them as interchangeable, if necessary, since C(max) is considered to be of less clinical relevance for the relevant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-012-1396-1DOI Listing
December 2012

US FDA/EMA harmonization of their bioanalytical guidance/guideline and activities of the Global Bioanalytical Consortium.

Bioanalysis 2012 Feb;4(3):231-6

Algorithme Pharma Inc., Laval (Montreal), QC, Canada.

The 2011 annual conference of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, held in Washington DC, USA, hosted a roundtable entitled: 'Update of the US FDA/European Medicines Agency (EMA) harmonization of their bioanalytical guidance - Global Bioanalytical Consortium activity and impact on small and large molecules.' The roundtable was initiated with a presentation from CT Viswanathan on the history of the revision of the FDA guideline on bioanalytical method validation. It was followed by a presentation by Jan Welink who presented an update on the final European Medicines Agency guideline on bioanalytical method validation with relevance to ongoing harmonization efforts. The final presentation was by Fabio Garofolo on the progress of the Global Bioanalytical Consortium harmonization teams for small and large molecules. Brian Booth and Sam Haidar of the FDA updated the audience on the status of the revision of the FDA bioanalytical guidance. The roundtable was moderated by Stephen Lowes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.1DOI Listing
February 2012

2010 white paper on recent issues in regulated bioanalysis & global harmonization of bioanalytical guidance.

Bioanalysis 2010 Dec;2(12):1945-60

Algorithme Pharma Inc., 575 Armand-Frappier Blvd, Laval (Montreal), Quebec, Canada.

The 4th Calibration and Validation Group Workshop on Recent Issues in Regulated Bioanalysis, a 2-day full immersion workshop, was organized by the Calibration and Validation Group. Contract research organizations, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies came together to discuss several 'hot' topics concerning bioanalytical issues and regulatory challenges and to reach a consensus among panelists and attendees on many points regarding method validation of small and large molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.10.164DOI Listing
December 2010