Publications by authors named "Jan Victor"

112 Publications

Custom TKA: what to expect and where do we stand today?

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Ghent University Hospital, C Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Gent, Belgium.

Introduction: The concept of custom total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is explored with specific attention to current limitations. Arguments in favor of custom TKA are the anatomic and functional variability we encounter in our patients. The biggest conceptual challenge is to marry the need for correction of deformity with the ambition to stay as close as possible to original anatomy.

Materials And Methods: A Pubmed search was performed on the following terms: 'patient specific implant', 'custom made implant', 'custom implant', 'total knee arthroplasty' and 'total knee replacement'. These studies were evaluated for the following intra- and post-operative variables: blood loss, hospital stay, range of motion, patient-reported outcome measures, limb and implant alignment, implant fit, tibiofemoral kinematics, complications and revision rates.

Results: Out of 1117 studies found with the initial search, a total of 17 articles were included in the final analysis. In eight out of the 17 (47%) studies, either the research was commercially funded or one of the authors had a conflict of interest related to the work. 11 out of 17 studies included a control group in their study setup. Of those studies that included a control group, both superior and inferior results compared to off-the-shelf implants have been reported.

Conclusion: Custom knee implants are the next step in matching the geometric features of the prosthesis to the anatomy of the individual patient, after several iterations that added asymmetry and sizes in the existing implants. Several companies have proven that it is feasible to produce these implants in a safe way. An overview of current literature reveals the lack of strong methodological studies that prove the value of this new technology. Custom knee implants face conceptual and practical difficulties, some of which might be overcome with technological advances, such as robotics and artificial intelligence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-04038-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Return to sport and work after medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy : a case series.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):117-124

Data on return to work and sport following open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) have been underreported. Furthermore, there is no clear consensus in literature about the postoperative alignment goals following HTO. A retrospective case series was performed to evaluate return to sport and work following open wedge HTO. The University of California, Los Angeles scale, the German classification system according to the Reichsausschuß für Arbeitszeitermittlung, the Tegner score and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were used to asses the employment status, sport status and clinical outcome at the time of surgery and at final follow-up, minimum 2 years after surgery. The pre- and postoperative hip knee ankle angle (HKA) were documented. The desired postoperative alignment target was 0°-2° valgus mechanical axis. 30 open wedge HTOs were performed of which 27 patients were retrospectively included in the study. 25 out of 26 patients returned to work and 15 out of 17 patients returned to sport following surgery. Outcome scores were significantly higher after surgery. The mean postoperative HKA was 0,9° of valgus mechanical axis. This study shows excellent outcome in sport and work activity and clinical outcome after open wedge HTO. We furthermore suggest that these outcomes can be obtained with a postoperative alignment of 0°-2° of valgus mechanical axis.
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March 2021

An improved method for assessing the technical accuracy of optical tracking systems for orthopaedic surgical navigation.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Aug 3;17(4):e2285. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Electrical Energy, Metal, Mechanical Construction and Systems, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Optical tracking systems (OTSs) are essential components of many modern computer assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) systems but patient movement is often neglected in the evaluation of the accuracy. The aim of this study was to develop a representative test to assess the accuracy of OTSs including patient movement and demonstrate the effect of pointer design and OTS choice.

Method: A mobile phantom with dynamic reference base (DRB) attached was designed and constructed. The point registration trueness and precision were evaluated for measurements with both a static and moving phantom.

Results: The trueness of the total target registration error (TTRE) was 1.4 to 2.7 times worse with a moving phantom compared to a static phantom.

Conclusion: The accuracy of OTSs for CAOS applications should be evaluated by measurements with a moving phantom as the evaluation of the TTRE with a static frame significantly underestimates the measurement error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcs.2285DOI Listing
August 2021

The contralateral knee is a good predictor for determining normal knee stability: a cadaveric study.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

Purpose: The goal is to evaluate contralateral knee joint laxity and ascertain whether or not contralateral symmetry is observable. Secondary, a validation of a knee laxity testing rig is provided.

Methods: Seven pairs of cadaveric knee specimens have been tested under passive conditions with and without external loads, involving a varus/valgus and an external/internal rotational torque and an anteroposterior shear force.

Results: Through the range of motion, the width of the varus/valgus laxity, internal/external laxity and anterior/posterior laxity for the medial and lateral compartment show no significant differences between left and right leg. These findings allow us to validate the setup, especially for relative values of laxity based on anatomical measures and knee joint biomechanics.

Conclusion: A multidirectional laxity symmetry has been demonstrated for the intact knee and its contralateral knee in passive conditions as in an anesthetized patient. The passive laxity evaluation setup has been validated. Our work furthermore demonstrated a pronounced difference in anteroposterior mobility between the medial and lateral compartment of the knee, with a more stable medial side and more mobile lateral side.

Clinical Relevance: The contralateral knee can be used as reference for determining optimal knee laxity peri-operatively in total knee replacement and ligament reconstruction.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, Case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06575-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision surgery depends upon the indication for revision : a systematic review.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Dec;86(4):663-677

The number of revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgeries has increased over the years and it is expected that its number will keep rising. Most frequent reasons for revision are known to be aseptic loosening, infection, instability, periprosthetic frac- ture, arthrofibrosis and component malposition. The influence of the indication for revision on the outcome scores is not fully understood. Therefore, this work will evaluate and review the existing literature regarding outcome scores after revision TKA surgery. We conducted a sensitive and comprehensive search for published and unpublished studies relevant to the review question. We restricted our search to English studies published between January 2008 and December 2018. Our systematic review was done according to PRISMA guidelines. We withheld 19 studies (1419 knees) for inclusion. Of these, 9 papers reported outcome scores after TKA revision for aseptic loosening, 10 reported on revision for instability, 10 reported on stiffness or arthrofibrosis and 4 papers reported on component malposition. Although we found some papers suggesting that there is no difference in postoperative outcome scores depending on the aetiology of revision surgery, the majority of the included studies suggest differently. This review suggests there is a tendency for relative higher outcome scores after revision for aseptic loosening. Revision for malrotation might give comparable postoperative outcome scores and satisfaction ratios. Revision for instability tends to give lower postoperative outcome scores than aseptic loosening, although certain subgroups of instability show comparable results. Lowest postoperative scores might be found after revision for stiffness and arthrofibrosis.
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December 2020

Biceps Femoris Compensates for Semitendinosus After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With a Hamstring Autograft: A Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Male Soccer Players.

Am J Sports Med 2021 05 16;49(6):1470-1481. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Rates of reinjury, return to play (RTP) at the preinjury level, and hamstring strain injuries in male soccer players after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) remain unsatisfactory, due to multifactorial causes. Recent insights on intramuscular hamstring coordination revealed the semitendinosus (ST) to be of crucial importance for hamstring functioning, especially during heavy eccentric hamstring loading. Scientific evidence on the consequences of ST tendon harvest for ACLR is scarce and inconsistent. This study intended to investigate the repercussions of ST harvest for ACLR on hamstring muscle function.

Hypothesis: Harvest of the ST tendon for ACLR was expected to have a significant influence on hamstring muscle activation patterns during eccentric exercises, evaluated at RTP in a population of male soccer athletes.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: A total of 30 male soccer players with a history of ACLR who were cleared for RTP and 30 healthy controls were allocated to this study during the 2018-2019 soccer season. The influence of ACLR on hamstring muscle activation patterns was assessed by comparing the change in T2 relaxation times [ΔT2 (%) = ] of the hamstring muscle tissue before and after an eccentric hamstring loading task between athletes with and without a recent history of ACLR through use of muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging, induced by an eccentric hamstring loading task between scans.

Results: Significantly higher exercise-related activity was observed in the biceps femoris (BF) of athletes after ACLR compared with uninjured control athletes (13.92% vs 8.48%; = .003), whereas the ST had significantly lower activity (19.97% vs 25.32%; = .049). Significant differences were also established in a within-group comparison of the operated versus the contralateral leg in the ACLR group (operated vs nonoperated leg: 14.54% vs 11.63% for BF [ = .000], 17.31% vs 22.37% for ST [ = .000], and 15.64% vs 13.54% for semimembranosus [SM] [ = .014]). Neither the muscle activity of SM and gracilis muscles nor total posterior thigh muscle activity (sum of exercise-related ΔT2 of the BF, ST, and SM muscles) presented any differences in individuals who had undergone ACLR with an ST tendon autograft compared with healthy controls.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that ACLR with a ST tendon autograft might notably influence the function of the hamstring muscles and, in particular, their hierarchic dimensions under fatiguing loading circumstances, with increases in relative BF activity contribution and decreases in relative ST activity after ACLR. This between-group difference in hamstring muscle activation pattern suggests that the BF partly compensates for deficient ST function in eccentric loading. These alterations might have implications for athletic performance and injury risk and should probably be considered in rehabilitation and hamstring injury prevention after ACLR with a ST tendon autograft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211003309DOI Listing
May 2021

Conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Sep;86(3):412-421

Osteoarthritis of the knee causes chronic knee pain, loss of function and disability in the ageing population. When no treatment is applied, a guaranteed onset of symptoms and/or structural damage can be observed in the diseased knee. This work reviewed the different published guidelines, proposing combinations of weight reduction, physical therapy and rehabilitation, self-management education programs and pharmacological treatment. Randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and guidelines were identified using the databases PubMed and Web of Science. Specific journals and reference lists were investigated. Sixty high quality articles were included concerning the conservative treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Weight loss when BMI > 28kg/m 2 ; aerobic, proprioception and strengthening training; NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac, aceclofenac), IA corticosteroid and IA hyaluronic acid has the highest evidence. To achieve the greatest positive clinical and structural outcome, a combined conservative therapy is recommended.
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September 2020

The pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification after traumatic brain injury. A review of current literature.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Sep;86(3):369-377

Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO), mostly defined as a benign process of formation of bone outside the skeletal system, after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes pain and reduces the range of motion, often leading to marked impairment of quality of life. The pathogenic factors that link the brain and bone and cause the formation of heterotopic bone are largely unknown. This article will try to summarize the current literature on the pathogenesis of NHO and accelerated fracture healing after TBI. The heterotopic formation of bone after TBI seems to be inducted by a complex interplay between local and systemic factors. For all different forms of HO, the same three conditions are required for the formation of ectopic bone : The presence of osteoprogenitor cells, a permissive environment, and a stimulating factor. The osteoprogenitor cells are thought to be of mesenchymal origin, however recent research suggests a possible neural origin. The permissive environment is created mainly by reactions to hypoxia and both local and sensory nerve inflammation. Many possible inducing factors have been described ; the endogenic route is thought to be the most dominant in the stimulation of HO formation after TBI. The pathogenesis of NHO remains largely unknown, recent research, however, has discovered interesting topics for further research and new possible targets in the prevention of NHO.
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September 2020

An evaluation of the influence of force- and weight bearing (a)symmetry on patient reported outcomes after total knee arthroplasty.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Jun;86(2):294-302

It has been reported that balance impairments and asymmetrical movement patterns occur in patients after total kne arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if force- and weight-bearing asymmetry correlate with patient-reported outcomes (PROMs). Twenty patients were prospectively analysed up to 6 months after TKA. Quadriceps- and hamstring force were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Vertical ground reaction forces during sit-to-stand, stair descending and squatting were assessed by force plates. Patients were asked to complete the KOOS, OKS and 2011 KSS. The symmetry-ratios during sit-to-stand, squat and stair-descent improved significantly. Preopera-tive quadriceps-force was positively correlated with KOOS-Symptoms (r=0.583, p=0.037). The pre-operative load-symmetry ratio during STS was negatively correlated with improvement in KOOS Pain (r=-0.675, p=0.011) and Symptoms (r=-0.674, p=0.008). In deep flexion, preoperative bodyweight ratio was positively correlated with postoperative OKS (r=0.601, p=0.039), KSS-Satisfaction (r=0.675, p=0.011) and improvement in KSS-Satisfaction (r=0.684, p=0.029). Weight bearing and force asymmetry do exist before TKA and take up to at least 6-months to fully recover. The more symmetry in muscle-force and weight-bearing is found preoperatively, the better the PROMs will be at 6 months after surgery.
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June 2020

Alignment of the hindfoot in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review of clinical and radiological outcomes.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jan;103-B(1):87-97

Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.

Aims: Patients with a deformity of the hindfoot present a particular challenge when performing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The literature contains little information about the relationship between TKA and hindfoot alignment. This systematic review aimed to determine from both clinical and radiological studies whether TKA would alter a preoperative hindfoot deformity and whether the outcome of TKA is affected by the presence of a postoperative hindfoot deformity.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Search terms consisted of "total knee arthroplasty/replacement" combined with "hindfoot/ankle alignment". Inclusion criteria were all English language studies analyzing the association between TKA and the alignment of the hindfoot, including the clinical or radiological outcomes. Exclusion criteria consisted of TKA performed with a concomitant extra-articular osteotomy and case reports or expert opinions. An assessment of quality was conducted using the modified Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). The review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42019106980).

Results: A total of 17 studies were found to be eligible for review. They included six prospective and ten retrospective studies, and one case-control study. The effects of TKA showed a clinical improvement in the hindfoot deformity in three studies, but did not if there was osteoarthritis (OA) of the ankle (one study) or a persistent deformity of the knee (one study). The radiological alignment of the hindfoot corrected in 11 studies, but did not in the presence of a rigid hindfoot varus deformity (in two studies). The effects of a hindfoot deformity on TKA included a clinical association with instability of the knee in one study, and a shift in the radiological weightbearing axis in two studies. The mean MINORS score was 9.4 out of 16 (7 to 12).

Conclusion: TKA improves both the function and alignment of the hindfoot in patients with a preoperative deformity of the hindfoot. This may not apply if there is a persistent deformity of the knee, a rigid hindfoot varus deformity, or OA of the ankle. Moreover, a persistent deformity of the hindfoot may adversely affect the stability and longevity of a TKA. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the moderate methodological quality of the studies which were included. Therefore, further prospective studies are needed in order to determine at which stage correction of a hindfoot deformity is required to optimize the outcome of a TKA. Cite this article: 2021;103-B(1):87-97.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B1.BJJ-2020-0143.R1DOI Listing
January 2021

Muscle loaded stability reflects ligament-based stability in TKA: a cadaveric study.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: This paper aims at evaluating the effects of muscle load on knee kinematics and stability after TKA and second at evaluating the effect of TKA surgery on knee kinematics and stability; and third, at correlating the stability in passive conditions and the stability in active, muscle loaded conditions.

Methods: Fourteen fresh frozen cadaveric knee specimens were tested under passive and active condition with and without external loads involving a varus/valgus and internal/external rotational torque before and after TKA surgery using two in-house developed and previously validated test setups.

Results: Introduction of muscle force resulted in increased valgus (0.98°) and internal rotation of the femur (4.64°). TKA surgery also affected the neutral path kinematics, resulting in more varus (1.25°) and external rotation of the femur (5.22°). All laxities were significantly reduced by the introduction of the muscle load and after implantation of the TKA. The presence of the implant significantly affects the active varus/valgus laxity. This contrasts with the rotational laxity, in which case the passive laxity is the main determinant for the active laxity. For the varus/valgus laxity, the passive laxity is also a significant predictor of the active laxity.

Conclusion: Knee stability is clearly affected by the presence of muscle load. This points to the relevance of appropriate rehabilitation with focus on avoiding muscular atrophy. At the same time, the functional, muscle loaded stability strongly relates to the passive, ligament-based stability. It remains therefore important to assess knee stability at the time of surgery, since the passive laxity is the only predictor for functional stability in the operating theatre.

Level Of Evidence: Case series, Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06329-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Robot-assisted total knee arthroplasty is associated with a learning curve for surgical time but not for component alignment, limb alignment and gap balancing.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, C. Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Gent, Belgium.

Purpose: The application of robotics in the operating theatre for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. As with all new technology, the introduction of new systems is associated with a learning curve and potentially associated with extra complications. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify and predict the learning curve of robot-assisted (RA) TKA.

Methods: A RA TKA system (MAKO) was introduced in April 2018 in our service. A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients receiving a TKA with this system by six surgeons. Operative times, implant and limb alignment, intraoperative joint balance and robot-related complications were evaluated. Cumulative summation (CUSUM) analyses were used to assess learning curves for operative time, implant alignment and joint balance in RA TKA. Linear regression was performed to predict the learning curve of each surgeon.

Results: RA TKA was associated with a learning curve of 11-43 cases for operative time (p < 0.001). This learning curve was significantly affected by the surgical profile (high vs. medium vs. low volume). A complete normalisation of operative times was seen in four out of five surgeons. The precision of implant positioning and gap balancing showed no learning curve. An average deviation of 0.2° (SD 1.4), 0.7° (SD 1.1), 1.2 (SD 2.1), 0.2° (SD 2.9) and 0.3 (SD 2.4) for the mLDFA, MPTA, HKA, PDFA and PPTA from the preoperative plan was observed. Limb alignment showed a mean deviation of 1.2° (SD 2.1) towards valgus postoperatively compared to the intraoperative plan. One tibial stress fracture was seen as a complication due to suboptimal positioning of the registration pins.

Conclusion: RA TKA is associated with a learning curve for surgical time, which might be longer than reported in current literature and dependent on the profile of the surgeon. There is no learning curve for component alignment, limb alignment and gap balancing.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06341-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Soft-tissue penetration of the oscillating saw during tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2020 Oct;102-B(10):1324-1330

Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Aims: Inadvertent soft tissue damage caused by the oscillating saw during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) occurs when the sawblade passes beyond the bony boundaries into the soft tissue. The primary objective of this study is to assess the risk of inadvertent soft tissue damage during jig-based TKA by evaluating the excursion of the oscillating saw past the bony boundaries. The second objective is the investigation of the relation between this excursion and the surgeon's experience level.

Methods: A conventional jig-based TKA procedure with medial parapatellar approach was performed on 12 cadaveric knees by three experienced surgeons and three residents. During the proximal tibial resection, the motion of the oscillating saw with respect to the tibia was recorded. The distance of the outer point of this cutting portion to the edge of the bone was defined as the excursion of the oscillating saw. The excursion of the sawblade was evaluated in six zones containing the following structures: medial collateral ligament (MCL), posteromedial corner (PMC), iliotibial band (ITB), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), popliteus tendon (PopT), and neurovascular bundle (NVB).

Results: The mean 75 percentile value of the excursion of all cases was mean 2.8 mm (SD 2.9) for the MCL zone, mean 4.8 mm (SD 5.9) for the PMC zone, mean 3.4 mm (SD 2.0) for the ITB zone, mean 6.3 mm (SD 4.8) for the LCL zone, mean 4.9 mm (SD 5.7) for the PopT zone, and mean 6.1 mm (SD 3.9) for the NVB zone. Experienced surgeons had a significantly lower excursion than residents.

Conclusion: This study showed that the oscillating saw significantly passes the edge of the bone during the tibial resection in TKA, even in experienced hands. While reported neurovascular complications in TKA are rare, direct injury to the capsule and stabilizing structures around the knee is a consequence of the use of a hand-held oscillating saw when making the tibial cut. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(10):1324-1330.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B10.BJJ-2019-1602.R2DOI Listing
October 2020

The contralateral limb is no reliable reference to restore coronal alignment in TKA.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Jul 21. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Sint-Jan Hospital, Ruddershove 10, 8000, Bruges, Belgium.

Purpose: Implementation of morphometric reference data from the contralateral, unaffected lower limb is suggested when reconstructing the coronal plane alignment in TKA. Limited information, however, is available which confirms this left-to-right symmetry in coronal alignment based upon radiographs. The purpose of the study was, therefore, (1) to verify if a left-to-right symmetry is present and (2) to assess whether the contralateral lower limb would be a reliable reference for reconstructing the frontal plane alignment.

Methods: Full-leg standing radiographs of 250 volunteers (male, 125; female,125) were reviewed for three alignment parameters (Hip-Knee-Ankle angle (HKA), Femoral Mechanical Angle (FMA) and Tibial Mechanical Angle (TMA)). Evaluation of assumed left-to-right symmetry was performed according to two coronal alignment classifications (HKA subdivisions (HKA) and limb, femoral and tibial phenotypes (HKA, FMA and TMA)). Inter- and within-subject variability was calculated, along with correlations coefficients (r) and coefficients of determination (r). Reliability of the contralateral limb as a personalized reference to reconstruct the constitutional alignment was investigated by intervals, expanding by 1° increments (0.5° increment both to varus and valgus) around the right knee alignment parameters. Subsequently, it was verified whether or not the left knee parameters fell within this interval.

Results: Symmetrical distribution in coronal alignment was found in 79% (HKA subdivision) and 59% (limb phenotype) of the cohort. Gender differences were present for the most common symmetric limb phenotypes (VAR3° (23.2%) in males and NEU0° (38.4%) in females). Inter-subject variability was more prominent than the within-subject side differences for all parameters. Correlations analyses revealed mostly moderate correlations between the alignment measurements. Coefficients of determination showed overall weak left-to-right relationship, except for a moderate predictability for HKA (r = 0.538, p < 0.001) and FMA (r = 0.618, p < 0.001) in females. FMA and TMA marked weak predictive values for contralateral HKA. Only 60% of left knees were referenced within a 3° interval around the right knee.

Conclusion: No strict left-to-right symmetry was observed in coronal alignment measurements. There is insufficient left-to-right agreement to consider the concept of the contralateral unaffected limb as an idealized reference for frontal plane alignment reconstruction based upon full-leg standing radiographs.

Level Of Evidence: I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06152-9DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical and radiological characteristics of 82 solitary benign peripheral nerve tumours.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Mar;86(1):151-161

Benign peripheral nerve tumours are rare lesions. The surgical treatment and clinical outcomes depend on the resectability. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify clinical or radiological features that may predict the surgical technique that should be used to improve clinical outcome. Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with solitary benign peripheral nerve tumours. Fifty-five tumours were surgically resectable, and 27 were nonresectable. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound were used, which were predictive of the neural origin of the tumours in 87% (39/45) of cases imaged. In 78% (50/64) of cases imaged, an origin from the nerve sheath (peripheral nerve sheath tumour), or from non-neural elements was possible. However, no imaging or clinical criteria were identified that could determine tumour resectability preoperatively. The diagnosis of solitary peripheral nerve tumour still relies on the macroscopic appearance and definitive histology after epineurotomy.
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March 2020

Evaluation of cerclage wiring in the treatment of subtrochanteric fractures.

Acta Orthop Belg 2020 Mar;86(1):28-32

Treatment of subtrochanteric fractures is challenging because of their typical displacement pattern. Use of circumferential cerclage wires can be added to intramedullary nailing to facilitate better anatomical reduction. Concerns exist regarding additional soft tissue damage and ischemia of the periosteum. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cerclage on union and infection rates. The postoperative results of 115 patients over 11 years were retrospectively viewed. Twenty-three patients were treated with cerclage. The primary outcome measure was 'return to theatre for fixation failure'. There was no difference in reoperation rate or in infection rate. Average displacement of the lateral wall was larger (9mm vs 1,3mm) in the no-cerclage group (p=0,003). The mean duration of surgery in the cerclage group was 28 minutes longer (p=0.003). Cerclage wiring does not lead to higher re-operation, nor higher infection rates. The use of cerclage wire in open reduction is advocated when closed reduction is not satisfactory.
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March 2020

Do custom 3D-printed revision acetabular implants provide enough value to justify the additional costs? The health-economic comparison of a new porous 3D-printed hip implant for revision arthroplasty of Paprosky type 3B acetabular defects and its closest alternative.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 02 11;107(1):102600. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 4K3, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common operation for patients suffering from hip arthrosis. It has been proven effective in improving quality of life while being cost-effective. Meanwhile, the number of revision hip arthroplasty is growing and those may require bone reconstruction and are potential indications for 3D custom implants. In these specific indications, medical 3D-printing has grown over the years and the use of 3D-printed implants has become more frequent. To date, the cost-effectiveness of 3D-printed implants for acetabular revision THA has not been evaluated. Therefore we performed a health economic analysis to: (1) analyse the cost-effectiveness of the aMace implant compared to its closest alternative on the market, (2) have a better insight into Belgian costs of revision hip arthroplasties and (3) estimate the budget impact in Belgium.

Hypothesis: 3D-printed acetabular implants provide good value-for-health in Paprosky type 3B defects in a Belgian setting.

Material And Methods: Custom Three-flanged Acetabular Components (CTAC) were compared to a 3D-printed implant (aMace) by means of a Markov model with four states (successful, re-revision, resection and dead). The cycle length was set at 6 months with a 10-year time horizon. Data was obtained through systematic literature search and provided by a large social security agency. The analysis was performed from a societal perspective. All amounts are displayed in 2019 euros. Discount rates were applied for future cost (3%) and QALY (1.5%) estimates.

Results: Revision hip arthroplasty has an average societal cost of €9950 without implant. Based on the outcomes of our model, aMace provides an excellent value for money compared to CTAC. The Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was negative for all age groups. The base case of a 65 year old person, showed a QALY gain of 0.05 with a cost reduction of €1265 compared to CTAC. The advantage of using aMace was found to be greater if a patient is younger. The re-revision rates of both CTAC and aMace and the utility of successful revision have the highest impact on costs and effects. A Monte Carlo simulation showed aMace to be a cost-effective strategy in 90% of simulations for younger patients and in 88% of simulations for patients above 85 years old. In Belgium it would imply a cost reduction of €20500 on an annual basis.

Conclusions: Based on the findings of this model, the new 3D-printed aMace implant has the potential to bring an excellent value for money when used in revision arthroplasty of Paprosky type 3B acetabular defects. For all patients, aMace resulted in a dominant, cost-saving strategy in Belgium compared to CTAC.

Level Of Evidence: III, comparative medico economical diagnostic tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2020.03.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Periprosthetic joint infection of a total hip arthroplasty with Candida parapsilosis.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 31;69:72-75. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Introduction: Fungal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a disruptive and complex complication of joint arthroplasty. We present a case of a fungal PJI with Candida parapsilosis after a total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Presentation Of Case: A 73-year-old woman with a history of ovarian cancer with peritoneal metastases, was treated with a THA, due to symptomatic arthritis of the right hip. One month after surgery, she had difficulties walking. Inflammatory parameters were mildly increased. Aspiration of a subcutaneous abscess diagnosed Candida parapsilosis. A two-stage revision arthroplasty without spacer was performed. During a six-week prosthesis-free interval, intravenous fluconazole 400 mg was given. After reimplantation, fluconazole was continued for two weeks intravenously and life-long perorally. Follow-up of the patient after six months showed no recurrence of infection.

Discussion: This case revealed that when PJI is suspected, a low treshold for joint aspiration is important. Two-stage revision with systematic antifungal therapy is the preferred treatment of fungal PJI. Our case demonstrated a good result with a prosthesis-free interval. Fluconazole is the preferred antifungal treatment and it should be applied for at least six months or longer.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case of a fungal PJI with Candida parapsilosis after a THA treated with a two-stage revision arthroplasty without spacer and a life-long fluconazole treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.03.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155143PMC
March 2020

CORR Insights®: Likelihood of Return to Duty Is Low After Meniscal Allograft Transplantation in an Active-duty Military Population.

Authors:
Jan M K Victor

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 04;478(4):731-733

J. M. K. Victor, Orthopaedic Surgeon, University Hospital Ghent, Department of Orthopaedics, Gent, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282583PMC
April 2020

How should we evaluate robotics in the operating theatre?

Bone Joint J 2020 Apr;102-B(4):407-413

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, Gent, Belgium.

The application of robotics in the operating theatre for knee arthroplasty remains controversial. As with all new technology, the introduction of new systems might be associated with a learning curve. However, guidelines on how to assess the introduction of robotics in the operating theatre are lacking. This systematic review aims to evaluate the current evidence on the learning curve of robot-assisted knee arthroplasty. An extensive literature search of PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library was conducted. Randomized controlled trials, comparative studies, and cohort studies were included. Outcomes assessed included: time required for surgery, stress levels of the surgical team, complications in regard to surgical experience level or time needed for surgery, size prediction of preoperative templating, and alignment according to the number of knee arthroplasties performed. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most were of medium to low quality. The operating time of robot-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is associated with a learning curve of between six to 20 cases and six to 36 cases respectively. Surgical team stress levels show a learning curve of seven cases in TKA and six cases for UKA. Experience with the robotic systems did not influence implant positioning, preoperative planning, and postoperative complications. Robot-assisted TKA and UKA is associated with a learning curve regarding operating time and surgical team stress levels. Future evaluation of robotics in the operating theatre should include detailed measurement of the various aspects of the total operating time, including total robotic time and time needed for preoperative planning. The prior experience of the surgical team should also be evaluated and reported. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(4):407-413.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B4.BJJ-2019-1210.R1DOI Listing
April 2020

Alignment in total knee arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2020 Mar;102-B(3):276-279

University College London Hospitals, The Princess Grace Hospital, and The NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at UCLH, London, UK.

Dissatisfaction following total knee arthroplasty is a well-documented phenomenon. Although many factors have been implicated, including modifiable and nonmodifiable patient factors, emphasis over the past decade has been on implant alignment and stability as both a cause of, and a solution to, this problem. Several alignment targets have evolved with a proliferation of techniques following the introduction of computer and robotic-assisted surgery. Mechanical alignment targets may achieve mechanically-sound alignment while ignoring the soft tissue envelope; kinematic alignment respects the soft tissue envelope while ignoring the mechanical environment. Functional alignment is proposed as a hybrid technique to allow mechanically-sound, soft tissue-friendly alignment targets to be identified and achieved. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(3):276-279.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B3.BJJ-2019-1729DOI Listing
March 2020

Traumatic brain injury enhances the formation of heterotopic ossification around the hip: an animal model study.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Aug 13;140(8):1029-1035. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Introduction: The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) is at its highest when trauma of the hip or pelvis concurs with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The pathogenic mechanisms underlying the neurogenic enhancement of the formation of HO remain, however, poorly understood. Hence, the goal of the present study was to develop a novel small animal model that combines hip and brain trauma that can prove the enhancement of HO around the hip after TBI.

Materials And Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, to undergo hip surgery alone (group 1), hip surgery + moderate TBI (group 2), hip surgery + severe TBI (group 3) and only severe TBI (group 4). The femoral canal was reamed up to 2 mm and a muscle lesion was made to simulate hip surgery. An established controlled cortical impact model was used to create a TBI. Twelve weeks after surgery, the hip with the proximal half of the femur and the pelvic bone was removed and subjected to micro-computed tomography (µCT) analysis. A quantitative analysis using a modified Brooker score as well as a quantitative analysis using a bone-to-tissue ratio was used.

Results: No HO could be found in all the ten animals that did not undergo hip surgery (group 4). In the animals that did undergo surgery to the hip, no HO was found in only one animal (group 1). All the other animals developed HO. In this study, significantly more HO was found in animals that underwent an additional severe TBI.

Conclusion: The newly developed rat model, with a combined hip and brain trauma, showed an enhancement of the HO formation around the hip after severe TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-019-03326-0DOI Listing
August 2020

Is Lower-limb Alignment Associated with Hindfoot Deformity in the Coronal Plane? A Weightbearing CT Analysis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 01;478(1):154-168

A. B. M. Burssens, E. Vluggen, P. Demey, J. M. K. Victor, Department of Orthopaedics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: The goals of lower limb reconstruction are to restore alignment, to improve function, and to reduce pain. However, it remains unclear whether alignment of the lower limb and hindfoot are associated because an accurate assessment of hindfoot deformities has been limited by superposition on plain radiography. Consequently, surgeons often overlook hindfoot deformity when planning orthopaedic procedures of the lower limb. Therefore, we used weight-bearing CT to quantify hindfoot deformity related to lower limb alignment in the coronal plane.

Questions/purposes: (1) Is lower-limb alignment different in varus than in valgus hindfoot deformities for patients with and without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis? (2) Does a hindfoot deformity correlate with lower-limb alignment in patients with and without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis? (3) Is joint line orientation different in varus than in valgus hindfoot deformities for patients with tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis? (4) Does a hindfoot deformity correlate with joint line orientation in patients with tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis?

Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2017, one foot and ankle surgeon obtained weightbearing CT scans as second-line imaging for 184 patients with ankle and hindfoot disorders. In 69% (127 of 184 patients) of this cohort, a combined weightbearing CT and full-leg radiograph was performed when symptomatic hindfoot deformities were present. Of those, 85% (109 of 127 patients) with a median (range) age of 53 years (23 to 75) were confirmed eligible based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this retrospective comparative study. The Takakura classification was used to divide the cohort into patients with (n = 74) and without (n = 35) osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar joint. Lower-limb measurements, obtained from the full-leg radiographs, consisted of the mechanical tibiofemoral angle, mechanical tibia angle, and proximal tibial joint line angle. Weightbearing CT images were used to determine the hindfoot's alignment (mechanical hindfoot angle), the tibiotalar joint alignment (distal tibial joint line angle and talar tilt angle) and the subtalar joint alignment (subtalar vertical angle). These values were statistically assessed with an ANOVA and a pairwise comparison was subsequently performed with Tukey's adjustment. A linear regression analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). A reliability analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient.

Results: Lower limb alignment differed among patients with hindfoot deformity and among patients with or without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis. In patients with tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis, we found knee valgus in presence of hindfoot varus deformity and knee varus in presence of hindfoot valgus deformity (mechanical tibiofemoral angle 0.3 ± 2.6° versus -1.8 ± 2.1°; p < 0.001; mechanical tibia angle -1.4 ± 2.2° versus -4.3 ± 1.9°; p < 0.001). Patients without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis demonstrated knee varus in the presence of hindfoot varus deformity compared with knee valgus in presence of hindfoot valgus deformity (mechanical tibiofemoral angle -2.2 ± 2.2° versus 0.9 ± 2.4°; p < 0.001; mechanical tibia angle -1.8 ± 2.1° versus -4.3 ± 1.9°; p < 0.001). Patients with more valgus deformity in the hindfoot tended to have more tibiofemoral varus (r = -0.38) and tibial varus (r = -0.53), when tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis was present (p < 0.001). Conversely, patients with more valgus deformity in the hindfoot tended to have more tibiofemoral valgus (r = 0.4) and tibial valgus (r = 0.46), when tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis was absent (p < 0.001). The proximal joint line of the tibia had greater varus orientation in patients with a hindfoot valgus deformity compared with greater valgus orientation in patients with a hindfoot varus deformity (proximal tibial joint line angle 88.5 ± 2.0° versus 90.6 ± 2.2°; p < 0.05). Patients with more valgus deformity in the hindfoot tended to have more varus angulation of the proximal tibial joint line angle (r = 0.31; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In patients with osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar joint, varus angulation of the knee was associated with hindfoot valgus deformity and valgus angulation of the knee was associated with hindfoot varus deformity. Patients without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis exhibited the same deviation at the level of the knee and hindfoot. These distinct radiographic findings were most pronounced in the alignment of the tibia relative to the hindfoot deformity. This suggests a detailed examination of hindfoot alignment before knee deformity correction at the level of the proximal tibia, to avoid postoperative increase of pre-existing hindfoot deformity. Other differences detected between the radiographic parameters were less pronounced and varied within the subgroups. Future research could identify prospectively which of these parameters contain clinical relevance by progressing osteoarthritis or deformity and how they can be altered by corrective treatment.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000051PMC
January 2020

Are TKA Kinematics During Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises Associated with Patient-reported Outcomes? A Preliminary Analysis.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 02;478(2):255-263

S. Van Onsem, M. Verstraete, W. Van Eenoo, C. Van Der Straten, J. Victor, Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.

Background: Kinematic patterns after TKA can vary considerably from those of the native knee. It is unknown, however, if there is a relationship between a given kinematic pattern and patient satisfaction after TKA.

Questions/purposes: Is there an association between kinematic patterns as measured by AP translation during open kinetic chain flexion-extension and closed kinetic chain exercises (rising from a chair and squatting) and a custom aggregate of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that targeted symptoms, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), sports, quality of life (QOL), and patient satisfaction after TKA?

Methods: Thirty patients who underwent TKA between 2014 and 2016 were tested at a minimum follow-up of 6 months. As three different implants were used, per implant the first 10 patients who presented themselves at the follow-up consultations and were able to bend the knee at least 90°, were recruited. Tibiofemoral kinematics during an open kinetic chain flexion-extension and closed kinetic chain exercises-rising from a chair and squatting-were analyzed using fluoroscopy. A two-step cluster analysis was performed, resulting in two clusters of patients who answered the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and the satisfaction subscore of the Knee Society Score questionnaires. Cluster 1 (CL1) consisted of patients with better (good-to-excellent) patient-reported outcome measures scores (high-PROMs cluster); Cluster 2 (CL2) consisted of patients with poorer scores (low-PROMs cluster). Tibiofemoral kinematics were compared between patients in these clusters by performing a Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction.

Results: Concerning open kinetic chain flexion-extension, there was no difference in kinematic patterns between the patients in the high-PROMs cluster and those in the low-PROMs cluster, with the numbers available. However, during the closed-chain kinetic exercises, medially, initial anterior translation (femur relative to tibia) was found in patients in Cluster 1 during early flexion, but in those in Cluster 2, translation was steeper and ran more anteriorly (CL1 -1.5 ± 7.3%; CL2 -8.5 ± 4.4%); mean difference 7.0% [95% CI 0.1 to 13.8]; p = 0.046). In midflexion, the femur did not translate anterior nor posterior in relation to the tibia, resulting in a stable medial compartment in Cluster 1, whereas Cluster 2 had already started translating posteriorly (CL1 -0.7 ± 3.5%; CL2 3.4 ± 3.6%; mean difference -4.1% [95% CI -7.0 to -1.2]; p = 0.008). There was no difference, with the numbers available, between the two clusters with respect to posterior translation in deep flexion. Laterally, there was small initial anterior translation in early flexion, followed by posterior translation in midflexion that continued in deep flexion. Patients in Cluster 1 demonstrated more pronounced posterior translation in deep flexion laterally than patients in Cluster 2 did (CL1 8.3 ± 5.2%; CL2 3.5 ± 4.5%); mean difference 4.9% [95% CI 0.6 to 9.1]; p = 0.026).

Conclusions: This study of total knee kinematics suggests that during closed kinetic chain movements, patients with poor PROM scores after TKA experience more anterior translation on the medial side followed by a medial mid-flexion instability and less posterior translation on the lateral side in deep flexion than patients with good PROM scores. The relationship of kinematic variations with patient-reported outcomes including satisfaction must be further elaborated and translated into TKA design and position. Reproduction of optimal kinematic patterns during TKA could be instrumental in improving patient satisfaction after total knee replacement. Future expansion of the study group is needed to confirm these findings.Level of Evidence Level II, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438127PMC
February 2020

The hind- and midfoot alignment computed after a medializing calcaneal osteotomy using a 3D weightbearing CT.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2019 Aug 26;14(8):1439-1447. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Orthopaedics, Ghent University Hospital, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, OVL, Belgium.

Purpose: A medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO) is a surgical procedure frequently performed to correct an adult acquired flatfoot (AAFD) deformity. However, most studies are limited to a 2D analysis of 3D deformity. Therefore, the aim is to perform a 3D assessment of the hind- and midfoot alignment using a weightbearing CT (WBCT) preoperatively as well as postoperatively.

Methods: Eighteen patients with a mean age of 49.4 years (range 18-67) were prospectively included in a pre-post-study design. A MCO was performed and a WBCT was obtained pre- and postoperative. Images were converted into 3D models to compute linear and angular measurements, respectively, in millimeters (mm) and degrees (°), based on previously reported landmarks of the hind- and midfoot alignment. A regression analysis was performed between the displacement of a MCO and the obtained postoperative correction.

Results: The mean 3D hindfoot angle improved significantly preoperative compared to postoperative (p < 0.001). This appeared according to a linear relation with the amount of medial translation in a MCO (R = 0.84, p < 0.001). The axes of the tibia showed significant coronal as well as axial changes (p < 0.05). Analysis of the midfoot showed significant changes in the navicular height and rotation as well as the Méary angle (p < 0.05). Additionally, a linear trend between the midfoot measurements and amount of medial translation in a MCO was observed, but not significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates an effective 3D correction of an AAFD by a MCO according to a linear relationship. The concomitant formula can be used to perform a preoperative planning. The novelty is the comparative 3D weightbearing CT assessment of both the computed hind- and midfoot alignment after a medializing calcaneus osteotomy. This could improve accuracy of the currently performed preoperative planning in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-019-01949-7DOI Listing
August 2019

Tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction surgery: smaller inter-tunnel angles and higher peak forces at the femoral tunnel using anteromedial portal femoral drilling-a 3D and finite element analysis.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2019 Aug 7;27(8):2568-2576. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Recent studies have emphasized the importance of anatomical ACL reconstruction to restore normal knee kinematics and stability. Aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the ability of the anteromedial (AM) and transtibial (TT) techniques for ACL reconstruction to achieve anatomical placement of the femoral and tibial tunnel within the native ACL footprint and to determine forces within the graft during functional motion. As the AM technique is nowadays the technique of choice, the hypothesis is that there are significant differences in tunnel features, reaction forces and/or moments within the graft when compared to the TT technique.

Methods: Twenty ACL-deficient patients were allocated to reconstruction surgery with one of both techniques. Postoperatively, all patients underwent a computed tomography scan (CT) allowing 3D reconstruction to analyze tunnel geometry and tunnel placement within the native ACL footprint. A patient-specific finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to determine reaction forces and moments within the graft during antero-posterior translation and pivot-shift motion.

Results: With significantly shorter femoral tunnels (p < 0.001) and a smaller inter-tunnel angle (p < 0.001), the AM technique places tunnels with less variance, close to the anatomical centre of the ACL footprints when compared to the TT technique. Using the latter, tibial tunnels were more medialised (p = 0.007) with a higher position of the femoral tunnels (p = 0.02). FEA showed the occurrence of higher, but non-significant, reaction forces in the graft, especially on the femoral side and lower, however, statistically not significant, reaction moments using the AM technique.

Conclusion: This study indicates important, technique-dependent differences in tunnel features with changes in reaction forces and moments within the graft.

Level Of Evidence: II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-5272-0DOI Listing
August 2019

Correction to: Surgeon experience with dynamic intraligamentary stabilization does not influence risk of failure.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2019 01;27(1):335

Department of Knee Surgery and Sports Traumatology, Sonnenhof Orthopaedic Center, Bern, Switzerland.

The original version of this article unfortunately contains mistake in Table 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-5096-yDOI Listing
January 2019

Templating of Syndesmotic Ankle Lesions by Use of 3D Analysis in Weightbearing and Nonweightbearing CT.

Foot Ankle Int 2018 Dec 20;39(12):1487-1496. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

3 ZNA Middelheim, Antwerpen, Belgium.

Background:: Diagnosis and operative treatment of syndesmotic ankle injuries remain challenging due to the limitations of 2-dimensional imaging. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a reproducible method to quantify the displacement of a syndesmotic lesion based on 3-dimensional computed imaging techniques.

Methods:: Eighteen patients with a unilateral syndesmotic lesion were included. Bilateral imaging was performed with weightbearing cone-beam computed tomography (CT) in case of a high ankle sprain (n = 12) and by nonweightbearing CT in case of a fracture-associated syndesmotic lesion (n = 6). The healthy ankle was used as a template after being mirrored and superimposed on the contralateral ankle. The following anatomical landmarks of the distal fibula were computed: the most lateral aspect of the lateral malleolus and the anterior and posterior tubercle. The change in position of these landmarks relative to the stationary, healthy fibula was used to quantify the syndesmotic lesion. A control group of 7 studies was used.

Results:: The main clinical relevant findings demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the mean mediolateral diastasis of both the sprained (mean [SD], 1.6 [1.0] mm) and the fracture group (mean [SD], 1.7 [0.6] mm) compared to the control group ( P < .001). The mean external rotation was statistically different when comparing the sprained (mean [SD], 4.7 [2.7] degrees) and the fracture group (mean [SD], 7.0 [7.1] degrees) to the control group ( P < .05).

Conclusion:: This study evaluated an effective method for quantifying a unilateral syndesmotic lesion of the ankle. Applications in clinical practice could improve diagnostic accuracy and potentially aid in preoperative planning by determining which correction needs to be achieved to have the fibula correctly reduced in the syndesmosis.

Level Of Evidence:: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100718791834DOI Listing
December 2018

The Normal 3D Gleno-humeral Relationship and Anatomy of the Glenoid Planes.

J Belg Soc Radiol 2018 Jan 31;102(1):18. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, University Hospital Ghent, BE.

Knowledge of the normal and pathological three-dimensional (3D) gleno-humeral relationship is imperative when planning and performing a total shoulder arthroplasty. Currently, two-dimensional (2D) parameters are used to describe this anatomy and despite the fact that these 2D measurements have a wide distribution in the normal population, they are commonly accepted. This broad distribution can be explained on one hand by anatomical factors and on the other hand, by positional errors. A 3D CT-scan reconstruction and evaluation can overcome this shortcoming and can be used to determine more accurately the surgical planes on the normal and pathological shoulder joint. There is, however, no consensus on which references should be used when studying this 3D relationship. This thesis describes the normal 3D gleno-humeral relationship and the best glenoid plane to use in surgery, based on 3D CT-scan. Furthermore, a glenoid aiming device that can be of surgical help in the reconstruction of the normal glenoid anatomy was developed based on these measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/jbsr.1346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6032693PMC
January 2018
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