Publications by authors named "Jan Kuta"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Raman Microspectroscopic Analysis of Selenium Bioaccumulation by Green Alga .

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Scientific Instruments of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v.v.i., Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 147, 612 64 Brno, Czech Republic.

Selenium (Se) is an element with many commercial applications as well as an essential micronutrient. Dietary Se has antioxidant properties and it is known to play a role in cancer prevention. However, the general population often suffers from Se deficiency. Green algae, such as , cultivated in Se-enriched environment may be used as a food supplement to provide adequate levels of Se. We used Raman microspectroscopy (RS) for fast, reliable, and non-destructive measurement of Se concentration in living algal cells. We employed inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as a reference method to RS and we found a substantial correlation between the Raman signal intensity at 252 cm and total Se concentration in the studied cells. We used RS to assess the uptake of Se by living and inactivated algae and demonstrated the necessity of active cellular transport for Se accumulation. Additionally, we observed the intracellular Se being transformed into an insoluble elemental form, which we further supported by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11040115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069876PMC
April 2021

The efficiency of antineoplastic drug contamination removal by widely used disinfectants-laboratory and hospital studies.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, RECETOX, Kamenice 753/5, Building D29, 62500, Brno, Czech Republic.

Objective: Antineoplastic drugs (ADs) pose risks to healthcare staff. Surface disinfectants are used in hospitals to prevent microbial contamination but the efficiency of disinfectants to degrade ADs is not known. We studied nine disinfectants on ten ADs in the standardized laboratory and realistic in situ hospital conditions.

Methods: A survey in 43 hospitals prioritized nine most commonly used disinfections based on different ingredients. These were tested on inert stainless steel and in situ on contaminated hospital flooring. The effects against ten ADs were studied by LC-MS/MS (Cyclophosphamide CP; Ifosfamide IF; Capecitabine CAP; Sunitinib SUN; Methotrexate MET; Doxorubicin DOX; Irinotecan IRI; Paclitaxel PX; 5-Fluorouracil FU) and ICP-MS (Pt as a marker of platinum-based ADs).

Results: Monitoring of the floor contamination in 26 hospitals showed that the most contaminated are the outpatient clinics that suffer from a large turnover of staff and patients and have limited preventive measures. The most frequent ADs were Pt, PX, FU and CP with maxima exceeding the recommended 1 ng/cm limit by up to 140 times. IRI, FU, MET, DOX and SUN were efficiently removed by hydrolysis in clean water and present thus lower occupational risk. Disinfectants based on hydrogen peroxide were efficient against PX and FU (> 70% degradation) but less against other ADs, such as carcinogenic CP or IF, IRI and CAP. The most efficient were the active chlorine and peracetic acid-based products, which however release irritating toxic vapors. The innovative in situ testing of ADs previously accumulated in hospital flooring showed highly problematic removal of carcinogenic CP and showed that alcohol-based disinfectants may mobilize persistent ADs contamination from deeper floor layers.

Conclusion: Agents based on hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, quaternary ammonium salts, glutaraldehyde, glucoprotamine or detergents can be recommended for daily use for both disinfection and AD decontamination. However, they have variable efficiencies and should be supplemented by periodic use of strong chlorine-based disinfectants efficient also against the carcinogenic and persistent CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-021-01671-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Nitrated monoaromatic hydrocarbons (nitrophenols, nitrocatechols, nitrosalicylic acids) in ambient air: levels, mass size distributions and inhalation bioaccessibility.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany.

Nitrated monoaromatic hydrocarbons (NMAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and an important part of atmospheric humic-like substances (HULIS) and brown carbon. They are ecotoxic and with underresearched toxic potential for humans. NMAHs were determined in size-segregated ambient particulate matter collected at two urban sites in central Europe, Ostrava and Kladno, Czech Republic. The average sums of 12 NMAHs (ΣNMAH) measured in winter PM samples from Ostrava and Kladno were 102 and 93 ng m, respectively, and 8.8 ng m in summer PM samples from Ostrava. The concentrations in winter corresponded to 6.3-7.3% and 2.6-3.1% of HULIS-C and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), respectively. Nitrocatechols represented 67-93%, 61-73% and 28-96% of NMAHs in PM samples collected in winter and summer at Ostrava and in winter at Kladno, respectively. The mass size distribution of the targeted substance classes peaked in the submicrometre size fractions (PM), often in the PM size fraction especially in summer. The bioaccessible fraction of NMAHs was determined by leaching PM samples in two simulated lung fluids, Gamble's solution and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF). More than half of NMAH mass is found bioaccessible, almost complete for nitrosalicylic acids. The bioaccessible fraction was generally higher when using ALF (mimics the chemical environment created by macrophage activity, pH 4.5) than Gamble's solution (pH 7.4). Bioaccessibility may be negligible for lipophilic substances (i.e. log K > 4.5).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09540-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Oxygenated and Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air-Levels, Phase Partitioning, Mass Size Distributions, and Inhalation Bioaccessibility.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 03 11;54(5):2615-2625. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz 55128, Germany.

Among the nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs) are some of the most hazardous substances to public health, mainly because of their carcinogenicity and oxidative potential. Despite these concerns, the concentrations and fate of NPAHs and OPAHs in the atmospheric environment are largely unknown. Ambient air concentrations of 18 NPAHs, 5 quinones, and 5 other OPAHs were determined at two urban and one regional background sites in central Europe. At one of the urban sites, the total (gas and particulate) concentrations of ΣOPAHs were 10.0 ± 9.2 ng/m in winter and 3.5 ± 1.6 ng/m in summer. The gradient to the regional background site exceeded 1 order of magnitude. ΣNPAH concentrations were typically 1 order of magnitude lower than OPAHs. Among OPAHs, 9-fluorenone and (9,10)-anthraquinone were the most abundant species, accompanied by benzanthrone in winter. (9,10)-Anthraquinone represented two-thirds of quinones. We found that a large fraction of the target substance particulate mass was carried by submicrometer particles. The derived inhalation bioaccessibility in the PM size fraction is found to be ≈5% of the total ambient concentration of OPAHs and up to ≈2% for NPAHs. For 9-fluorenone and (9,10)-anthraquinone, up to 86 and 18%, respectively, were found at the rural site. Our results indicate that water solubility could function as a limiting factor for bioaccessibility of inhaled particulate NPAHs and OPAHs, without considerable effect of surfactant lipids and proteins in the lung lining fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307896PMC
March 2020

Selenium Incorporation to Amino Acids in Cultures Grown in Phototrophic and Heterotrophic Regimes.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Feb 3;68(6):1654-1665. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Algal Biotechnology, Centre Algatech , Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences , Opatovický mlýn, Novohradská 237 , 379 81 Třeboň , Czech Republic.

Microalgae accumulate bioavailable selenium-containing amino acids (Se-AAs), and these are useful as a food supplement. While this accumulation has been studied in phototrophic algal cultures, little data exists for heterotrophic cultures. We have determined the Se-AAs content, selenium/sulfur (Se/S) substitution rates, and overall Se accumulation balance in photo- and heterotrophic cultures. Laboratory trials revealed that heterotrophic cultures tolerate Se doses ∼8-fold higher compared to phototrophic cultures, resulting in a ∼2-3-fold higher Se-AAs content. In large-scale experiments, both cultivation regimes provided comparable Se-AAs content. Outdoor phototrophic cultures accumulated up to 400 μg g of total Se-AAs and exhibited a high level of Se/S substitution (5-10%) with 30-60% organic/total Se embedded in the biomass. A slightly higher content of Se-AAs and ratio of Se/S substitution was obtained for a heterotrophic culture in pilot-scale fermentors. The data presented here shows that heterotrophic cultures provide an alternative for Se-enriched biomass production and provides information on Se-AAs content and speciation in different cultivation regimes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06196DOI Listing
February 2020

Simultaneous determination of cadmium and iron in different kinds of cereal flakes using high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry.

Food Chem 2019 Nov 26;298:125084. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.

A method for simultaneous determination of cadmium and iron in cereal flakes using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is presented. Sample digest is introduced into the graphite furnace together with Pd/Mg(NO) modifier. The primary absorption line of cadmium and adjacent secondary line of iron are used for the determination. Atomization is performed as a two-step process in order to meet ideal conditions for both elements. Interference produced by molecular absorption of PO molecular bands is suppressed by correction model using least squares background correction. Using the proposed method, levels of cadmium and iron were determined in different kinds of cereal flakes, where both elements are of great interest. Working range (0.01-2 μg L for Cd and 10-500 μg L for Fe) was suitable for the determination of analytes in samples. The method is fast, robust, and may be routinely used routinely in the analysis of foodstuffs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125084DOI Listing
November 2019

Assessment of geogenic input into Bilina stream sediments (Czech Republic).

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Jan 29;191(2):114. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Over the past 100 years, the area along the River Bílina has been influenced by open-cast brown-coal mining, coal processing, petroleum refineries, and chemical plants. As a result, the extensive industrial activity has changed the overall character as well as the morphology of the landscape. A survey was underway to investigate the occurrence and distribution of various elements in the sediments of the River Bílina-a tributary of the River Elbe, a watercourse running through the Czech Republic and Germany-in order to discern the natural background from anthropogenic pollution. The study evaluated the content of selected elements (As, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, V, and Cu) in stream sediments of the River Bílina. Samples were taken at 20 sampling sites throughout the 82-km-long watercourse. For all the samples, the content of the elements was determined using ICP-MS after each of the sample was digested using HF and HNO. The results of analyses of elemental composition of stream sediments were compared with those found through such analyses made within the surrounding geological units-more specifically, Proterozoic crystalline, Tertiary volcanic, Quaternary loess, Neogene sediments, and Neogene coal. All the samples of the stream sediments examined revealed increased amounts of As, V, Ni, Cr, and Pb. Using the enrichment factor established on the basis of the regional geological background values proved that elevated levels of elements in stream sediments are not always the result of industrial contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7255-0DOI Listing
January 2019

In vitro bioaccessibility of selenoamino acids from selenium (Se)-enriched Chlorella vulgaris biomass in comparison to selenized yeast; a Se-enriched food supplement; and Se-rich foods.

Food Chem 2019 May 5;279:12-19. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of Algal Biotechnology, Centre Algatech, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Opatovický mlýn, Novohradská 237, 379 81 Třeboň, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) is an indispensable microelement in our diet and health issues resulting from deficiencies are well documented. Se-containing food supplements are available on the market including Se-enriched Chlorella vulgaris (Se-Chlorella) which accumulates Se in the form of Se-amino acids (Se-AAs). Despite its popular uses, data about the bioaccessibility of Se-AAs from Se-Chlorella are completely missing. In the present study, gastrointestinal digestion times were optimized and the in vitro bioaccessibility of Se-AAs in Se-Chlorella, Se-yeast, a commercially available Se-enriched food supplement (Se-supplement) and Se rich foods (Se-foods) were compared. Higher bioaccessibility was found in Se-Chlorella (∼49%) as compared to Se-yeast (∼21%), Se-supplement (∼32%) and Se-foods. The methods used in production of Se-Chlorella biomass were also investigated. We found that disintegration increased bioaccessibility whereas the drying process had no effect. Similarly, temperature treatment by microwave oven also increased bioaccessibility whereas boiling water did not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.12.004DOI Listing
May 2019

Concentrations of Thirteen Trace Metals in Scales of Three Nototheniid Fishes from Antarctica (James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula).

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Sep 2;191(1):214-223. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Květná 8, 603 65, Brno, Czech Republic.

In this study, we assessed concentrations of 13 trace metals in the scales of Notothenia coriiceps, Trematomus bernacchii and Gobionotothen gibberifrons caught off the coast of James Ross Island (Antarctic Peninsula). Overall, our results for scales broadly match those of previous studies using different fish and different organs, with most metals found at trace levels and manganese, aluminium, iron and zinc occurring at high levels in all species. This suggests that scales can serve as a useful, non-invasive bioindicator of long-term contamination in Antarctic fishes. High accumulation of manganese, aluminium, iron and zinc is largely due to high levels in sediments associated with nearby active volcanic sites. Manganese, vanadium and aluminium showed significant positive bioaccumulation in T. bernacchii (along with non-significant positive accumulation of iron, zinc, cobalt and chromium), most likely due to greater dietary specialisation on sediment feeding benthic prey and higher trophic species. Levels of significance in bioaccumulation regressions were strongly affected by large-scale variation in the data, driven largely by individual differences in diet and/or changes in habitat use and sex differences associated with life stage and reproductive status. Increased levels of both airborne deposition and precipitation and meltwater runoff associated with climate change may be further adding to the already high levels of manganese, aluminium, iron and zinc in Antarctic Peninsula sediments. Further long-term studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms of uptake (especially for aluminium and iron) and possible intra- and interspecific impacts of climate change on the delicate Antarctic food web.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-018-1598-1DOI Listing
September 2019

Thin-layer chromatography combined with diode laser thermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of selenomethionine and selenocysteine in algae and yeast.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Jan 9;1533:199-207. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic; Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Žerotínovo nám. 9, 601 77, Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

In this work we present a simple and cost-effective approach for the determination of selenium species in algae and yeast biomass, based on a combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with diode laser thermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DLTV ICP MS). Extraction of freeze-dried biomass was performed in 4M methanesulphonic acid and the selenium species were vaporized from cellulose TLC plates employing a continuous-wave infrared diode laser with power up to 4 W using a simple laboratory-built apparatus. Selenomethionine and selenocysteine were quantified with limits of detection 3 μg L in a Se-enriched microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and yeast certified reference material SELM-1. Results delivered by TLC-DLTV ICP MS were consistent with those obtained by a routine coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to ICP MS. In addition, the TLC approach is capable of analyzing extract containing even undiluted crude hydrolysates that could damage HPLC columns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.12.017DOI Listing
January 2018

Hypersensitivity to material and environmental burden as a possible cause of late complications of cardiac implantable electronic devices.

Europace 2018 09;20(9):e140-e147

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, University Hospital Brno, Jihlavská 20, Brno, Czech Republic.

Aims: To evaluate whether patients with late complications of pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have hypersensitivity reactions to some of the materials used in generators or in electrodes, or to environmental metal burden.

Methods And Results: The cohort consisted of 20 men and 4 women (mean age: 62.3 ± 17.2 years) who had a history of late complications of implanted devices. The control group involved 25 men and 8 women (mean age: 64.6 ± 14.0 years) who had comparable devices, but no history of late complications. Lymphocyte transformation test was used to evaluate hypersensitivity to eight metal pollutants (antimony, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, tin, and titanium) selected by results of questionnaires on environmental burden, and by material analysis of generators and electrode surfaces. Exposures to metal pollutants were approximately the same in patients and in controls. Titanium alloy used in generators contained at least 99.32% of titanium and trace levels of other metals; higher levels of tin and platinum were detected in electrode surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions to mercury and tin were significantly more frequent in patients than in controls (patients and controls: mercury: 68.2 and 31.1%, respectively; P = 0.022; tin: 25.0 and 3.2%, respectively; P = 0.035). In contrast, hypersensitivity to manganese was significantly more frequent in controls than in patients (patients and controls: 13.6 and 50.0%, respectively; P = 0.008).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest a possible relation between hypersensitivity to metals used in implantable devices or to environmental metal burden and the occurrence of their late complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/eux227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6123938PMC
September 2018

Developmental neurotoxicants in human milk: Comparison of levels and intakes in three European countries.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Feb 25;579:637-645. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Developmental neurotoxicants (DNTs), such as methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), have gained increasing interest recently due to their possible relation to developmental disorders in children, which are increasing worldwide. We analyzed levels of 14 developmental neurotoxicants in human milk samples from Slovakia (n=37), the Netherlands (n=120) and Norway (n=388). Positive identification for most target analytes was >95% in all samples. In all three countries MeHg was measured for the first time in mother milk. The highest MeHg levels were observed in Norway (39pgg ww) with the highest fish consumption. Levels of indicator PCBs (iPCBs, sum of PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180), HCB and DDE+DDT were 2-4 times higher in Slovakia compared to the Netherlands or Norway. The levels of MeHg and organochlorine compounds were used for calculations of weekly or daily intakes (top-down approach) by means of pharmacokinetic modeling. The intakes ranged from 0.014 to 0.142μgkgweek for MeHg and from 0.043 to 17.4ngkgday for organochlorine compounds in all three countries. Intakes of iPCBs exceeded a tolerable daily intake of 10ngkgday in 16% of the Slovak participants. The top-down estimates were compared with bottom-up intakes based on national dietary estimates and the results showed good consistency between both approaches, with the bottom-up intakes exceeding the top-down by a factor of maximum 3.8 for iPCBs in the Netherlands and 3.9 for HCB in Slovakia. This confirms that food consumption in all three countries represents the dominant pathway of exposure to these developmental neurotoxicants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.046DOI Listing
February 2017

Leaching of mercury from seal carcasses into Antarctic soils.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jan 25;24(2):1424-1431. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37, Brno, Czech Republic.

More than 400 seal mummies and skeletons are now mapped in the northern part of James Ross Island, Antarctica. Decomposing carcasses represent a rare source of both organic matter and associated elements for the soil. Owing to their high trophic position, seals are known to carry a significant mercury body burden. This work focuses on the extent of the mercury input from seal carcasses and shows that such carcasses represent locally significant sources of mercury and methylmercury for the environment. Mercury contents in soil samples from the surrounding areas were determined using a single-purpose AAS mercury analyzer. For the determination of methylmercury, an ultra-sensitive isotopic dilution HPLC-ICP-MS technique was used. In the soils lying directly under seal carcasses, mercury contents were higher, with levels reaching almost 40 μg/kg dry weight of which methylmercury formed up to 2.8 % of the total. The spatial distribution implies rather slow vertical transport to the lower soil layers instead of a horizontal spread. For comparison, the background level of mercury in soils of the investigated area was found to be 8 μg/kg dry weight, with methylmercury accounting for less than 0.1 %. Apart from the direct mercury input, an enhanced level of nutrients in the vicinity of carcasses enables the growth of lichens and mosses with accumulative ability with respect to metals. The enhanced capacity of soil to retain mercury is also anticipated due to the high content of total organic carbon (from 1.6 to 7.5 %). According to the results, seal remains represent a clear source of mercury in the observed area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7879-3DOI Listing
January 2017

The variability of standard artificial soils: cadmium and phenanthrene sorption measured by a batch equilibrium method.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2017 Jan 24;135:17-23. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno CZ-62500, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Artificial soil (AS) is used in soil ecotoxicology as a test medium or reference matrix. AS is prepared according to standard OECD/ISO protocols and components of local sources are usually used by laboratories. This may result in significant inter-laboratory variations in AS properties and, consequently, in the fate and bioavailability of tested chemicals. In order to reveal the extent and sources of variations, the batch equilibrium method was applied to measure the sorption of 2 model compounds (phenanthrene and cadmium) to 21 artificial soils from different laboratories. The distribution coefficients (K) of phenanthrene and cadmium varied over one order of magnitude: from 5.3 to 61.5L/kg for phenanthrene and from 17.9 to 190L/kg for cadmium. Variations in phenanthrene sorption could not be reliably explained by measured soil properties; not even by the total organic carbon (TOC) content which was expected. Cadmium logK values significantly correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH and pH, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.62, 0.80, and 0.79, respectively. CEC and pH together were able to explain 72% of cadmium logK variability in the following model: logK=0.29pH+0.0032 CEC -0.53. Similarly, 66% of cadmium logK variability could be explained by CEC and pH in the model: logKd=0.27pH+0.0028 CEC -0.23. Variable cadmium sorption in differing ASs could be partially treated with these models. However, considering the unpredictable variability of phenanthrene sorption, a more reliable solution for reducing the variability of ASs from different laboratories would be better harmonization of AS preparation and composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.09.015DOI Listing
January 2017

Drinking water contaminants from epoxy resin-coated pipes: A field study.

Water Res 2016 10 15;103:133-140. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, Pavillion A29, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. Spray-on-lining of drinking water pipes is an alternative cost-effective rehabilitation technology in which the insides of pipes are relined with organic polymer. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries. BPA leaching has been demonstrated in laboratory studies but the behavior and ageing process of epoxy lining in situ is not well known. In this study 6 locations with different age epoxy linings of drinking water pipes done using two distinct technologies were studied. While bisphenol F, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-t-octylphenol were rarely found and in trace concentrations, BPA was detected in majority of samples. Pipes lined with the older technology (LSE) leached more BPA than those with more recent technology (DonPro): maxima in cold water were 0.25 μg/L and 10 ng/L, respectively. Incubation of water in pipes 8-10 h prior to sampling increased BPA concentration in cold water 1.1-43-fold. Hot water temperature caused even more BPA leaching - at maximum 23.5 μg/L. The influence of ageing of epoxy lining on BPA leaching on could be shown in case of LSE technology: locations with 8-9 years old lining leached 4-20-fold more BPA compared to a location with 2-year-old lining. Analysis of metals showed that epoxy lining can reduce especially iron concentration in water. No significant burden to water could be shown by the analyzed 72 volatile organic compounds, including epichlorhydrin, precursor used in epoxy resin. Estrogenicity was detected in water samples with the highest BPA loads. Comparable responses of two yeast bioreporters (estrogen receptor α and BPA-targeted) indicated that bisphenol-like compounds were the main cause of estrogenicity. Compared to the estimated average daily BPA exposure, additional BPA load via cold drinking water in the studied locations was low, maximum 8.7%. However, hot water should also be considered as exposure source due to higher BPA concentrations. Epoxy lined locations should be monitored in future in order to evaluate ageing process and control increasing leaching of potentially harmful chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.07.027DOI Listing
October 2016

Application of a new HPLC-ICP-MS method for simultaneous determination of Al(3+) and aluminium fluoride complexes.

Heliyon 2015 Oct 26;1(2):e00035. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań, Poland.

The paper presents the new HPLC-ICP-MS method used for conducting speciation analysis of aluminum as free Al(3+) and aluminum fluoride complexes during one analysis. In the study, 5% HNO3 was used as a derivative reagent in order to minimize the possibility of clogging the torch in ICP-MS. Using the new HPLC-ICP-MS method, speciation analysis of aluminum and aluminum fluoride complexes was conducted on the basis of model solutions and real samples (soil-water extracts and groundwater samples). The analysis in the presented analytical system lasts only 4 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2015.e00035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939753PMC
October 2015

Metallothionein modulation in relation to cadmium bioaccumulation and age-dependent sensitivity of Chironomus riparius larvae.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Jun 9;23(11):10504-10513. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

The goal of this study was to contribute to understanding of the mechanisms behind sensitivity differences between early and late instar larvae of Chironomus riparius and to address the influence of the differences in standard testing approaches on the toxicity evaluation. A 10-day contact sediment toxicity test was carried out to assess sensitivity to cadmium exposure in relation to different age and laboratory culture line origin of test organisms. Chironomid larvae of early (OECD 218 method) and late instar (US-EPA600/R-99/064 method) differed substantially in sensitivity of traditional endpoints (OECD: LOEC 50 and 10 μg Cd/g dry weight (dw); US-EPA: LOEC > 1000 and 100 μg Cd/g dw for survival and growth, respectively). Bioaccumulated cadmium and metallothioneins (MTs) concentrations were analyzed to investigate the role of MTs in reduced sensitivity to cadmium in late instar larvae. Metallothioneins were induced after treatment to greater Cd concentrations, but their levels in relation to cadmium body burdens did not fully explain low sensitivity of late instars to cadmium, which indicates some other effective way of detoxification in late instars. This study brings new information related to the role of MTs in age-dependent toxicant sensitivity and discusses the implications of divergence in data generated by chironomid sediment toxicity tests by standardized methods using different instars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6362-5DOI Listing
June 2016

Analysis of mercury and other heavy metals accumulated in lichen Usnea antarctica from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

Environ Monit Assess 2014 Dec 28;186(12):9089-100. Epub 2014 Sep 28.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 61137, Brno, Czech Republic.

The study was designed to investigate the content and distribution of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn) in samples of fruticose macrolichen Usnea antarctica from James Ross Island. A special emphasis was devoted to mercury and its species (elemental mercury and methylmercury). It was found that mercury contents were relatively high (up to 2.73 mg kg(-1) dry weight) compared to other parts of the Antarctic Peninsula region, while the concentrations of most other elements were within reported ranges. Mercury contents in lichens originating from the interior were higher than those from the coast, which is probably the result of local microclimate conditions. Similar trends were observed for Hg(0) and MeHg(+), whose contents were up to 0.14 and 0.098 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. While mercury did not show a significant correlation with any other element, the mutual correlation of some litophile elements probably refers to the influence on thalli of resuspended weathered material. The influence of habitat and environmental conditions could play an essential role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants rather than just the simple presence of sources. Thus, the study of the thalli of this species can bring a new perspective on the interpretation of contaminant accumulation in lichens of the polar region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4068-zDOI Listing
December 2014

Effects of combined composting and vermicomposting of waste sludge on arsenic fate and bioavailability.

J Hazard Mater 2014 Sep 25;280:544-51. Epub 2014 Aug 25.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, CZ-62500, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Composting and vermicomposting are traditional processes for the treatment of sludge. During these processes, the humification of organic matter has a significant effect on the physicochemical form and distribution of heavy metals. In this study, industrial sludge (groundwater treatment waste) contaminated by arsenic (396 ± 1 mg kg(-1)) was used. Such sludge poses a significant challenge with respect to effective treatment. Composting, vermicomposting (with Eisenia fetida), and the combined approach of composting and vermicomposting were performed to determine the evolution of arsenic speciation, mobility and bioavailability. The composting/vermicomposting was done with sludge, horse manure, and grass in the ratios of 3:6:1. A solution of 0.1M NH4COOCH3 was used as a single extraction solvent for determination of the mobile arsenic pool and targeted arsenic species (As(III), As(V), monomethylarsenic acid - MMA(V), dimethylarsenic acid - DMA(V)). The analysis of arsenic in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-ICP-MS spectrometry. In addition, the earthworm species E. fetida was used for bioaccumulation tests that followed the compost and vermicompost processes. The obtained results indicate a reduction in arsenic mobility and bioavailability in all matured composts and vermicomposts. The combined process exhibited a greater effect than compost or vermicompost alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.08.024DOI Listing
September 2014

Association of surface contamination by antineoplastic drugs with different working conditions in hospital pharmacies.

Arch Environ Occup Health 2014 ;69(3):148-58

a Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute , Brno , Czech Republic.

This study investigates the surface contamination levels of cyclophosphamide and platinum (a marker of platinum-containing drugs) in storage and preparation areas of hospital pharmacies and their relationship to working conditions surveyed by questionnaire. In total, 259 wipe samples were collected in 13 hospital pharmacies over 4 sampling campaigns. After sample extraction with acetate buffer, cyclophosphamide and platinum were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Depending on the sampling spot and campaign, median concentrations ranged from <2 to 61 pg/cm(2) and from <0.2 to 6.9 pg/cm(2) for cyclophosphamide and platinum, respectively. Statistical evaluation of monitoring data revealed that the contamination level was significantly influenced by laboratory throughput (expressed as number of chemotherapies prepared per week), personnel expertise (ie, participation of pharmacists with academic education in drug admixture activities), and surface material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19338244.2013.763757DOI Listing
February 2014

Evaluation of the efficacy of additional measures introduced for the protection of healthcare personnel handling antineoplastic drugs.

Ann Occup Hyg 2013 Mar 27;57(2):240-50. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute Zluty kopec 7 Brno, Czech Republic, CZ65653.

Objectives: Due to their adverse effects, antineoplastic drugs are considered as a potential health risk to healthcare personnel. The objective of the study was to compare the surface contamination level of the conventional preparation room and outpatient clinic before and after the implementation of a set of additional protective measures.

Methods: The measures were targeted at eliminating potential sources of environmental contamination, and modification of the cleaning procedure. The measures introduced into the preparation room consisted of (i) the introduction of manual cleaning of drug vials before they enter the preparation room, (ii) the modification of the routine cleaning procedure performed at the end of each working day (i.e. shifting the cleaning of the isolators as the most contaminated objects from the beginning of the cleaning process to the end), and (iii) the introduction of regular cleaning of the work table every 2 h. The measures introduced into the outpatient clinic consisted of (i) replacement of the standard infusion sets with multichannel sets for safe drug administration, (ii) the introduction of self-cleaning seats to the patient lavatories supporting hygienic and contamination-free seated urination, and (iii) replacement of standard infusion stands with wall-mounted stands, supporting the regular and proper cleaning of the floor beneath. To determine the surface contamination level with antineoplastic drugs, cyclophosphamide and platinum were determined in wipe samples with high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Results: In the preparation room, depending on the sampling spot and analyte, median concentrations ranged from 5 to 267 pg cm(-2) and from 2 to 368 pg cm(-2) before and after implementation of the measures, respectively. In the outpatient clinic, median concentrations ranged from 5 to 5310 pg cm(-2) and from <0.2 to 574 pg cm(-2) before and after implementation of the measures, respectively. Depending on the sampling spot, median contamination of the outpatient clinic with cyclophosphamide and platinum was reduced by 57-99% and 61-98%, respectively.

Conclusions: The measures implemented in the outpatient clinic were shown to reduce workplace contamination effectively. Therefore, they can be recommended also for other workplaces where antineoplastic drugs are administered. In contrast, measures implemented in the preparation room, where relatively strict regulations had already been adopted before the study, were less effective. To decrease the actual contamination of the preparation room, other protective measures (e.g. closed-system transfer devices) should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mes057DOI Listing
March 2013

Utilisation of iodine from different sources by sows and their progeny.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2011 ;32(4):510-7

Clinic of Ruminant and Swine Diseases, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Czech Republic.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare iodine utilization from different sources by sows and their progeny and the levels of T3 and T4 in their serum.

Design: Pregnant Czech Large White × Landrace sows were fed with an experimental KPK diet (a diet for lactating sows) 14 days before parturition until weaning (at a piglet age of 28 days). In group A (n=50, 10 sows, 40 piglets) the feed was supplemented with KI (0.6 mg of iodine per kg of feed). Iodine enriched alga Chlorella spp. (0.6 mg of iodine per kg of feed) was used as a supplement in group B (n=50, 10 sows, 40 piglets). In group C (n=50, 10 sows, 40 piglets) the sows were injected i.m. with IFAE at a dose of 100 mg of iodine per sow. Iodine, T3 and T4 were measured in each group for comparison of iodine utilization.

Results: The use of IFAE resulted in higher serum concentrations in sows compared to KI and alga. In contrast, iodine concentrations in milk and piglets were lower when IFAE were used. We found a wide variation in the concentrations of T3 and T4 in the serum of piglets in all groups.

Conclusion: Our results indicate a good utilization of iodized oil by sows. However, its transfer into milk is lower compared to the other iodine sources.
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October 2011