Publications by authors named "Jan J Cornelissen"

180 Publications

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with t(4;11)(q21;q23) KMT2A/AFF1 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission: impact of pretransplant measurable residual disease (MRD) status. An analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Leukemia 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

Adult B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with t(4;11)(q21;q23);KMT2A/AFF1 is a poor-prognosis entity. This registry-based study was aimed to analyze outcome of patients with t(4;11) BCP-ALL treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in first complete remission (CR1) between 2000 and 2017, focusing on the impact of measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of transplant. Among 151 patients (median age, 38) allotransplanted from either HLA-matched siblings or unrelated donors, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 2 years were 51% and 60%, whereas relapse incidence (RI) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 30% and 20%, respectively. These results were comparable to a cohort of contemporary patients with diploid normal karyotype (NK) BCP-ALL with equivalent inclusion criteria (n = 567). Among patients with evaluable MRD pre-alloHSCT, a negative status was the strongest beneficial factor influencing LFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.2, p < 0.001), OS (HR = 0.14, p < 0.001), RI (HR = 0.23, p = 0.001), and NRM (HR = 0.16, p = 0.002), with a similar outcome to MRD-negative NK BCP-ALL patients. In contrast, among patients with detectable pretransplant MRD, outcome in t(4;11) BCP-ALL was inferior to NK BCP-ALL (LFS: 27% vs. 50%, p = 0.02). These results support indication of alloHSCT in CR1 for t(4;11) BCP-ALL patients, provided a negative MRD status is achieved. Conversely, pre-alloHSCT additional therapy is warranted in MRD-positive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01135-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of early candidemia on the long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in non-leukemic patients: an outcome analysis on behalf of IDWP-EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Collegium Medicum UMK Torun, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

We assessed the incidence and outcome of early candidemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The analysis included all first HSCTs performed from 2000 to 2015 in adult and pediatric patients with a non-leukemic disease and recorded in the EBMT registry. Overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse mortality (RM) were evaluated. Candidemia was diagnosed in 420 of 49,852 patients at a median time of 17 days post HSCT (range 0-100), the cumulative incidence being 0.85%. In 65.5% of episodes, candidemia occurred by day 30 after HSCT. The mortality rate by day 7 was 6.2%, whereas 100-day NRM was higher (HR 3.47, p < 0.0001), and 100-day OS was lower (HR 3.22, p < 0.0001) than that of patients without candidemia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 5-year OS, NRM, and RM for patients with and without candidemia were 50.5% vs. 60.8%, p < 0.0001, 28.2% vs.18.8%, p < 0.0001, and 25.3% vs. 27.2%, p = 0.4, respectively. In conclusion, in non-leukemic transplant patients, the occurrence of an early episode of candidemia is rare but it is still associated with a negative effect on the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01212-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Optimizing Donor Choice and GVHD Prophylaxis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Feb 12;39(5):373-385. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01771DOI Listing
February 2021

Duration and key determinants of infectious virus shedding in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

Nat Commun 2021 01 11;12(1):267. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Key questions in COVID-19 are the duration and determinants of infectious virus shedding. Here, we report that infectious virus shedding is detected by virus cultures in 23 of the 129 patients (17.8%) hospitalized with COVID-19. The median duration of shedding infectious virus is 8 days post onset of symptoms (IQR 5-11) and drops below 5% after 15.2 days post onset of symptoms (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.4-17.2). Multivariate analyses identify viral loads above 7 log RNA copies/mL (odds ratio [OR] of 14.7 (CI 3.57-58.1; p < 0.001) as independently associated with isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract. A serum neutralizing antibody titre of at least 1:20 (OR of 0.01 (CI 0.003-0.08; p < 0.001) is independently associated with non-infectious SARS-CoV-2. We conclude that quantitative viral RNA load assays and serological assays could be used in test-based strategies to discontinue or de-escalate infection prevention and control precautions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20568-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801729PMC
January 2021

Digital PCR for Quantification in CML: Current Applications in Clinical Practice.

Hemasphere 2020 Dec 24;4(6):e496. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Molecular monitoring of the transcript for patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has become increasingly demanding. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the routinely used method, but has limitations in quantification accuracy due to its inherent technical variation. Treatment recommendations rely on specific values set at timed response milestones, making precise measurement of a requisite. Furthermore, the sensitivity of qPCR may be insufficient to reliably quantify low levels of residual in patients in deep molecular response (DMR) who could qualify for an attempt to discontinue Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) therapy. We reviewed the current use of digital PCR (dPCR) as a promising alternative for response monitoring in CML. dPCR offers an absolute quantification at various disease levels with remarkable precision and a clinical sensitivity reaching down to at least MR5.0. Moreover, dPCR has been validated in multiple studies as prognostic marker for successful TKI treatment discontinuation, while this could not be achieved using classical qPCR. dPCR may thus prospectively be the preferred method to reliably identify patients achieving treatment milestones after initiation of TKI therapy as well as for the selection and timing for TKI discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710259PMC
December 2020

Allogeneic stem cell transplant in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and karnofsky performance status score less than or equal to 80%: A study from the acute leukemia working party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

Cancer Med 2021 Jan 26;10(1):23-33. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score <80% (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of patients with a KPS score =80%, a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was associated with an increased risk of relapse (p = 0.002) and lower GRFS (p < 0.001) compared to myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Differently, in patients with a KPS score <80%, a RIC regimen resulted in lower NRM (p < 0.001), whereas relapse incidence did not differ, thus leading to an improved GRFS (p = 0.008) as compared to MAC. A transplant from a matched sibling donor (MSD) was associated with a reduced incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD (p < 0.01) and NRM (p < 0.01) in comparison to other donor types. In conclusion, allo-SCT appears feasible in AML patients with a jeopardized KPS score. Survival is significantly affected by the conditioning intensity, which should be adjusted according to the severity of KPS impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826477PMC
January 2021

Comparison of Haploidentical Bone Marrow versus Matched Unrelated Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation with Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Acute Leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Feb 4;27(3):843-851. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Service d'Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Sorbonne University, and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Purpose: Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is increasingly being utilized as a principle GvHD prophylaxis strategy in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). A haploidentical (haplo) or matched unrelated donor (UD) is a valid option in the absence of a matched related donor.

Experimental Design: We compared the outcomes of patients with acute leukemia who underwent haplo bone marrow (haplo-BM, = 401) versus UD mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (UD-PB, = 192) transplantation in the setting of PTCy.

Results: The median follow-up duration was 36 months in the haplo-BM group and 16.6 months in the UD-PB group, respectively ( < 0.01). Myeloablative conditioning was used in 64.6% and 42.7% of haplo-BM and UD-PB patients, respectively ( < 0.01). Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 30 was 87% in haplo-BM versus 94% in UD-PB, respectively ( = 0.21). In the multivariate analysis, the risk of grade 2-4 acute GvHD (HR = 0.53, = 0.01) and chronic GvHD (HR = 0.50, = 0.02) was significantly lower in the haplo-BM group compared with the UD-PB group. There was no significant difference between the study groups with respect to relapse incidence, nonrelapse mortality, leukemia-fee survival, overall survival, or GvHD-free and relapse-free survival.

Conclusions: The use of a haplo donor with a BM graft resulted in a lower incidence of GvHD compared with a UD-PB stem cell graft in the setting of PTCy for patients with acute leukemia. However, differences in GvHD did not translate into a difference in survival outcomes. Based upon these data, UD-PB or haplo-BM should be considered equally acceptable sources for allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2809DOI Listing
February 2021

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus antithymocyte globulin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors: A retrospective analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Cancer 2021 Jan 29;127(2):209-218. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Hematology Department, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, Paris, France.

Background: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCY) to standard immunosuppressive agents reduces GVHD in different donor settings.

Methods: We compared the outcomes of adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allo-HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after the use of PTCY (n = 197) or ATG (n = 1913).

Results: Patients in the PTCY group were younger than those in the ATG group (median age, 47 vs 54 years; P < .01). Peripheral blood was the most frequently used stem cell source, being significantly more frequent in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (95% vs 70% P < .01). The conditioning regimen was more frequently myeloablative in the PTCY group than in the ATG group (59% vs 48%; P < .01). Time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in the ATG group than in the PTCY group (17 vs 20 days; P < .01). No differences were observed according to the other transplantation outcomes, except for chronic GVHD of all grades and extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years, which were significantly lower in the ATG group compared with the PTCY group (P < .02).

Conclusion: PTCY is feasible in an HLA-identical sibling setting, and despite similar outcomes, ATG may be associated with lower incidence of chronic GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33255DOI Listing
January 2021

Panobinostat and decitabine prior to donor lymphocyte infusion in allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Blood Adv 2020 09;4(18):4430-4437

Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is adversely affected by relapse to a considerable degree. To exploit the graft-versus-leukemia effect more effectively, we assessed the feasibility of early initiation of epigenetic therapy with panobinostat and decitabine after allo-HSCT and before donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) in poor-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or refractory anemia with excess blasts with International Prognostic Scoring System score ≥1.5. A total of 140 poor-risk patients with AML aged 18 to 70 years were registered, and 110 proceeded to allo-HSCT. Three dose levels were evaluated for dose-limiting toxicities, including panobinostat monotherapy 20 mg at days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 4-week cycle (PNB mono group) and panobinostat combined with either decitabine 20 mg/m2 (PNB/DAC20 group) or decitabine 10 mg/m2 (PNB/DAC10 group) at days 1 to 3 of every 4-week cycle. After phase 1, the study continued as phase 2, focusing on completion of protocol treatment and treatment outcome. PNB mono and PNB/DAC10 were feasible, whereas PNB/DAC20 was not related to prolonged cytopenia. Sixty of 110 patients who underwent transplantation were eligible to receive their first DLI within 115 days after allo-HSCT. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events related to panobinostat and decitabine were observed in 23 (26%) of the 87 patients, and they received epigenetic therapy. Cumulative incidence of relapse was 35% (standard error [SE] 5), and overall survival and progression-free survival at 24 months were 50% (SE 5) and 49% (SE 5). Post-allo-HSCT epigenetic therapy with panobinostat alone or in combination with low-dose decitabine is feasible and is associated with a relatively low relapse rate. The trial was registered at the European Clinical Trial Registry, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, as ECT2012-003344-74.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509859PMC
September 2020

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide GvHD prophylaxis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 9/10 or 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors for acute leukemia.

Leukemia 2021 02 14;35(2):585-594. Epub 2020 May 14.

Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris University UPMC, INSERM U938, Paris, France.

HLA-matching largely contributes to unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (UD-HCT) success but, due to the selective deletion of alloreactive T-cells, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) could modulate its negative impact on outcomes. We retrospectively compared acute leukemia patients receiving 10/10 or 9/10 HLA allele-matched UD-HCT with PTCy-GvHD prophylaxis between 2010 and 2017, reported to EBMT registry. The 100-day incidence of grade ≥2 and grade ≥3 aGvHD were comparable for 10/10 and 9/10 UD (28% versus 28%, p = 0.8 and 10% versus 8%, p = 0.5, respectively). The 2-year cGvHD and extensive cGvHD were similar between 10/10 and 9/10 UD (35% versus 44%, p = 0.2 and 21% versus 20%, p = 0.6, respectively). The 2-year nonrelapse mortality was 20% after 10/10 and 16% after 9/10 UD-HCT (p = 0.1). Relapse incidence at 2-year was 24% for 10/10 and 28% for 9/10 UD-HCT (p = 0.4). Leukemia-free survival at 2-year was the same for 10/10 and 9/10 UD (56 and 56%, p = 0.6, respectively), with comparable overall survival (62 and 59%, p = 0.9, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed no effect of HLA-matching on outcomes. An advanced disease status and patient disability remained the most important factors portending a worse survival. PTCy could alleviate the detrimental effect of HLA-allele mismatching in UD-HCT, potentially expanding the donor pool for acute leukemia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0863-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide after matched sibling, unrelated and haploidentical donor transplants in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a comparative study of the ALWP EBMT.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 05 6;13(1):46. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Hematology, Hopital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: The use of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is highly effective in preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the haploidentical (Haplo) transplant setting and is being increasingly used in matched sibling (MSD) and matched unrelated (MUD) transplants. There is no information on the impact of donor types using homogeneous prophylaxis with PTCy.

Methods: We retrospectively compared outcomes of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) who received a first allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis from MSD (n = 215), MUD (n = 235), and Haplo (n = 789) donors registered in the EBMT database between 2010 and 2017.

Results: The median follow-up was 2 years. Haplo-SCT carried a significantly increased risk of acute grade II-IV GVHD (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and NRM (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.5-4.5) but a lower risk of relapse (HR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9) that translated to no differences in LFS (HR 1.1; 95% CI 0.8-1.4) or GVHD/relapse-free survival (HR 1; 95% CI 0.8-1.3). Interestingly, the use of peripheral blood was associated with an increased risk of acute (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.6) and chronic GVHD (HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.4) but a lower risk of relapse (HR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9).

Conclusions: The use of PTCy in patients with AML in CR1 receiving SCT from MSD, MUD, and Haplo is safe and effective. Haplo-SCT had increased risk of acute GVHD and NRM and lower relapse incidence but no significant difference in survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00882-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201995PMC
May 2020

Determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Leukemia 2021 01 14;35(1):215-224. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

CHU de Lille, LIRIC, INSERM U995, Université de Lille, 59000, Lille, France.

We aimed to evaluate the determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to describe factors predicting the main post-HCT complications. This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation included 2916 myelofibrosis patients who underwent first allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016. After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age ≥ 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse. This information has potential implications for patient counseling and clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0815-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Compatibility at amino acid position 98 of MICB reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease in conjunction with the CMV status.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 07 14;55(7):1367-1378. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Laboratoire d'ImmunoRhumatologie Moléculaire, INSERM UMR_S1109, Plateforme GENOMAX, Faculté de Médecine, Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire OMICARE, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related complications are leading causes of mortality after unrelated-donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (UD-HCT). The non-conventional MHC class I gene MICB, alike MICA, encodes a stress-induced polymorphic NKG2D ligand. However, unlike MICA, MICB interacts with the CMV-encoded UL16, which sequestrates MICB intracellularly, leading to immune evasion. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the impact of mismatches in MICB amino acid position 98 (MICB98), a key polymorphic residue involved in UL16 binding, in 943 UD-HCT pairs who were allele-matched at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and MICA loci. HLA-DP typing was further available. MICB98 mismatches were significantly associated with an increased incidence of acute (grade II-IV: HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24; P < 0.001; grade III-IV: HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.34; P < 0.001) and chronic GVHD (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.33; P < 0.001). MICB98 matching significantly reduced the effect of CMV status on overall mortality from a hazard ratio of 1.77 to 1.16. MICB98 mismatches showed a GVHD-independent association with a higher incidence of CMV infection/reactivation (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.51; P < 0.001). Hence selecting a MICB98-matched donor significantly reduces the GVHD incidence and lowers the impact of CMV status on overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0886-5DOI Listing
July 2020

Identification of osteolineage cell-derived extracellular vesicle cargo implicated in hematopoietic support.

FASEB J 2020 04 21;34(4):5435-5452. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Osteolineage cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a regulatory role in hematopoiesis and have been shown to promote the ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here, we demonstrate that EVs from different human osteolineage sources do not have the same HSPC expansion promoting potential. Comparison of stimulatory and non-stimulatory osteolineage EVs by next-generation sequencing and mass spectrometry analyses revealed distinct microRNA and protein signatures identifying EV-derived candidate regulators of ex vivo HSPC expansion. Accordingly, the treatment of umbilical cord blood-derived CD34 HSPCs with stimulatory EVs-altered HSPC transcriptome, including genes with known roles in cell proliferation. An integrative bioinformatics approach, which connects the HSPC gene expression data with the candidate cargo in stimulatory EVs, delineated the potentially targeted biological functions and pathways during hematopoietic cell expansion and development. In conclusion, our study gives novel insights into the complex biological role of EVs in osteolineage cell-HSPC crosstalk and promotes the utility of EVs and their cargo as therapeutic agents in regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902610RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136136PMC
April 2020

Redefining and measuring transplant conditioning intensity in current era: a study in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 06 29;55(6):1114-1125. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Service d' Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hospital Saint-Antoine, Sorbonne Université, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine (CRSA), Paris, France.

To address limitations of the currently used reduced-intensity/myeloablative conditioning (RIC/MAC) classification scheme we aimed to develop a tool that can capture more standardized the conditioning intensity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We assigned intensity weight scores for frequently used conditioning regimen components and used their sum to generate the transplant conditioning intensity (TCI) score. We retrospectively tested the impact of TCI on 8255 adult (45-65 years) acute myeloid leukemia patients who underwent HCT in first complete remission. A Cox model for early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) yielded a 3-group TCI risk scheme (low, intermediate, high) with respective TCI scores of [1-2], [2.5-3.5] and [4-6]. On multivariate modeling, TCI grouping was highly and better predictive for early (day 100 and 180) NRM, 2-year NRM and relapse (REL) as compared with the RIC/MAC classification. Validation was done on 200 bootstrap samples. Moreover, TCI scoring enabled the identification of a distinct subgroup of RIC and MAC conditioning regimens with an intermediate TCI [2.5-3.5] score that had identical outcomes and which are frequently referred as "reduced toxicity conditioning". TCI scheme provides an improvement of the RIC/MAC classification. We propose TCI as a new tool to define and measure the conditioning regimen intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0803-yDOI Listing
June 2020

The effectiveness of ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a nationwide, population-based study in the Netherlands.

Br J Haematol 2020 03 28;188(6):e109-e112. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Research and Development, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation (IKNL), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16391DOI Listing
March 2020

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using single UM171-expanded cord blood: a single-arm, phase 1-2 safety and feasibility study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Feb 6;7(2):e134-e145. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Division of Hematology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Medicine, Montreal, QC, Canada; Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; ExCellThera, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Benefits of cord blood transplantation include low rates of relapse and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, the use of cord blood is rapidly declining because of the high incidence of infections, severe acute GVHD, and transplant-related mortality. UM171, a haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal agonist, has been shown to expand cord blood stem cells and enhance multilineage blood cell reconstitution in mice. We aimed to investigate the safety and feasibility of single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation in patients with haematological malignancies who do not have a suitable HLA-matched donor.

Methods: This single-arm, open-label, phase 1-2 safety and feasibility study was done at two hospitals in Canada. The study had two parts. In part 1, patients received two cord blood units (one expanded with UM171 and one unmanipulated cord blood) until UM171-expanded cord blood demonstrated engraftment. Once engraftment was documented we initiated part 2, reported here, in which patients received a single UM171-expanded cord blood unit with a dose de-escalation design to determine the minimal cord blood unit cell dose that achieved prompt engraftment. Eligible patients were aged 3-64 years, weighed 12 kg or more, had a haematological malignancy with an indication for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and did not have a suitable HLA-matched donor, and a had a Karnofsky performance status score of 70% or more. Five clinical sites were planned to participate in the study; however, only two study sites opened, both of which only treated adult patients, thus no paediatric patients (aged <18 years) were recruited. Patients aged younger than 50 years without comorbidities received a myeloablative conditioning regimen (cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, fludarabine 75 mg/m, and 12 Gy total body irradiation) and patients aged older than 50 years and those with comorbidities received a less myeloablative conditioning regimen (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m, and 4 Gy total body irradiation). Patients were infused with the 7-day UM171-expanded CD34-positive cells and the lymphocyte-containing CD34-negative fraction. The primary endpoints were feasibility of UM171 expansion, safety of the transplant, kinetics of hematopoietic reconstitution (time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment) of UM171-expanded cord blood, and minimal pre-expansion cord blood unit cell dose that achieved prompt engraftment. We analysed feasibility in all enrolled patients and all other primary outcomes were analysed per protocol, in all patients who received single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation. This trial has been completed and was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02668315.

Findings: Between Feb 17, 2016, and Nov 11, 2018, we enrolled 27 patients, four of whom received two cord blood units for safety purposes in part 1 of the study. 23 patients were subsequently enrolled in part 2 to receive a single UM171-expanded cord blood transplant and 22 patients received a single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation. At data cutoff (Dec 31, 2018), median follow-up was 18 months (IQR 12-22). The minimal cord blood unit cell dose at thaw that achieved prompt engraftment as a single cord transplant after UM171 expansion was 0·52 × 10 CD34-positive cells. We successfully expanded 26 (96%) of 27 cord blood units with UM171. Among the 22 patients who received single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation, median time to engraftment of 100 neutrophils per μL was 9·5 days (IQR 8-12), median time to engraftment of 500 neutrophils per μL was 18 days (12·5-20·0), and no graft failure occurred. Median time to platelet recovery was 42 days (IQR 35-47). The most common non-haematological adverse events were grade 3 febrile neutropenia (16 [73%] of 22 patients) and bacteraemia (nine [41%]). No unexpected adverse events were observed. One (5%) of 22 patients died due to treatment-related diffuse alveolar haemorrhage.

Interpretation: Our preliminary findings suggest that UM171 cord blood stem cell expansion is feasible, safe, and allows for the use of small single cords without compromising engraftment. UM171-expanded cord blood might have the potential to overcome the disadvantages of other cord blood transplants while maintaining the benefits of low risk of chronic GVHD and relapse, and warrants further investigation in randomised trials.

Funding: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian Cancer Society and Stem Cell Network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30202-9DOI Listing
February 2020

High-dose posaconazole for azole-resistant aspergillosis and other difficult-to-treat mould infections.

Mycoses 2020 Feb 15;63(2):122-130. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Center of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Oral follow-up therapy is problematic in moulds with reduced azole-susceptibility, such as azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Currently, only intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) is advocated by guidelines for the treatment of azole-resistant aspergillosis infections. Preclinical research indicates that high-dose posaconazole (HD-POS) might be a feasible option provided that high drug exposure (ie POS serum through levels >3 mg/L) can be achieved and is safe.

Objectives: To describe our experience with the use of oral HD-POS as treatment strategies for patients infected with pathogens with a POS MIC close to the clinical breakpoint.

Patients/methods: We review evidence supporting the use of HD-POS and describe our experience on safety and efficacy in 16 patients. In addition, we describe the adverse events (AE) observed in 25 patients with POS concentrations at the higher end of the population distribution during treatment with the licensed dose.

Results: Sixteen patients were treated intentionally with HD-POS for voriconazole-resistant invasive aspergillosis (7/16), mucormycosis (4/16), salvage therapy for IA (4/16) and IA at a sanctuary site (spondylodiscitis) in 1. Grade 3-4 AEs were observed in 6, and all of them were considered at least possibly related. Grade 3-4 AEs were observed in 5 of the 25 patients with spontaneous high POS serum through levels considered at least possibly related using Naranjo scale.

Conclusions: High-dose posaconazole is a treatment option if strict monitoring for both exposure and for AE is possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003872PMC
February 2020

Successional Dynamics in the Gut Microbiome Determine the Success of Infection in Adult Pig Models.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 6;9:271. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, Lelystad, Netherlands.

infections (CDI) are a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is hypothesized that CDI develops due to the antibiotic-induced disruption of the intestinal microbial community structure, which allows to flourish. Here, we pre-treated weaned pigs with the antibiotics Clindamycin or Ciprofloxacin for 1 day, and subsequently inoculated them with a human and pig enteropathogenic strain 078 spores. Body temperature, clinical signs of disease, and the fecal microbiome were monitored daily for 15 days. Clindamycin had a stronger effect on the pigs than Ciprofloxacin, resulting in drastic shifts in the fecal microbiome, decreases in microbial diversity and significant increases in body temperature, even in the absence of . Fecal shedding of was detectable for 3 and 9 days in Ciprofloxacin and Clindamycin treated pigs inoculated with , respectively, and in both cases decreased cell proliferation rates were detected in colon tissue. The timing of shedding coincided with the decrease in a large cluster of Firmicutes following Clindamycin treatment, a pattern which was also independent of inoculation. The observed community patterns suggest that successional dynamics following antibiotic treatment facilitate establishment. The similarities between the microbiome responses observed in our study and those previously reported in CDI-infected humans further support the utility of adult pigs as models for the study of CDI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691177PMC
July 2020

New Approaches and Treatment Combinations for the Management of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Oncol 2019 6;9:665. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Hematology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Current treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is effective in many patients, but is not curative and frequently limited by intolerance or resistance. Also, treatment free remission is a novel option for CML patients and requires reaching a deep molecular remission, which is not consistently achieved with TKI monotherapy. Together, multiple unmet clinical needs remain and therefore the continued need to explore novel treatment strategies. With increasing understanding of CML biology, many options have been explored and are under investigation. This includes the use asciminib as first in class inhibitor targeting the myristoyl pocket of BCR-ABL, combination treatments with established non-TKI drugs such as interferon and drugs with novel targets relevant to CML biology such as gliptins and thiazolidinediones. Together, an overview is provided of treatment strategies in development for CML beyond current TKI monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691769PMC
August 2019

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in second complete remission for core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Haematologica 2020 Jun 22;105(6):1723-1730. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Paris, France.

Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises two subtypes with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22). Since long-term response to chemotherapy in these leukemias is relatively good, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered in patients who relapse and achieve second complete remission. To evaluate the outcomes of allogeneic transplantation in this indication, we studied 631 patients reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry between the years 2000 and 2014. Leukemia-free survival probabilities at two and five years were 59.1% and 54.1%, while overall survival probabilities were 65% and 58.2%, respectively. The incidence of relapse and risk of non-relapse mortality at the same time points were 19.8% and 22.5% for relapse and 20.9% and 23.3% for non-relapse mortality, respectively. The most important adverse factors influencing leukemia-free and overall survival were: leukemia with t(8;21), presence of three or more additional chromosomal abnormalities, and Karnofsky performance score <80. Relapse risk was increased in t(8;21) leukemia and associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities as well as reduced intensity conditioning. Measurable residual disease in molecular evaluation before transplantation was associated with increased risk of relapse and inferior leukemia-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.222810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271580PMC
June 2020

Allogeneic haemopoietic transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia in second complete remission: a registry report by the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Leukemia 2020 01 30;34(1):87-99. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) may be curative in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in second complete remission (CR2) but the impact of reduced intensity (RIC) versus myeloablative conditioning (MAC) is uncertain. The Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation Registry studied an AML CR2 cohort characterised by age ≥ 18 years, first allo-HCT 2007-2016, available cytogenetic profile at diagnosis, donors who were matched family, volunteer unrelated with HLA antigen match 10/10 or 9/10 or haplo-identical. The 1879 eligible patients included 1010 (54%) MAC allo-HCT recipients. In patients <50 years (y), two year outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent with leukaemia-free survival (LFS) 54% for each, overall survival (OS), 61% vs 62%, non-relapse mortality (NRM) 18% vs 15% and graft versus host disease relapse-free survival (GRFS) 38% vs 42%. In patients ≥50 y, 2 y outcomes for MAC vs RIC allo-HCT were equivalent for LFS 52% vs 49%, OS 58% vs 55% and GRFS 42.4% vs 36%. However, NRM was significantly inferior after MAC allo-HCT, 27% vs 19% (P = 0.01) despite worse cGVHD after RIC-allo (32% vs 39%). These data support the need for ongoing prospective study of conditioning intensity and GVHD mitigation in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0527-4DOI Listing
January 2020

De novo generation of a functional human thymus from induced pluripotent stem cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 11 16;144(5):1416-1419.e7. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Immunohematology & Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.05.042DOI Listing
November 2019

Comparable Long-Term Outcome after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation from Sibling and Matched Unrelated Donors in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Older Than 50 Years: A Report on Behalf of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 11 2;25(11):2251-2260. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Acute Leukemia Working Party Office, Paris, France.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is potentially curative therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Marked improvement has been achieved with SCT from matched unrelated donors (MUDs) in recent years. However, there are limited data comparing the long-term outcomes (beyond 10 years) after SCT from sibling donors and MUDs in older patients with AML. We analyzed these outcomes in a large cohort of patients with AML (n = 1134), age ≥50 years, who were alive and leukemia-free 2 years after SCT from matched siblings (n = 848) or MUDs (n = 286), with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. The median age was 56 and 58 years after SCT from siblings and MUDs, respectively (P = .005). In the sibling group, 77%, 12%, and 11% were in first complete remission (CR1), second complete remission (CR2), and active leukemia at SCT compared with 50%, 25%, and 25% in the MUD group, respectively (P < .001). Sixty-one percent of siblings and 62% of MUDs had reduced-intensity conditioning (P = .78). The 10-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) of patients surviving leukemia-free 2 years after SCT was 72% and 62%, respectively (P = .30). Multivariate analysis identified active leukemia at SCT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.86; P = .0001) or CR2 (HR, 1.51; P = .02) compared with CR1, female recipients (HR, 0.71; P = .006), adverse cytogenetics (HR, 2.52; P = .01), and prior graft-versus-host disease (HR, 1.31; P = .04) as independent factors predicting LFS. Donor and conditioning type were not significant. The cumulative incidence was 15% and 17% (P = .97) for late relapse mortality and 13% and 21% for late nonrelapse mortality, respectively (P = .15). In conclusion, long-term LFS is similar, and patients who are leukemia-free 2 years after SCT can expect favorable outcomes with both donor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.031DOI Listing
November 2019

Prevalence of voriconazole-resistant invasive aspergillosis and its impact on mortality in haematology patients.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 09;74(9):2759-2766

Laboratory of Clinical Bacteriology and Mycology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Increasing resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus to triazoles in high-risk populations is a concern. Its impact on mortality is not well understood, but rates from 50% to 100% have been reported.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of voriconazole-resistant A. fumigatus invasive aspergillosis (IA) and its associated mortality in a large multicentre cohort of haematology patients with culture-positive IA.

Methods: We performed a multicentre retrospective study, in which outcomes of culture-positive haematology patients with proven/probable IA were analysed. Patients were stratified based on the voriconazole susceptibility of their isolates (EUCAST broth microdilution test). Mycological and clinical data were compared, along with survival at 6 and 12 weeks.

Results: We identified 129 A. fumigatus culture-positive proven or probable IA cases; 103 were voriconazole susceptible (79.8%) and 26 were voriconazole resistant (20.2%). All but one resistant case harboured environment-associated resistance mutations in the cyp51A gene: TR34/L98H (13 cases) and TR46/Y121F/T289A (12 cases). Triazole monotherapy was started in 75.0% (97/129) of patients. Mortality at 6 and 12 weeks was higher in voriconazole-resistant cases in all patients (42.3% versus 28.2%, P = 0.20; and 57.7% versus 36.9%, P = 0.064) and in non-ICU patients (36.4% versus 21.6%, P = 0.16; and 54.4% versus 30.7%; P = 0.035), compared with susceptible ones. ICU patient mortality at 6 and 12 weeks was very high regardless of triazole susceptibility (75.0% versus 66.7%, P = 0.99; and 75.0% versus 73.3%, P = 0.99).

Conclusions: A very high prevalence of voriconazole resistance among culture-positive IA haematology patients was observed. The overall mortality at 12 weeks was significantly higher in non-ICU patients with voriconazole-resistant IA compared with voriconazole-susceptible IA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz258DOI Listing
September 2019

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated cord blood or haploidentical donor grafts in adult patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia, a comparative study from Eurocord and the ALWP EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 12 31;54(12):1987-1994. Epub 2019 May 31.

Hôpital Saint Antoine, Service d'Hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Survival of patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) is poor. Cord blood transplantation (UCBT) and non-T-cell-depleted stem cell transplantation from haploidentical donors (HAPLO) are both strategies that have shown encouraging results in patients who do not have an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling or unrelated donor. We retrospectively analyzed outcomes of 409 adults with sAML receiving either UCBT (n = 163) or HAPLO (n = 246) in EBMT centers. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) was the antecedent diagnosis in 79% of UCBT and 85% of HAPLO recipients. In multivariate analysis, UCBT was associated with higher risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD (HR 1.9, p = 0.009) and lower GHVD-free-relapse-free-survival (GRFS) (HR 1.57, p = 0.007) compared to HAPLO. Chronic-GVHD, RI, NRM, LFS, and OS were not statistically different between the two. Early disease stage at transplant was independently associated with lower RI and NRM and higher OS and LFS. These results indicate that HAPLO is associated with better GRFS and lower aGvHD compared to UCBT in patients with sAML and that UCBT can be a valid alternative for sAML patients who lack a matched sibling, a proper haploidentical or an unrelated donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0582-5DOI Listing
December 2019