Publications by authors named "Jan H M Schellens"

525 Publications

A Phase I, First-in-Human Study of GSK2849330, an Anti-HER3 Monoclonal Antibody, in HER3-Expressing Solid Tumors.

Oncologist 2021 Oct 21;26(10):e1844-e1853. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, USA.

Background: GSK2849330, an anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody that blocks HER3/Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) signaling in cancer cells, is engineered for enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity. This phase I, first-in-human, open-label study assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary activity of GSK2849330 in patients with HER3-expressing advanced solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: Patients with various tumor types were prospectively selected for HER3 expression by immunohistochemistry; a subset was also screened for NRG1 mRNA expression. In the dose-escalation phase, patients received GSK2849330 1.4-30 mg/kg every 2 weeks, or 3 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg weekly, intravenously (IV). In the dose-expansion phase, patients received 30 mg/kg GSK2849330 IV weekly.

Results: Twenty-nine patients with HER3-expressing cancers, of whom two expressed NRG1, received GSK2849330 (dose escalation: n = 18, dose expansion: n = 11). GSK2849330 was well tolerated. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. The highest dose, of 30 mg/kg weekly, expected to provide full target engagement, was selected for dose expansion. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were mostly grade 1 or 2. The most common AEs were diarrhea (66%), fatigue (62%), and decreased appetite (31%). Dose-proportional plasma exposures were achieved, with evidence of HER3 inhibition in paired tissue biopsies. Of 29 patients, only 1 confirmed partial response, lasting 19 months, was noted in a patient with CD74-NRG1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Conclusion: GSK2849330 demonstrated a favorable safety profile, dose-proportional PK, and evidence of target engagement, but limited antitumor activity in HER3-expressing cancers. The exceptional response seen in a patient with CD74-NRG1-rearranged NSCLC suggests further exploration in NRG1-fusion-positive cancers.

Implications For Practice: This first-in-human study confirms that GSK2849330 is well tolerated. Importantly, across a variety of HER3-expressing advanced tumors, prospective selection by HER3/NRG1 expression alone was insufficient to identify patients who could benefit from treatment with this antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity- and complement-dependent cytotoxicity-enhanced anti-HER3 antibody. The only confirmed durable response achieved was in a patient with CD74-NRG1-rearranged lung cancer. This highlights the potential utility of screening for NRG1 fusions prospectively across tumor types to enrich potential responders to anti-HER3 agents in ongoing trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488777PMC
October 2021

Transtympanic Sodium Thiosulfate for Prevention of Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Otol Neurotol 2021 06;42(5):678-685

Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam.

Objectives: To determine safety, feasibility, and preliminary activity of transtympanic injection of sodium thiosulfate (STS) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL).DESIGN Randomized controlled trial.SETTING Tertiary cancer hospital.PATIENTS Adults to be treated with high-dose cisplatin (≥ 75 mg/m2).INTERVENTION Selected by randomization, 0.1 M STS gel on one side and placebo gel on the other side was transtympanically applied to the middle ear 3 hours before cisplatin administration. After amendment, the placebo ear was left untreated.

Main Outcome Measure: Primary outcome was safety and feasibility. Secondary outcomes included pharmacokinetic analysis of systemic cisplatin and preliminary activity of STS. Clinically relevant CIHL was defined as a ≥ 10 dB threshold shift at pure-tone average 8-10-12.5 kHz (PTA8-12.5). Response to STS was defined as a threshold shift at PTA8-12.5 in the STS-treated ear of ≥ 10 dB smaller than the untreated ear.

Results: Twelve patients were treated. Average CIHL at PTA8-12.5 was 12.7 dB in untreated ears and 8.8 dB SPL in STS-treated ears (p = 0.403). Four patients did not develop CIHL. Four out of eight patients with CIHL responded to STS: CIHL at PTA8-12.5 in STS-treated ears was 18.4 dB less compared to untreated ears (p = 0.068). Grade 1 adverse events were reported. Pharmacokinetic results were available for 11 patients.

Conclusion: Transtympanic application of STS was safe and feasible. Based on our pharmacokinetic analysis, we postulate that transtympanic STS does not interfere with the systemically available cisplatin. Our results provide a preliminary proof of concept for transtympanic application of STS in preventing CIHL and warrants further evaluation on a larger scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAO.0000000000003069DOI Listing
June 2021

A Phase I dose-escalation study of two cycles carboplatin-olaparib followed by olaparib monotherapy in patients with advanced cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 06 27;148(12):3041-3050. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Molecular Pathology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital - Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Preclinical studies have shown synergistic effects when combining PARP1/2 inhibitors and platinum drugs in BRCA1/2 mutated cancer cell models. After a formulation change of olaparib from capsules to tablets, we initiated a dose finding study of olaparib tablets bidaily (BID) continuously with carboplatin to prepare comparative studies in this patient group. Patients were included in a 3 + 3 dose-escalation schedule: olaparib 25 mg BID and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) 3 mg*min/mL d1/d22, olaparib 25 mg BID and carboplatin AUC 4 mg*min/mL d1/d22, followed by increasing dose-levels of olaparib from 50 mg BID, 75 mg BID, to 100 mg BID with carboplatin at AUC 4 mg*min/mL d1/d22. After two cycles, patients continued olaparib 300 mg BID as monotherapy. Primary objective was to assess the maximum tolerable dose (MTD). Twenty-four patients with a confirmed diagnosis of advanced cancer were included. Most common adverse events were nausea (46%), fatigue (33%) and platelet count decrease (33%). Dose-level 3 (olaparib 75 mg BID and carboplatin AUC 4 mg*min/mL; n = 6) was defined as MTD. Fourteen out of 24 patients (56%) had a partial response as best response (RECIST 1.1). Systemic exposure of the olaparib tablet formulation appeared comparable to the previous capsule formulation with olaparib tablet AUC of 16.3 μg/mL*h at MTD. Polymers of ADP-ribose levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reduced by 98.7% ± 0.14% at Day 8 compared to Day 1 for dose-level 3. Olaparib tablets 75 mg BID and carboplatin AUC 4 mg*min/mL for two cycles preceding olaparib monotherapy 300 mg is a feasible and tolerable treatment schedule for patients with advanced cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248128PMC
June 2021

Phase I and Pharmacologic Study of Olaparib in Combination with High-dose Radiotherapy with and without Concurrent Cisplatin for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 03 1;27(5):1256-1266. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To identify an MTD of olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, in combination with loco-regional radiotherapy with/without cisplatin for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients And Methods: Olaparib dose was escalated in two groups: radiotherapy (66 Gy/24 fractions in 2.75 Gy/fraction) with and without daily cisplatin (6 mg/m), using time-to-event continual reassessment method with a 1-year dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) period. The highest dose level with a DLT probability <15% was defined as MTD. Poly ADP-ribose (PAR) inhibition and radiation-induced PAR-ribosylation (PARylation) were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Results: Twenty-eight patients with loco-regional or oligometastatic disease (39%) were treated: 11 at olaparib 25 mg twice daily and 17 at 25 mg once daily. The lowest dose level with cisplatin was above the MTD due to hematologic and late esophageal DLT. The MTD without cisplatin was olaparib 25 mg once daily. At a latency of 1-2.8 years, severe pulmonary adverse events (AE) were observed in 5 patients across all dose levels, resulting in 18% grade 5 pulmonary AEs. Exploratory analyses indicate an association with the radiation dose to the lungs. At the MTD, olaparib reduced PAR levels by more than 95% and abolished radiation-induced PARylation. Median follow-up of survivors was 4.1 years. Two-year loco-regional control was 84%, median overall survival in patients with locally advanced NSCLC was 28 months.

Conclusions: Combined mildly hypofractionated radiotherapy and low-dose daily cisplatin and olaparib was not tolerable due to esophageal and hematologic toxicity. Severe pulmonary toxicity was observed as well, even without cisplatin. More conformal radiotherapy schedules with improved pulmonary and esophageal sparing should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2551DOI Listing
March 2021

A first-in-man phase 1 study of the DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor peposertib (formerly M3814) in patients with advanced solid tumours.

Br J Cancer 2021 02 24;124(4):728-735. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: This open-label, phase 1 trial (NCT02316197) aimed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of peposertib (formerly M3814), a DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibitor in patients with advanced solid tumours. Secondary/exploratory objectives included safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles and clinical activity.

Methods: Adult patients with advanced solid tumours received peposertib 100-200 mg once daily or 150-400 mg twice daily (BID) in 21-day cycles.

Results: Thirty-one patients were included (median age 66 years, 61% male). One dose-limiting toxicity, consisting of mainly gastrointestinal, non-serious adverse events (AEs) and long recovery duration, was reported at 300 mg BID. The most common peposertib-related AEs were nausea, vomiting, fatigue and pyrexia. The most common peposertib-related Grade 3 AEs were maculopapular rash and nausea. Peposertib was quickly absorbed systemically (median T 1.1-2.5 h). The p-DNA-PK/t-DNA-PK ratio decreased consistently in peripheral blood mononuclear cells 3-6 h after doses ≥100 mg. The best overall response was stable disease (12 patients), lasting for ≥12 weeks in seven patients.

Conclusions: Peposertib was well-tolerated and demonstrated modest efficacy in unselected tumours. The MTD was not reached; the RP2D was declared as 400 mg BID. Further studies, mainly with peposertib/chemo-radiation, are ongoing.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02316197.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01151-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884679PMC
February 2021

Selective Oral MEK1/2 Inhibitor Pimasertib in Metastatic Melanoma: Antitumor Activity in a Phase I, Dose-Escalation Trial.

Target Oncol 2021 01;16(1):47-57

Clinical Research Unit, Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Oncopole, Toulouse, France.

Background: Pimasertib is a selective, potent mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the efficacy, safety, and pharmacodynamics of pimasertib at pharmacologically active doses in a cohort of patients with locally advanced/metastatic melanoma from a first-in-human study of pimasertib.

Methods: This was a phase I, open-label, two-part, dose-escalation study. Part 1 was conducted in patients with solid tumors and identified the maximum tolerated dose, while Part 2 was restricted to patients with advanced/metastatic melanoma. Endpoints included safety, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity. We present data for patients with melanoma only from both parts of the study.

Results: In total, 93 patients with melanoma received pimasertib, 89 of whom received pharmacologically active doses (28-255 mg/day) across four dose regimens in the two parts of the study. The objective response rate was 12.4% (11/89): complete response (n = 1) and partial response (PR; n = 10). Six patients responded for > 24 weeks. Nine of the 11 responders had tumors with B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine Kinase (BRAF; n = 6) and/or NRAS Proto-Oncogene, GTPase (NRAS; n = 3) mutations. Forty-six patients had stable disease (SD). In patients with ocular melanoma (n = 13), best overall response was PR (n = 1), SD (n = 11), and disease progression (n = 1). Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) levels were substantially reduced within 2 h of treatment and inhibition was sustained with continuous twice-daily dosing. Treatment-related, recurrent, grade 3 or higher adverse events were reported in eight patients, including diarrhea, and skin and ocular events.

Conclusion: Results from this phase I study indicate that pimasertib has clinical activity in patients with locally advanced/metastatic melanoma, particularly BRAF- and NRAS-mutated tumors, at clinically relevant doses associated with pERK inhibition in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00982865.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-020-00767-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Selective Oral MEK1/2 Inhibitor Pimasertib: A Phase I Trial in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Target Oncol 2021 01;16(1):37-46

Paris Diderot University Hospital, Clichy, France.

Background: The Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) signaling cascade is frequently constitutively activated in human cancers. Pimasertib is a selective and potent adenosine triphosphate non-competitive MEK1/2 inhibitor.

Objective: Our objectives were to describe the results of a phase I, first-in-human, dose-escalation trial of pimasertib that investigated the maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase II dose, and safety, as well as other endpoints.

Patients And Methods: Four dosing schedules of pimasertib (once daily [qd], 5 days on, 2 days off; qd, 15 days on, 6 days off; continuous qd; continuous twice daily [bid]) were evaluated in patients with advanced solid tumors. Each treatment cycle lasted 21 days. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose based on dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) evaluated during cycle 1, and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity.

Results: Overall, 180 patients received pimasertib (dose range 1-255 mg/day). DLTs were mainly observed at doses ≥ 120 mg/day and included skin rash/acneiform dermatitis and ocular events, such as serous retinal detachment. The most common drug-related adverse events were consistent with class effects, including diarrhea, skin disorders, ocular disorders, asthenia/fatigue, and peripheral edema. The median time to maximum pimasertib concentration was 1.5 h across dosing schedules, and the apparent terminal half-life was 5 h across qd dosing schedules. Pimasertib decreased ERK phosphorylation within 2 h of administration, which was maintained for up to 8 h at higher doses and prolonged with bid dosing.

Conclusions: Based on the safety profile and efficacy signals, a continuous bid regimen was the preferred dosing schedule and the RP2D was defined as 60 mg bid.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00982865.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-020-00768-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with BRAF-mutated biliary tract cancer (ROAR): a phase 2, open-label, single-arm, multicentre basket trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 09 17;21(9):1234-1243. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Effective treatments for patients with cholangiocarcinoma after progression on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy are urgently needed. Mutations in the BRAF gene have been found in 5% of biliary tract tumours. The combination of dabrafenib and trametinib has shown activity in several BRAF-mutated cancers. We aimed to assess the activity and safety of dabrafenib and trametinib combination therapy in patients with BRAF-mutated biliary tract cancer.

Methods: This study is part of an ongoing, phase 2, open-label, single-arm, multicentre, Rare Oncology Agnostic Research (ROAR) basket trial in patients with BRAF-mutated rare cancers. Patients were eligible for the biliary tract cancer cohort if they were aged 18 years or older, had BRAF-mutated, unresectable, metastatic, locally advanced, or recurrent biliary tract cancer, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and had received previous systemic treatment. All patients were treated with oral dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily and oral trametinib 2 mg once daily until disease progression or intolerance of treatment. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate, which was determined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 in the intention-to-treat evaluable population, which comprised all enrolled patients regardless of receiving treatment who were evaluable (ie, had progression, began a new anticancer treatment, withdrew consent, died, had stable disease for 6 weeks or longer, or had two or more post-baseline assessments). The ROAR trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02034110. These results are based on an interim analysis; the study is active but not recruiting.

Findings: Between March 12, 2014, and July 18, 2018, 43 patients with BRAF-mutated biliary tract cancer were enrolled to the study and were evaluable. Median follow-up was 10 months (IQR 6-15). An investigator-assessed overall response was achieved by 22 (51%, 95% CI 36-67) of 43 patients. An independent reviewer-assessed overall response was achieved by 20 (47%, 95% CI 31-62) of 43 patients. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse event was increased γ-glutamyltransferase in five (12%) patients. 17 (40%) patients had serious adverse events and nine (21%) had treatment-related serious adverse events, the most frequent of which was pyrexia (eight [19%]). No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: Dabrafenib plus trametinib combination treatment showed promising activity in patients with BRAF-mutated biliary tract cancer, with a manageable safety profile. Routine testing for BRAF mutations should be considered in patients with biliary tract cancer.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30321-1DOI Listing
September 2020

No relation between docetaxel administration route and high-grade diarrhea incidence.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 08;8(4):e00633

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Oral administration of docetaxel in combination with the CYP3A4 inhibitor ritonavir is used in clinical trials to improve oral bioavailability of docetaxel. Diarrhea was the most commonly observed and dose-limiting toxicity. This study combined preclinical and clinical data and investigated incidence, severity and cause of oral docetaxel-induced diarrhea. In this study, incidence and severity of diarrhea in patients were compared to exposure to orally administered docetaxel. Intestinal toxicity after oral or intraperitoneal administration of docetaxel was further explored in mice lacking Cyp3a and mice lacking both Cyp3a and P-glycoprotein. In patients, severity of diarrhea increased significantly with an increase in AUC and C (P = .035 and P = .025, respectively), but not with an increase in the orally administered dose (P = .11). Furthermore, incidence of grade 3/4 diarrhea after oral docetaxel administration was similar as reported after intravenous docetaxel administration. Intestinal toxicity in mice was only observed at high systemic exposure to docetaxel and was similar after oral and intraperitoneal administration of docetaxel. In conclusion, our data show that the onset of severe diarrhea after oral administration of docetaxel in humans is similar after oral and intravenous administration of docetaxel and is caused by the concentration of docetaxel in the systemic blood circulation. Mouse experiments confirmed that intestinal toxicity is caused by a high systemic exposure and not by local intestinal exposure. Severe diarrhea in patients after oral docetaxel is reversible and is not related to the route of administration of docetaxel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387127PMC
August 2020

Breakthrough therapy-designated oncology drugs: are they rightfully criticized?

Drug Discov Today 2020 09 17;25(9):1580-1584. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has four expedited programs, including the breakthrough therapy designation (BTD). Recently, this program has been criticized. In this feature, we determine whether BTD oncology drugs were truly a breakthrough, based on the outcome of a validated instrument to measure clinical benefit. We find that only a few drugs were likely a breakthrough, indicating that the success rate of the BTD program is somewhat low. Despite this, we believe that programs for fast drug approval do have a place in the current regulatory practice and that the necessary efforts for their improvement should be further explored, especially considering the remaining unmet medical need for patients with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2020.06.009DOI Listing
September 2020

Phase I pharmacological study of continuous chronomodulated capecitabine treatment.

Pharm Res 2020 May 7;37(5):89. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066, CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Capecitabine is an oral pre-pro-drug of the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The biological activity of the 5-FU degrading enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), and the target enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), are subject to circadian rhythmicity in healthy volunteers. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of capecitabine therapy adapted to this circadian rhythm (chronomodulated therapy).

Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with advanced solid tumours potentially benefitting from capecitabine therapy were enrolled. A classical dose escalation 3 + 3 design was applied. Capecitabine was administered daily without interruptions. The daily dose was divided in morning and evening doses that were administered at 9:00 h and 24:00 h, respectively. The ratio of the morning to the evening dose was 3:5 (morning: evening). PK and PD were examined on treatment days 7 and 8.

Results: A total of 25 patients were enrolled. The MTD of continuous chronomodulated capecitabine therapy was established at 750/1250 mg/m/day, and was generally well tolerated. Circadian rhythmicity in the plasma PK of capecitabine, dFCR, dFUR and 5-FU was not demonstrated. TS activity was induced and DPD activity demonstrated circadian rhythmicity during capecitabine treatment.

Conclusion: The MTD of continuous chronomodulated capecitabine treatment allows for a 20% higher dose intensity compared to the approved regimen (1250 mg/m bi-daily on day 1-14 of every 21-day cycle). Chronomodulated treatment with capecitabine is promising and could lead to improved tolerability and efficacy of capecitabine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-020-02828-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205843PMC
May 2020

Pembrolizumab for the treatment of programmed death-ligand 1-positive advanced carcinoid or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Results from the KEYNOTE-028 study.

Cancer 2020 07 22;126(13):3021-3030. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Despite a protracted disease course and multiple available therapies, patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) inevitably experience disease progression. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been associated with NET progression and prognosis. The multicohort, phase 1 KEYNOTE-028 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02054806) evaluated the activity and safety of the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapy pembrolizumab in patients with well-differentiated or moderately-differentiated NETs.

Methods: Patients with PD-L1-positive, locally advanced or metastatic carcinoid or well-differentiated or moderately-differentiated pancreatic NETs (pNETs) were enrolled into separate cohorts and received pembrolizumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 2 years. The objective response rate was the primary endpoint (as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, by investigator review). Safety was a secondary endpoint.

Results: Of 170 and 106 patients, respectively, who had evaluable samples among those screened for the carcinoid and pNET cohorts, 21% and 25%, respectively, had PD-L1-positive tumors; of these, 25 and 16 patients, respectively, were eligible and treated. The median follow-up was 20 months (range, 2-35 months) and 21 months (range, 5-32 months), respectively. The objective response rate was 12.0% (95% CI, 2.5%-31.2%) and 6.3% (95% CI, 0.2%-30.2%), respectively; 3 partial responses occurred among the carcinoid cohort and 1 among the pNET cohort. The median duration of response in the carcinoid cohort was 9.2 months (range, 6.9-11.1 months), and was not reached in the pNET cohort. No complete responses occurred. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 68% and 69% of patients, respectively, most often diarrhea (7 patients in the carcinoid cohort and 4 patients in the pNET cohort) and fatigue (6 patients in each cohort). Hypothyroidism was the most common immune-mediated adverse event (5 patients in the carcinoid cohort and 2 patients in the pNET cohort).

Conclusions: Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity in a subset of patients with NETs and was well-tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32883DOI Listing
July 2020

Quantification of the pharmacokinetic-toxicodynamic relationship of oral docetaxel co-administered with ritonavir.

Invest New Drugs 2020 10 19;38(5):1526-1532. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066, CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction Oral formulations of docetaxel have successfully been developed as an alternative for intravenous administration. Co-administration with the enzyme inhibitor ritonavir boosts the docetaxel plasma exposure. In dose-escalation trials, the maximum tolerated doses for two different dosing regimens were established and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were recorded. The aim of current analysis was to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK)-toxicodynamic (TOX) model to quantify the relationship between docetaxel plasma exposure and DLTs. Methods A total of 85 patients was included in the current analysis, 18 patients showed a DLT in the four-week observation period. A PK-TOX model was developed and simulations based on the PK-TOX model were performed. Results The final PK-TOX model was characterized by an effect compartment representing the toxic effect of docetaxel, which was linked to the probability of developing a DLT. Simulations of once-weekly, once-daily 60 mg and once-weekly, twice-daily 30 mg followed by 20 mg of oral docetaxel suggested that 14% and 34% of patients, respectively, would have a probability >25% to develop a DLT in a four-week period. Conclusions A PK-TOX model was successfully developed. This model can be used to evaluate the probability of developing a DLT following treatment with oral docetaxel and ritonavir in different dosing regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00935-0DOI Listing
October 2020

Phase I study of lapatinib plus trametinib in patients with KRAS-mutant colorectal, non-small cell lung, and pancreatic cancer.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 05 9;85(5):917-930. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: KRAS oncogene mutations cause sustained signaling through the MAPK pathway. Concurrent inhibition of MEK, EGFR, and HER2 resulted in complete inhibition of tumor growth in KRAS-mutant (KRASm) and PIK3CA wild-type tumors, in vitro and in vivo. In this phase I study, patients with advanced KRASm and PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and pancreatic cancer, were treated with combined lapatinib and trametinib to assess the recommended phase 2 regimen (RP2R).

Methods: Patients received escalating doses of continuous or intermittent once daily (QD) orally administered lapatinib and trametinib, starting at 750 mg and 1 mg continuously, respectively.

Results: Thirty-four patients (16 CRC, 15 NSCLC, three pancreatic cancers) were enrolled across six dose levels and eight patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities, including grade 3 diarrhea (n = 2), rash (n = 2), nausea (n = 1), multiple grade 2 toxicities (n = 1), and aspartate aminotransferase elevation (n = 1), resulting in the inability to receive 75% of planned doses (n = 2) or treatment delay (n = 2). The RP2R with continuous dosing was 750 mg lapatinib QD plus 1 mg trametinib QD and with intermittent dosing 750 mg lapatinib QD and trametinib 1.5 mg QD 5 days on/2 days off. Regression of target lesions was seen in 6 of the 24 patients evaluable for response, with one confirmed partial response in NSCLC. Pharmacokinetic results were as expected.

Conclusion: Lapatinib and trametinib could be combined in an intermittent dosing schedule in patients with manageable toxicity. Preliminary signs of anti-tumor activity in NSCLC have been observed and pharmacodynamic target engagement was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04066-4DOI Listing
May 2020

Pharmacokinetics and safety of olaparib in patients with advanced solid tumours and mild or moderate hepatic impairment.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 09 5;86(9):1807-1818. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Aims: Olaparib, a potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, is partially hepatically cleared. We investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of olaparib in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment to provide dosing recommendations.

Methods: This Phase I open-label study assessed the PK, safety and tolerability of single doses of olaparib 300-mg tablets in patients with advanced solid tumours. Patients had normal hepatic function (NHF), or mild (MiHI; Child-Pugh class A) or moderate (MoHI; Child-Pugh class B) hepatic impairment. Blood was collected for PK assessments for 96 hours. Patients could continue taking olaparib 300 mg twice daily for long-term safety assessment.

Results: Thirty-one patients received ≥1 dose of olaparib and 30 were included in the PK assessment. Patients with MiHI had an area under the curve geometric least-squares mean (GLSmean) ratio of 1.15 (90% confidence interval 0.72, 1.83) and a GLSmean maximum plasma concentration ratio of 1.13 (0.82, 1.56) vs those with NHF. In patients with MoHI, GLSmean ratio for area under the curve was 1.08 (0.66, 1.74) and for maximum plasma concentration was 0.87 (0.63, 1.22) vs those with NHF. For patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, no new safety signals were detected.

Conclusion: Patients with MiHI or MoHI had no clinically significant changes in exposure to olaparib compared with patients with NHF. The safety profile of olaparib did not differ from a clinically relevant extent between cohorts. No olaparib tablet or capsule dose reductions are required for patients with MiHI or MoHI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444797PMC
September 2020

A first-in-human phase 1 dose escalation study of spartalizumab (PDR001), an anti-PD-1 antibody, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 03;8(1)

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Spartalizumab is a humanized IgG4κ monoclonal antibody that binds programmed death-1 (PD-1) and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2. This phase 1/2 study was designed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of spartalizumab in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

Methods: In the phase 1 part of the study, 58 patients received spartalizumab, intravenously, at doses of 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, administered every 2 weeks (Q2W), or 3 or 5 mg/kg every 4 weeks (Q4W).

Results: Patients had a wide range of tumor types, most commonly sarcoma (28%) and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (10%); other tumor types were reported in ≤3 patients each. Most patients (93%) had received prior antineoplastic therapy (median three prior lines) and two-thirds of the population had tumor biopsies negative for PD-L1 expression at baseline. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The recommended phase 2 doses were selected as 400 mg Q4W or 300 mg Q3W. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and adverse events included those typical of other PD-1 antibodies. The most common treatment-related adverse events of any grade were fatigue (22%), diarrhea (17%), pruritus (14%), hypothyroidism (10%), and nausea (10%). Partial responses occurred in two patients (response rate 3.4%); one with atypical carcinoid tumor of the lung and one with anal cancer. Paired tumor biopsies from patients taken at baseline and on treatment suggested an on-treatment increase in CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration in patients with clinical benefit.

Conclusions: Spartalizumab was well tolerated at all doses tested in patients with previously treated advanced solid tumors. On-treatment immune activation was seen in tumor biopsies; however, limited clinical activity was reported in this heavily pretreated, heterogeneous population. The phase 2 part of this study is ongoing in select tumor types.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02404441.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-000530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073791PMC
March 2020

Phase 1 study of the pan-HER inhibitor dacomitinib plus the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD-0325901 in patients with KRAS-mutation-positive colorectal, non-small-cell lung and pancreatic cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 04 9;122(8):1166-1174. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Faculty of science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Mutations in KRAS result in a constitutively activated MAPK pathway. In KRAS-mutant tumours existing treatment options, e.g. MEK inhibition, have limited efficacy due to resistance through feedback activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (HER).

Methods: In this Phase 1 study, the pan-HER inhibitor dacomitinib was combined with the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD-0325901 in patients with KRAS-mutant colorectal, pancreatic and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients received escalating oral doses of once daily dacomitinib and twice daily PD-0325901 to determine the recommended Phase 2 dose (RP2D). (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02039336).

Results: Eight out of 41 evaluable patients (27 colorectal cancer, 11 NSCLC and 3 pancreatic cancer) among 8 dose levels experienced dose-limiting toxicities. The RP2D with continuous dacomitinib dosing was 15 mg of dacomitinib plus 6 mg of PD-0325901 (21 days on/7 days off), but major toxicity, including rash (85%), diarrhoea (88%) and nausea (63%), precluded long-term treatment. Therefore, other intermittent schedules were explored, which only slightly improved toxicity. Tumour regression was seen in eight patients with the longest treatment duration (median 102 days) in NSCLC.

Conclusions: Although preliminary signs of antitumour activity in NSCLC were seen, we do not recommend further exploration of this combination in KRAS-mutant patients due to its negative safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0776-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156736PMC
April 2020

-Mutant Transcriptional Subtypes Predict Outcome of Combined BRAF, MEK, and EGFR Blockade with Dabrafenib, Trametinib, and Panitumumab in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 06 11;26(11):2466-2476. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: The influence of the transcriptional and immunologic context of mutations on therapeutic outcomes with targeted therapy in cancer has not been well defined. V600E-mutant (BM) colorectal cancer comprises two main transcriptional subtypes, BM1 and BM2. We sought to determine the impact of BM subtype, as well as distinct biological features of those subtypes, on response to BRAF/MEK/EGFR inhibition in patients with colorectal cancer.

Patients And Methods: Paired fresh tumor biopsies were acquired at baseline and on day 15 of treatment from all consenting patients with BM colorectal cancer enrolled in a phase II clinical trial of dabrafenib, trametinib, and panitumumab. For each sample, BM subtype, cell cycle, and immune gene signature expression were determined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), and a Cox proportional hazards model was applied to determine association with progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Confirmed response rates, median PFS, and median overall survival (OS) were higher in BM1 subtype patients compared with BM2 subtype patients. Evaluation of immune contexture identified greater immune reactivity in BM1, whereas cell-cycle signatures were more highly expressed in BM2. A multivariate model of PFS incorporating BM subtype plus immune and cell-cycle signatures revealed that BM subtype encompasses the majority of the effect.

Conclusions: BM subtype is significantly associated with the outcome of combination dabrafenib, trametinib, and panitumumab therapy and may serve as a standalone predictive biomarker beyond mutational status. Our findings support a more nuanced approach to targeted therapeutic decisions that incorporates assessment of transcriptional context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194012PMC
June 2020

Population Pharmacokinetics of MCLA-128, a HER2/HER3 Bispecific Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients with Solid Tumors.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2020 07;59(7):875-884

Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, The Netherlands Cancer Institute and MC Slotervaart, Louwesweg 6, 1066 EC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: MCLA-128 is a bispecific monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 and HER3 receptors and is in development to overcome HER3-mediated resistance to anti-HER2 therapies. The aims of this analysis were to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of MCLA-128 in patients with various solid tumors, to evaluate patient-related factors that affect the disposition of MCLA-128, and to assess whether flat dosing is appropriate.

Methods: MCLA-128 concentration data following intravenous administration were collected in a phase I/II clinical trial. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed using non-linear mixed-effects modeling. Different compartmental models were evaluated. Various body size parameters including body weight, body surface area, and fat-free mass were evaluated as covariates in addition to age, sex, HER2 status, and tumor burden.

Results: In total, 1115 serum concentration measurements were available from 116 patients. The pharmacokinetics of MCLA-128 was best described by a two-compartment model with linear and non-linear (Michaelis-Menten) clearance. Fat-free mass significantly affected the linear clearance and volume of distribution of the central compartment of MCLA-128, explaining 8.4% and 5.6% of inter-individual variability, respectively. Tumor burden significantly affected the non-linear clearance capacity. Simulations demonstrated that dosing based on body size parameters resulted in similar area under the plasma concentration-time curve for a dosing interval (AUC), maximum and trough concentrations of MCLA-128, compared to flat dosing.

Conclusions: This analysis demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of MCLA-128 exhibits similar disposition characteristics to other therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and that a flat dose of MCLA-128 in patients with various solid tumors is appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-020-00858-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Measurement of NLG207 (formerly CRLX101) nanoparticle-bound and released camptothecin in human plasma.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Mar 27;181:113073. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Clinical Pharmacology Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Camptothecin (CPT), a potent inhibitor of topoisomerase I and HIF-1α, failed to demonstrate utility as an anti-cancer agent in early clinical trial investigations, primarily due to limited clinical activity and significant toxicity attributable to unfavorable physicochemical properties (e.g. low plasma solubility, pH-labile lactone ring). NLG207 (formerly CRLX101), a nanoparticle-drug conjugate (NDC) of CPT designed to optimize plasma pharmacokinetics and facilitate drug delivery to tumors, is included as part of combination treatment in two Phase II clinical trials ongoing at the National Cancer Institute (NCT02769962 and NCT03531827). To better understand the potential for drug-drug interactions and to correlate drug exposure to clinical outcomes and pharmacodynamic biomarkers, a robust analytical method was developed to measure CPT in human plasma. Two sample processing methods were developed to quantify both NDC-bound CPT and free CPT, primarily via alteration of pH conditions. A solid-phase extraction recovered >79 % of CPT prior to quantitative analysis by ultra HPLC-MS/MS. Dynamic calibration ranges of 10 to 10,000 ng/mL and 1 to 1000 ng/mL for total and free CPT, respectively were utilized to capture clinical ranges. NLG207 NDCs demonstrated significant rates of CPT release in human plasma at room temperature after 2 h but were shown to be stable at 4 °C for 24 h and through 4 freeze/thaw cycles. This assay was used to quantitate CPT plasma concentrations in clinical samples to confirm clinical utility following NLG207 treatment in subjects with advanced prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.113073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068816PMC
March 2020

Circulating epithelial tumor cell analysis in CSF in patients with leptomeningeal metastases.

Neurology 2020 02 6;94(5):e521-e528. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

From the Division of Pharmacology (M.T.J.v.B., D.P., B.M.K., J.H.B., J.H.M.S.), Clinical Pharmacology (M.T.J.v.B., B.M.K., J.H.B., J.H.M.S), Division of Pathology (M.B.), Department of Biometrics (K.S.), Department of Laboratory Medicine (D.T.C.L., D.v.d.B.), and Department of Neuro-oncology (D.B.), Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam; and Science Faculty (J.H.B., J.H.M.S), Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmaco-epidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Objective: The primary objective was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) immunoflow cytometry circulating tumor cells (CTC) analysis in CSF in patients with suspected leptomeningeal metastases (LM). The secondary objective was to explore the distribution of driver mutations in the primary tumor, plasma, cell free CSF (cfCSF), and isolated CTC from CSF in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: We tested the performance of the CTC assay vs CSF cytology in a prospective study in 81 patients with a clinical suspicion of LM but a nonconfirmatory MRI. In an NSCLC subcohort, we analyzed circulating tumor (ct)DNA of the selected driver mutations by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR).

Results: The sensitivity of the CTC assay was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80-99) and the specificity was 100% (95% CI 91-100) at the optimal cutoff of 0.9 CTC/mL. The sensitivity of cytology was 76% (95% CI 58-89). Twelve of the 23 patients with NSCLC had mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (). All 5 tested patients with LM demonstrated the primary driver mutation in cfCSF. The driver mutation could also be detected in CTC isolated from CSF.

Conclusion: CTC in CSF are detected with a high sensitivity for the diagnosis of LM. ddPCR can determine mutations in both cfCSF and isolated CTC from CSF of patients with -mutated NSCLC and LM.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that EpCAM-based immunoflow cytometry analysis of CSF accurately identifies patients with LM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000008751DOI Listing
February 2020

Pembrolizumab After Two or More Lines of Previous Therapy in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic SCLC: Results From the KEYNOTE-028 and KEYNOTE-158 Studies.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 04 20;15(4):618-627. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Pembrolizumab has shown clinical benefit in patients with previously treated recurrent or metastatic SCLC in the phase 1b multicohort study KEYNOTE-028 (NCT02054806) and the phase 2 multicohort study KEYNOTE-158 (NCT02628067). We present a pooled analysis of patients from KEYNOTE-028 and KEYNOTE-158 who had received two or more lines of previous therapy for SCLC.

Methods: Eligible patients were aged 18 years and above, had histologically or cytologically confirmed incurable recurrent or metastatic SCLC, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 and below, and had received two or more lines of previous therapy. Patients in KEYNOTE-028 were required to have a programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive tumor. Patients received pembrolizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks in KEYNOTE-028 or 200 mg every 3 weeks in KEYNOTE-158) for up to 2 years. The primary end point was objective response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, which is presented here per independent review.

Results: Eighty-three patients who had received two or more lines of previous therapy (KEYNOTE-028, n = 19; KEYNOTE-158, n = 64) were included. Median follow-up duration was 7.7 (range, 0.5-48.7) months. Objective response rate was 19.3% (95% confidence interval: 11.4-29.4); two patients had complete response (one with a PD-L1-positive tumor), and 14 patients had partial response (13 with PD-L1-positive tumors). The median duration of response was not reached (range, 4.1‒35.8+ mo; plus sign indicates ongoing response); 61% of responders had responses lasting 18 months or longer. Fifty-one patients (61.4%) experienced any-grade treatment-related adverse events; eight patients (9.6%) had grade 3 or higher events.

Conclusions: Pembrolizumab exhibited durable antitumor activity in a subset of patients with recurrent or metastatic SCLC who had undergone two or more previous lines of therapy, regardless of PD-L1 expression. Pembrolizumab was well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.12.109DOI Listing
April 2020

Evaluating the role of ENOSF1 and TYMS variants as predictors in fluoropyrimidine-related toxicities: An IPD meta-analysis.

Pharmacol Res 2020 02 12;152:104594. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

University Institute of Clinical Chemistry, University of Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

To assess the proposed associations of the c.742-227G>A (rs2612091) polymorphism within the Enolase Superfamily Member 1 gene (ENOSF1) and two variants in the adjacent Thymidylate Synthase gene (TYMS): the 5'VNTR 28bp-repeat (rs45445694) and 3'UTR 6bp-indel (rs11280056) with severe toxicity in fluoropyrimidine-treated cancer patients, we performed an individual patient data meta-analysis. Only studies investigating all three-abovementioned variants with fluoropyrimidine-related toxicities were considered for meta-analysis. Associations were tested individually for each study using multivariate regression. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. One-stage multivariate regressions including tests for independent SNP effects were applied to investigate individual effects of the variants. Multivariate haplotype regression analyses were performed on a pooled dataset to test multi-SNP effects. Of four studies including 2'067 patients, 1'912 were eligible for meta-analysis. All variants were exclusively associated with severe hand-foot-syndrome (HFS) (TYMS 2R: OR = 1.50, p = 0.0002; TYMS 6bp-ins: OR = 1.42 p = 0.0036; ENOSF1 c.742-227G: OR = 1.64 p < 0.0001, per allele). We observed independent effects for ENOSF1 c.742-227G>A and the TYMS 28bp-repeat: each toxicity-associated allele increased the risk for severe HFS (OR = 1.32 per allele, p < 0.0001). Patients homozygous for both variants were at the 3-fold higher risk for severe HFS compared to wild-type patients. Our results confirm an essential role for ENOSF1 c.742-227G and TYMS 2R-alleles in the development of fluoropyrimidine-related HFS. This suggests an important function of these genes in the development of severe HFS. Furthermore, these variants might help stratify patients in studies investigating measures of HFS prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104594DOI Listing
February 2020

Phase I study of continuous olaparib capsule dosing in combination with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel (Part 1).

Invest New Drugs 2020 08 30;38(4):1117-1128. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066, CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background The PARP inhibitor olaparib has shown acceptable toxicity at doses of up to 400 mg twice daily (bid; capsule formulation) with encouraging signs of antitumor activity. Based on its mode of action, olaparib may sensitize tumor cells to DNA-damaging agents. This Phase I trial (NCT00516724) evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and preliminary efficacy of olaparib combined with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors received olaparib (capsule bid) plus carboplatin (Part A), carboplatin and paclitaxel (Part B), or paclitaxel (Part C). In each part of the study, different drug doses were given to define the most appropriate dose/drug combination to use in further studies. Safety assessments included evaluation of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs; cycle 1 only), adverse events (AEs) and physical examinations. PK assessments of olaparib, carboplatin and paclitaxel were performed. Tumor responses (RECIST) were assessed every two cycles. Results Fifty-seven patients received treatment. DLTs were reported in two patients (both receiving olaparib 100 mg bid and carboplatin AUC 4; Part A, cohort 2): grade 1 thrombocytopenia with grade 2 neutropenia lasting for 16 days, and grade 2 neutropenia lasting for 7 days. Non-hematologic AEs were predominantly grade 1-2 and included fatigue (70%) and nausea (40%). Bone marrow suppression, mainly neutropenia (51%) and thrombocytopenia (25%), frequently led to dose modifications. Conclusions Olaparib in combination with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel resulted in increased hematologic toxicities, making it challenging to establish a dosing regimen that could be tolerated for multiple cycles without dose modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00856-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Pharmacokinetics of Capecitabine and Four Metabolites in a Heterogeneous Population of Cancer Patients: A Comprehensive Analysis.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2019 12 20;8(12):940-950. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The primary aim of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic model for capecitabine and its metabolites, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (dFCR), 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (dFUR), 5-FU, and fluoro-β-alanine (FBAL) using data from a heterogeneous population of cancer patients (n = 237) who participated in seven clinical studies. A four-transit model adequately described capecitabine absorption. Capecitabine, dFCR, and FBAL pharmacokinetics were well described by two-compartment models, and dFUR and 5-FU were subject to flip-flop pharmacokinetics. Partial and total gastrectomy were associated with a significantly faster capecitabine absorption resulting in higher capecitabine and metabolite peak concentrations. Patients who were heterozygous polymorphic for a genetic mutation encoding dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, the DPYD*2A mutation, demonstrated a 21.5% (relative standard error 11.2%) reduction in 5-FU elimination. This comprehensive population model gives an extensive overview of capecitabine and metabolite pharmacokinetics in a large and heterogeneous population of cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp4.12474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930859PMC
December 2019

Phase I study of intermittent olaparib capsule or tablet dosing in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel (part 2).

Invest New Drugs 2020 08 21;38(4):1096-1107. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background In the first part of this extensive phase I study (NCT00516724), continuous olaparib twice daily (bid) with carboplatin and/or paclitaxel resulted in myelosuppression and dose modifications. Here, we report the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of intermittent olaparib dosing combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors (part D) and enriched for ovarian and breast cancer (part E) received olaparib (capsule and tablet formulations) using intermittent schedules (2 to 10 days of a 21-day cycle) combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel. Safety assessments included evaluation of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs; cycle 1 only), adverse events (AEs), and physical examinations. Pharmacokinetic assessments of olaparib capsule and tablet combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel were performed. Tumor responses (RECIST) were assessed every 2 cycles. Results In total, 132 heavily pre-treated patients were included. One DLT of grade 3 elevated alanine aminotransferase lasting for 8 days was reported (olaparib tablet 100 mg bid days 3-12, carboplatin area under the curve 4 and paclitaxel 175 mg/m). The most common hematological AEs were neutropenia (47%) and thrombocytopenia (39%), which frequently led to dose modifications. Non-hematological AEs were predominantly grade 1-2, including alopecia (89%) and fatigue (84%). Overall objective response rate was 46%. Conclusions Discontinuous dosing of olaparib resulted in significant myelosuppression leading to dose interruptions and/or delays. Anti-tumor activity was encouraging in patients enriched with BRCA-mutated breast and ovarian cancer. The most appropriate olaparib tablet dose for use in further studies evaluating olaparib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is 50 mg bid (days 1-5).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00857-6DOI Listing
August 2020

A Population Pharmacokinetic Model of Oral Docetaxel Coadministered With Ritonavir to Support Early Clinical Development.

J Clin Pharmacol 2020 03 9;60(3):340-350. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Oral administration of docetaxel is an attractive alternative for conventional intravenous (IV) administration. The low bioavailability of docetaxel, however, hinders the application of oral docetaxel in the clinic. The aim of the current study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for docetaxel and ritonavir based on the phase 1 studies and to support drug development of this combination treatment. PK data were collected from 191 patients who received IV docetaxel and different oral docetaxel formulations (drinking solution, ModraDoc001 capsule, and ModraDoc006 tablet) coadministered with ritonavir. A PK model was first developed for ritonavir. Subsequently, a semiphysiological PK model was developed for docetaxel, which incorporated the inhibition of docetaxel metabolism by ritonavir. The uninhibited intrinsic clearance of docetaxel was estimated based on data on IV docetaxel as 1980 L/h (relative standard error, 11%). Ritonavir coadministration extensively inhibited the hepatic metabolism of docetaxel to 9.3%, which resulted in up to 12-fold higher docetaxel plasma concentrations compared to oral docetaxel coadministered without ritonavir. In conclusion, a semiphysiological PK model for docetaxel and ritonavir was successfully developed. Coadministration of ritonavir resulted in increased plasma concentrations of docetaxel after administration of the oral formulations of ModraDoc. Furthermore, the oral ModraDoc formulations showed lower variability in plasma concentrations between and within patients compared to the drinking solution. Comparable exposure could be reached with the oral ModraDoc formulations compared to IV administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1532DOI Listing
March 2020

Encorafenib, Binimetinib, and Cetuximab in V600E-Mutated Colorectal Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2019 10 30;381(17):1632-1643. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

From the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (S.K., V.M.); West Cancer Center and Research Institute, OneOncology, Germantown, TN (A. Grothey); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (R.Y., A.K.); University Hospital Gasthuisberg and University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (E.V.C., J. Dekervel); the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (J. Desai, C.G.); National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan (T.Y.); Hammersmith Hospital, Division of Cancer, Imperial College London (H.W.), and the Sarah Cannon Research Institute and University College London Cancer Institute (H.-T.A.), London, and the Christie NHS Foundation Trust/National Institute for Health Research Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Manchester (M.B.) - all in the United Kingdom; the University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples (F.C.), and Istituto Oncologico Veneto, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Padua (F.L., S.L.) - both in Italy; Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea (Y.S.H., T.-W.K.); the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (N.S., J.H.M.S.); Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (T.K.G.); Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (P.G.-A., A.C.F.), and Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, UVic, IOB-Quiron, Barcelona (E.E., J.T.) - both in Spain; Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark (P.P., L.S.T.); Pavlov First St. Petersburg State Medical University, St. Petersburg, Russia (S.O.); and Array BioPharma, Boulder, CO (A. Gollerkeri, C.K., K.M., M.P., J.C.-B., L.A., V.S.).

Background: Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with the V600E mutation have a poor prognosis, with a median overall survival of 4 to 6 months after failure of initial therapy. Inhibition of BRAF alone has limited activity because of pathway reactivation through epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

Methods: In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we enrolled 665 patients with V600E-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer who had had disease progression after one or two previous regimens. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive encorafenib, binimetinib, and cetuximab (triplet-therapy group); encorafenib and cetuximab (doublet-therapy group); or the investigators' choice of either cetuximab and irinotecan or cetuximab and FOLFIRI (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan) (control group). The primary end points were overall survival and objective response rate in the triplet-therapy group as compared with the control group. A secondary end point was overall survival in the doublet-therapy group as compared with the control group. We report here the results of a prespecified interim analysis.

Results: The median overall survival was 9.0 months in the triplet-therapy group and 5.4 months in the control group (hazard ratio for death, 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.70; P<0.001). The confirmed response rate was 26% (95% CI, 18 to 35) in the triplet-therapy group and 2% (95% CI, 0 to 7) in the control group (P<0.001). The median overall survival in the doublet-therapy group was 8.4 months (hazard ratio for death vs. control, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.79; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 58% of patients in the triplet-therapy group, in 50% in the doublet-therapy group, and in 61% in the control group.

Conclusions: A combination of encorafenib, cetuximab, and binimetinib resulted in significantly longer overall survival and a higher response rate than standard therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with the V600E mutation. (Funded by Array BioPharma and others; BEACON CRC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02928224; EudraCT number, 2015-005805-35.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1908075DOI Listing
October 2019

Multiparameter Flow Cytometry Assay for Quantification of Immune Cell Subsets, PD-1 Expression Levels and PD-1 Receptor Occupancy by Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab.

Cytometry A 2019 10 12;95(10):1053-1065. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Division of Pharmacology, Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (NKI-AVL), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We report the development and validation of a 12 parameter immunofluorescence flow cytometry method for the sensitive determination of cell concentrations, their expression of PD-1, and PD-1 receptor occupancy. Cell subsets include CD4 and CD8 -T-cells, B-cells, natural killer cells, classical-, intermediate- and non-classical monocytes, and myeloid- and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation. The validation parameters included specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, biological within- and between subject variations. The lower limit of quantification was 5.0% of PD-1 cells. Samples were stable for at least 153 days of storage at -80°C. The clinical applicability of the method was demonstrated in 11 advanced cancer patients by the successful determination of immune cell concentrations, relative number of PD-1 immune cells, and number of PD-1 molecules per immune cell. Shortly after infusion of nivolumab, receptor occupancy on CD8 -T-cells was 98%. Similar values were found predose cycle 2, suggesting receptor occupancy remained high throughout the entire cycle. © 2019 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23873DOI Listing
October 2019

A Phase I Dose Escalation Study of Once-Weekly Oral Administration of Docetaxel as ModraDoc001 Capsule or ModraDoc006 Tablet in Combination with Ritonavir.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 09 19;25(18):5466-5474. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Oral bioavailability of docetaxel is poor. Absorption could be improved by development of pharmaceutical formulations based on docetaxel solid dispersions, denoted ModraDoc001 capsule and ModraDoc006 tablet (both 10 mg) and coadministration of ritonavir, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. In this study, the safety, MTD, recommended phase II dose (RP2D), pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of oral docetaxel combined with ritonavir in a once-weekly continuous schedule was investigated.

Patients And Methods: Patients with metastatic solid tumors were included. Dose escalation was performed using a classical 3+3 design. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed for up to 48 hours after drug administration. Safety was evaluated using CTCAE v3.0. Antitumor activity was assessed according to RECIST v1.0.

Results: Sixty-seven patients were treated at weekly docetaxel dosages ranging from 30 to 80 mg in combination with 100- or 200-mg ritonavir. Most common toxicities were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue, mostly of grade 1-2 severity. No hypersensitivity reactions were observed. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of docetaxel at the RP2D of once-weekly 60-mg ModraDoc001 capsule with 100-mg ritonavir was 1,000 ± 687 ng/mL/hour and for once-weekly 60-mg ModraDoc006 tablet with 100-mg ritonavir, the AUC was 1,790 ± 819 ng/mL/hour. Nine partial responses were reported as best response to treatment.

Conclusions: Oral administration of once-weekly docetaxel as ModraDoc001 capsule or ModraDoc006 tablet in combination with ritonavir is feasible. The RP2D for both formulations is 60-mg ModraDoc with 100-mg ritonavir. Antitumor activity is considered promising.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2299DOI Listing
September 2019
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