Publications by authors named "Jan Gursky"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Oxidative DNA Damage, Inflammatory Signature, and Altered Erythrocytes Properties in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 17;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Palacky University, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Molecular pathophysiology of Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) involves disrupted erythroid-lineage proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis; with the activation of p53 considered as a key component. Recently, oxidative stress was proposed to play an important role in DBA pathophysiology as well. CRISPR/Cas9-created Rpl5- and Rps19-deficient murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and DBA patients' samples were used to evaluate proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, DNA damage and DNA damage response. We demonstrated that the antioxidant defense capacity of Rp-mutant cells is insufficient to meet the greater reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to oxidative DNA damage, cellular senescence and activation of DNA damage response signaling in the developing erythroblasts and altered characteristics of mature erythrocytes. We also showed that the disturbed balance between ROS formation and antioxidant defense is accompanied by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Finally, the alterations detected in the membrane of DBA erythrocytes may cause their enhanced recognition and destruction by reticuloendothelial macrophages, especially during infections. We propose that the extent of oxidative stress and the ability to activate antioxidant defense systems may contribute to high heterogeneity of clinical symptoms and response to therapy observed in DBA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768356PMC
December 2020

Gene Expression in Two Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines With Different P53 Functionality.

Anticancer Res 2020 Sep;40(9):4979-4987

Department of Clinical and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic

Background/aim: Multiple myeloma is a highly heterogeneous disease of clonal plasma cells. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising anticancer drugs but their precise mechanisms of actions are not well understood.

Materials And Methods: Cell-cycle regulation and pro-apoptotic effects of two histone deacetylase inhibitors, suberohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SBHA), were analyzed in multiple myeloma cell lines RPMI8226 and U266 with differing TP53 status using gene-expression analysis.

Results: Enhanced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A/p21) detected in the TP53-deleted U266 cell line after SAHA treatment indicates the P53-independent mode of transcriptional activation of CDKN1A gene. In contrast, CDKN1A gene expression was significantly increased by both SBHA and SAHA treatment of TP53-mutated RPMI8226 cells.

Conclusion: SAHA appears to be a potentially effective pro-apoptotic and anticancer drug with universal application in the treatment of heterogeneous populations of multiple myeloma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14501DOI Listing
September 2020

Role of DNA Damage Response in Suppressing Malignant Progression of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Polycythemia Vera: Impact of Different Oncogenes.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Apr 7;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, 77515 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Inflammatory and oncogenic signaling, both known to challenge genome stability, are key drivers of -positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and V617F-positive chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Despite similarities in chronic inflammation and oncogene signaling, major differences in disease course exist. Although BCR-ABL has robust transformation potential, V617F-positive polycythemia vera (PV) is characterized by a long and stable latent phase. These differences reflect increased genomic instability of -positive CML, compared to genome-stable PV with rare cytogenetic abnormalities. Recent studies have implicated BCR-ABL in the development of a "mutator" phenotype fueled by high oxidative damage, deficiencies of DNA repair, and defective ATR-Chk1-dependent genome surveillance, providing a fertile ground for variants compromising the ATM-Chk2-p53 axis protecting chronic phase CML from blast crisis. Conversely, PV cells possess multiple JAK2 V617F-dependent protective mechanisms, which ameliorate replication stress, inflammation-mediated oxidative stress and stress-activated protein kinase signaling, all through up-regulation of RECQL5 helicase, reactive oxygen species buffering system, and DUSP1 actions. These attenuators of genome instability then protect myeloproliferative progenitors from DNA damage and create a barrier preventing cellular stress-associated myelofibrosis. Therefore, a better understanding of BCR-ABL and JAK2 V617F roles in the DNA damage response and disease pathophysiology can help to identify potential dependencies exploitable for therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226398PMC
April 2020

Disulfiram's anti-cancer activity reflects targeting NPL4, not inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase.

Oncogene 2019 10 7;38(40):6711-6722. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a proposed biomarker and possible target to eradicate cancer stem cells. ALDH inhibition as a treatment approach is supported by anti-cancer effects of the alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram (DSF, Antabuse). Given that metabolic products of DSF, rather than DSF itself inhibit ALDH in vivo, and that DSF's anti-cancer activity is potentiated by copper led us to investigate the relevance of ALDH as the suggested molecular cancer-relevant target of DSF. Here we show that DSF does not directly inhibit ALDH activity in diverse human cell types, while DSF's in vivo metabolite, S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamate-sulfoxide inhibits ALDH activity yet does not impair cancer cell viability. Our data indicate that the anti-cancer activity of DSF does not involve ALDH inhibition, and rather reflects the impact of DSF's copper-containing metabolite (CuET), that forms spontaneously in vivo and in cell culture media, and kills cells through aggregation of NPL4, a subunit of the p97/VCP segregase. We also show that the CuET-mediated, rather than any ALDH-inhibitory activity of DSF underlies the preferential cytotoxicity of DSF towards BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cells. These findings provide evidence clarifying the confusing literature about the anti-cancer mechanism of DSF, a drug currently tested in clinical trials for repositioning in oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-0915-2DOI Listing
October 2019

Targeting genotoxic and proteotoxic stress-response pathways in human prostate cancer by clinically available PARP inhibitors, vorinostat and disulfiram.

Prostate 2019 03 29;79(4):352-362. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Genome Integrity, Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Background: Castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) represents a serious health challenge. Based on mechanistically-supported rationale we explored new therapeutic options based on clinically available drugs with anticancer effects, including inhibitors of PARP1 enzyme (PARPi), and histone deacetylases (vorinostat), respectively, and disulfiram (DSF, known as alcohol-abuse drug Antabuse) and its copper-chelating metabolite CuET that inhibit protein turnover.

Methods: Drugs and their combination with ionizing radiation (IR) were tested in various cytotoxicity assays in three human PCa cell lines including radio-resistant stem-cell like derived cells. Mechanistically, DNA damage repair, heat shock and unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways were assessed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting.

Results: We observed enhanced sensitivity to PARPi/IR in PC3 cells consistent with lower homologous recombination (HR) repair. Vorinostat sensitized DU145 cells to PARPi/IR and decreased mutant p53. Vorinostat also impaired HR-mediated DNA repair, as determined by Rad51 foci formation and downregulation of TOPBP1 protein, and overcame radio-resistance of stem-cell like DU145-derived cells. All PCa models responded well to CuET or DSF combined with copper. We demonstrated that DSF interacts with copper in the culture media and forms adequate levels of CuET indicating that DSF/copper and CuET may be considered as comparable treatments. Both DSF/copper and CuET evoked hallmarks of UPR in PCa cells, documented by upregulation of ATF4, CHOP and phospho-eIF2α, with ensuing heat shock response encompassing activation of HSF1 and HSP70. Further enhancing the cytotoxicity of CuET, combination with an inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin (YM155, currently undergoing clinical trials) promoted the UPR-induced toxicity, yielding synergistic effects of CuET and YM155.

Conclusions: We propose that targeting genotoxic and proteotoxic stress responses by combinations of available drugs could inspire innovative strategies to treat castration-resistant PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23741DOI Listing
March 2019

Differential Regulation of Methylation-Regulating Enzymes by Senescent Stromal Cells Drives Colorectal Cancer Cell Response to DNA-Demethylating Epi-Drugs.

Stem Cells Int 2018 12;2018:6013728. Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hněvotínská 5, 77900 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The advanced-stage colon cancer spreads from primary tumor site to distant organs where the colon-unassociated stromal population provides a favorable niche for the growth of tumor cells. The heterocellular interactions between colon cancer cells and colon-unassociated fibroblasts at distant metastatic sites are important, yet these cell-cell interactions for therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer remain underestimated. Recent studies have shown the therapeutic potential of DNA-demethylating epi-drugs 5-azacytidine (AZA) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC) for the treatment of solid tumors. While the effects of these epi-drugs alone or in combination with other anticancer therapies are well described, the influence of stromal cells and their secretome on cancer cell response to these agents remain elusive. In this study, we determined the effect of normal and senescent colon-unassociated fibroblasts and their conditioned medium on colorectal cancer (CRC) cell response to AZA and DAC using a cell-based DNA demethylation reporter system. Our data show that fibroblasts accelerate cell proliferation and differentially regulate the expression of DNA methylation-regulating enzymes, enhancing DAC-induced demethylation in CRC cells. In contrast, the conditioned medium from senescent fibroblasts that upregulated NF-B activity altered deoxycytidine kinase levels in drug-untreated CRC cells and abrogated DAC effect on degradation of DNA methyltransferase 1. Similar to 2D cultures, senescent fibroblasts increased DNA demethylation of CRC cells in coculture spheroids, in addition to increasing the stemness of CRC cells. This study presents the first evidence of the effect of normal and senescent stromal cells and their conditioned medium on DNA demethylation by DAC. The data show an increased activity of DAC in high stromal cell cocultures and suggest the potential of the tumor-stroma ratio in predicting the outcome of DNA-demethylating epigenetic cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6013728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109465PMC
August 2018

Alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram targets cancer via p97 segregase adaptor NPL4.

Nature 2017 12 6;552(7684):194-199. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Cancer incidence is rising and this global challenge is further exacerbated by tumour resistance to available medicines. A promising approach to meet the need for improved cancer treatment is drug repurposing. Here we highlight the potential for repurposing disulfiram (also known by the trade name Antabuse), an old alcohol-aversion drug that has been shown to be effective against diverse cancer types in preclinical studies. Our nationwide epidemiological study reveals that patients who continuously used disulfiram have a lower risk of death from cancer compared to those who stopped using the drug at their diagnosis. Moreover, we identify the ditiocarb-copper complex as the metabolite of disulfiram that is responsible for its anti-cancer effects, and provide methods to detect preferential accumulation of the complex in tumours and candidate biomarkers to analyse its effect on cells and tissues. Finally, our functional and biophysical analyses reveal the molecular target of disulfiram's tumour-suppressing effects as NPL4, an adaptor of p97 (also known as VCP) segregase, which is essential for the turnover of proteins involved in multiple regulatory and stress-response pathways in cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature25016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5730499PMC
December 2017

Role of DNA Repair Factor Xeroderma Pigmentosum Protein Group C in Response to Replication Stress As Revealed by DNA Fragile Site Affinity Chromatography and Quantitative Proteomics.

J Proteome Res 2016 12 9;15(12):4505-4517. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University , Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Replication stress (RS) fuels genomic instability and cancer development and may contribute to aging, raising the need to identify factors involved in cellular responses to such stress. Here, we present a strategy for identification of factors affecting the maintenance of common fragile sites (CFSs), which are genomic loci that are particularly sensitive to RS and suffer from increased breakage and rearrangements in tumors. A DNA probe designed to match the high flexibility island sequence typical for the commonly expressed CFS (FRA16D) was used as specific DNA affinity bait. Proteins significantly enriched at the FRA16D fragment under normal and replication stress conditions were identified using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture-based quantitative mass spectrometry. The identified proteins interacting with the FRA16D fragment included some known CFS stabilizers, thereby validating this screening approach. Among the hits from our screen so far not implicated in CFS maintenance, we chose Xeroderma pigmentosum protein group C (XPC) for further characterization. XPC is a key factor in the DNA repair pathway known as global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), a mechanism whose several components were enriched at the FRA16D fragment in our screen. Functional experiments revealed defective checkpoint signaling and escape of DNA replication intermediates into mitosis and the next generation of XPC-depleted cells exposed to RS. Overall, our results provide insights into an unexpected biological role of XPC in response to replication stress and document the power of proteomics-based screening strategies to elucidate mechanisms of pathophysiological significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00622DOI Listing
December 2016

The prognostic value of DNA damage level in peripheral blood lymphocytes of chemotherapy-naïve patients with germ cell cancer.

Oncotarget 2016 11;7(46):75996-76005

Translational Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, National Cancer Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are extraordinarily sensitive to cisplatin (CDDP)-based chemotherapy. DNA damage represents one of the most important factors contributing to toxic effects of CDDP-based chemotherapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of DNA damage level in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from chemo-naïve GCT patients. PBLs isolated from 59 chemotherapy-naïve GCT patients were included into this prospective study. DNA damage levels in PBLs were evaluated by the Comet assay and scored as percentage tail DNA by the Metafer-MetaCyte analyzing software. The mean ± SEM (standard error of the mean) of endogenous DNA damage level was 5.25 ± 0.64. Patients with DNA damage levels lower than mean had significantly better progression free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.19, 95% CI (0.04 - 0.96), P = 0.01) and overall survival (HR = 0.00, 95% CI (0.00 - 0.0), P < 0.001) compared to patients with DNA damage levels higher than mean. Moreover, there was significant correlation between the DNA damage level and presence of mediastinal lymph nodes metastases, IGCCCG (International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group) risk group, and serum tumor markers level. These data suggest that DNA damage levels in PBLs of GCT patients may serve as an important prognostic marker early identifying patients with poor outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5342793PMC
November 2016

Stimulating effect of normal-dosing of fibrates on cell proliferation: word of warning.

Lipids Health Dis 2016 Sep 22;15(1):164. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, 775 15, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Background: Fibrates are widely used hypolipidemic drugs, which serve as ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Recently, they have also been considered as potential anticancer agents. We studied effect of fibrates treatment on cell proliferation, expression of CYP2J2 and concomitant changes in expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins in three different human cell lines: HEK293, HepG2, and HT-29.

Methods: We used WST-1 viability test, western blot and immunocytochemistry for detection of proteins of interests and analysis of cell cycle.

Results: Our results showed that at lower concentrations of all tested fibrates, viability of all tested cell lines is increased, whereas at higher concentrations, repression is apparent. Unfortunately, the viability of tested cells is predominantly increased in a range of concentration which is reached in patient plasma. This phenomenon is accompanyed by elevation of CYP2J2, increased number of cyclin E-positive cells and decreased number of Cdc25A-positive cells in all tested cell lines, and elevated cyclin A expression in HepG2 and HT-29. These changes are concentration-dependent. We suppose that increased level of CYP2J2 could explain enhanced cell proliferation in lower concentration of fibrates.

Conclusion: Based on our results, we suggested there is no anti-cancer effect of fibrates in tested carcinoma cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-016-0335-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5034623PMC
September 2016

Epigenetic modulation of AR gene expression in prostate cancer DU145 cells with the combination of sodium butyrate and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

Oncol Rep 2016 Oct 3;36(4):2365-74. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a consequence of androgen deprivation therapy. Unchecked CRPC followed by metastasis is lethal. Some CRPCs show decreased AR gene expression due to epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. The aim of this study was to epigenetically modulate the methylated state of the AR gene leading to targeted demethylation and AR gene expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancer DU145 cell line, representing the CRPC model with very low or undetectable AR levels. The cell treatment was based on single and combined applications of two epigenetic inhibitors, sodium butyrate (NaB) as histone deacetylases inhibitor and 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) as DNA methyltransferases inhibitor. We found that the Aza-dC in combination with NaB may help reduce the toxicity of higher NaB concentrations in cancer cells. In normal RWPE-1 cells and even stronger in cancer DU145 cells, the combined treatment induced both AR gene expression on the mRNA level and increased histone H4 acetylation in AR gene promoter. Also activation and maintenance of G2/M cell cycle arrest and better survival in normal RWPE-1 cells compared to cancer DU145 cells were observed after the treatments. These results imply the selective toxicity effect of both inhibitors used and their potentially more effective combined use in the epigenetic therapy of prostate cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2016.5000DOI Listing
October 2016

Erratum to: Cisplatin-induced mesenchymal stromal cells-mediated mechanism contributing to decreased antitumor effect in breast cancer cells.

Cell Commun Signal 2016 Feb 25;14. Epub 2016 Feb 25.

Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlarska 7, 833 91, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-016-0130-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4768410PMC
February 2016

Cells and Stripes: A novel quantitative photo-manipulation technique.

Sci Rep 2016 Jan 18;6:19567. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Laser micro-irradiation is a technology widely used in the DNA damage response, checkpoint signaling, chromatin remodeling and related research fields, to assess chromatin modifications and recruitment of diverse DNA damage sensors, mediators and repair proteins to sites of DNA lesions. While this approach has aided numerous discoveries related to cell biology, maintenance of genome integrity, aging and cancer, it has so far been limited by a tedious manual definition of laser-irradiated subcellular regions, with the ensuing restriction to only a small number of cells treated and analyzed in a single experiment. Here, we present an improved and versatile alternative to the micro-irradiation approach: Quantitative analysis of photo-manipulated samples using innovative settings of standard laser-scanning microscopes. Up to 200 cells are simultaneously exposed to a laser beam in a defined pattern of collinear rays. The induced striation pattern is then automatically evaluated by a simple algorithm, which provides a quantitative assessment of various laser-induced phenotypes in live or fixed cells. Overall, this new approach represents a more robust alternative to existing techniques, and provides a versatile tool for a wide range of applications in biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep19567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4726120PMC
January 2016

Cisplatin-induced mesenchymal stromal cells-mediated mechanism contributing to decreased antitumor effect in breast cancer cells.

Cell Commun Signal 2016 Jan 12;14. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlarska 7, 833 91, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: Cells of the tumor microenvironment are recognized as important determinants of the tumor biology. The adjacent non-malignant cells can regulate drug responses of the cancer cells by secreted paracrine factors and direct interactions with tumor cells.

Results: Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) actively contribute to tumor microenvironment. Here we focused on their response to chemotherapy as during the treatment these cells become affected. We have shown that the secretory phenotype and behavior of mesenchymal stromal cells influenced by cisplatin differs from the naïve MSC. MSC were more resistant to the concentrations of cisplatin, which was cytotoxic for tumor cells. They did not undergo apoptosis, but a part of MSC population underwent senescence. However, MSC pretreatment with cisplatin led to changes in phosphorylation profiles of many kinases and also increased secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines. These changes in cytokine and phosphorylation profile of MSC led to increased chemoresistance and stemness of breast cancer cells.

Conclusion: Taken together here we suggest that the exposure of the chemoresistant cells in the tumor microenvironment leads to substantial alterations and might lead to promotion of acquired microenvironment-mediated chemoresistance and stemness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-016-0127-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4710002PMC
January 2016

Imaging flow cytometry as a sensitive tool to detect low-dose-induced DNA damage by analyzing 53BP1 and γH2AX foci in human lymphocytes.

Cytometry A 2015 Dec 4;87(12):1070-8. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Laboratory of Radiobiology, Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) are considered the most sensitive indicator for DNA double-strand break (DSB) detection. Monitoring DSB induction by low doses of ionizing radiation is important due to the increasing exposure in the general population. γH2AX and 53BP1 are commonly used molecular markers for in situ IRIF assessment. Imaging flow cytometry (IFC) via ImageStream system provides a new opportunity in this field. We analyzed the formation of 53BP1, γH2AX foci and their co-localization induced by γ-rays (2, 5, 10, 50, 200 cGy) in human lymphocytes using ImageStream and the automated microscopic system Metafer. We observed very similar sensitivity of both systems for the detection of endogenous and low-dose-induced IRIF. Statistically significant induction of γH2AX foci was found at doses of 2 and 10 cGy using ImageStream and Metafer, respectively. Statistically significant induction of 53BP1 foci was evident at doses ≥ 5 cGy when analyzed by IFC. Analysis of the co-localizing foci by ImageStream and Metafer showed statistical significance at doses ≥ 2 cGy, suggesting that foci co-localization is a sensitive parameter for DSB quantification. Assessment of γH2AX, 53BP1 foci and their co-localization by Metafer and ImageStream showed similar linear dose responses in the low-dose range up to 10 cGy, although IFC showed slightly better resolution for IRIF in this dose range. At higher doses, IFC underestimated IRIF numbers. Using the imaging ability of ImageStream, we introduced an optimized assay by gating γH2AX foci positive (with 1 or more γH2AX foci) and negative (cells without foci) cells. This assay resulted in statistically significant IRIF induction at doses ≥ 5cGy and a linear dose response up to 50 cGy. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the use of IFC as an accurate high throughput assay for the prompt detection and enumeration of endogenous and low-dose induced IRIF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.22731DOI Listing
December 2015

Relative biological efficiency of protons at low and therapeutic doses in induction of 53BP1/γH2AX foci in lymphocytes from umbilical cord blood.

Int J Radiat Biol 2013 Sep 22;89(9):716-23. Epub 2013 May 22.

Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

Purpose: In order to evaluate DNA damage induced by protons at low and radiotherapeutic doses at the therapeutic proton complex at Ružomberok, Slovak Republic, lymphocytes from umbilical cord blood (UCB) of the same four probands were irradiated in the dose range of 1-200 cGy with γ-rays and protons (200 MeV, irradiation in the Bragg peak).

Materials And Methods: DNA repair γH2AX/53BP1 foci were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry.

Results: Statistically significant effects of radiations were detected by fluorescent microscopy at all doses higher 1 cGy. Almost all distributions of foci in irradiated cells fitted to the Poisson distribution. In general, there was no difference in the levels of γH2AX and 53BP1 foci in irradiated cells. Flow cytometry was less sensitive and detected radiation induced effects at doses of 50 cGy and higher. Factorial analysis of variance in the whole studied dose range has shown no significant effect of radiation quality on number of γH2AX and 53BP1 foci. The ratio of proton-induced foci to γ-ray-induced foci was 0.86 ± 0.16 (53BP1) and 0.99 ± 0.34 (γH2AX) as measured by fluorescent microscopy and 0.99 ± 0.16 (γH2AX) as measured by flow cytometry at the radiotherapeutic dose of 2 Gy.

Conclusions: Both flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy indicated that the average value of relative biological efficiency (RBE) at radiation doses ≥ 20 cGy was about 1.0. Our data that RBE increased at low doses ≤ 20 cGy are relevant both to the development of treatment modalities and exposures that take place during space exploration and should be verified by further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2013.797619DOI Listing
September 2013

Newly identified CHO ERCC3/XPB mutations and phenotype characterization.

Mutagenesis 2010 Mar 25;25(2):179-85. Epub 2009 Nov 25.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava 37, Slovak Republic.

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a complex multistage process involving many interacting gene products to repair a wide range of DNA lesions. Genetic defects in NER cause human hereditary diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), trichothiodystrophy and a combined XP/CS overlapping symptom. One key gene product associated with all these disorders is the excision repair cross-complementing 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB) DNA helicase, a subunit of the transcription factor IIH complex. ERCC3 is involved in initiation of basal transcription and global genome repair as well as in transcription-coupled repair (TCR). The hamster ERCC3 gene shows high degree of homology with the human ERCC3/XPB gene. We identified new mutations in the Chinese hamster ovary cell ERCC3 gene and characterized the role of hamster ERCC3 protein in DNA repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced and oxidative DNA damage. All but one newly described mutations are located in the protein C-terminal region around the last intron-exon boundary. Due to protein truncations or frameshifts, they lack amino acid Ser751, phosphorylation of which prevents the 5' incision of the UV-induced lesion during NER. Thus, despite the various locations of the mutations, their phenotypes are similar. All ercc3 mutants are extremely sensitive to UV-C light and lack recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS), confirming a defect in TCR of UV-induced damage. Their limited global genome NER capacity averages approximately 8%. We detected modest sensitivity of ercc3 mutants to the photosensitizer Ro19-8022, which primarily introduces 8-oxoguanine lesions into DNA. Ro19-8022-induced damage interfered with RRS, and some of the ercc3 mutants had delayed kinetics. All ercc3 mutants showed efficient base excision repair (BER). Thus, the positions of the mutations have no effect on the sensitivity to, and repair of, Ro19-8022-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the ERCC3 protein is not involved in BER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gep059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2825344PMC
March 2010

Characterization of ERCC3 mutations in the Chinese hamster ovary 27-1, UV24 and MMC-2 cell lines.

Mutat Res 2006 Jan 6;593(1-2):177-86. Epub 2005 Sep 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava 37, Slovak Republic.

Mutation of the XPB gene in humans gives rise to the distinct, autosomal recessive disorder, with a striking clinical heterogeneity: xeroderma pigmentosum associated with Cockayne's syndrome and trichothiodystrophy. XPB is a subunit of a multifunctional RNA polymerase II general initiation factor TFIIH and codes for 3'-->5' DNA helicase essential for both nucleotide excision repair (NER) and transcription. Since XPB defective human disease is extremely rare, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant cell lines belonging to the 3rd rodent complementation group (the hamster ERCC3 gene is the homologue of the human XPB gene) are a unique resource for analyzing structure-function relationships in the ERCC3/XPB protein. We have amplified, cloned and sequenced the ERCC3 genes from wild type and 27-1, UV24 and MMC-2 CHO mutant cell lines and identified the sites of the respective mutations. 27-1 mutant has an A1075G transition (K359E) located at the very beginning of the Ia helicase domain which causes deficiency in open complex formation and in 3', 5' and dual incisions during NER. UV24 cell line has two mutations. First, it is a T1144C transition (S382P) located behind the Ia helicase domain in a region responsible for ERCC3 binding to XPG, p62 and p44. Second mutation is identical with a mutation in MMC-2 mutant. It is a C2215T transition (Q739STOP) causing the truncation of the C-terminus of the protein, responsible for the 5' incision, by 44 amino acids. All mutant cell lines are unable to recover RNA synthesis after 10Jm(-2) UV, suggesting a defect in transcription-coupled repair. Their limited global NER capacity measured by a single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (0.25Jm(-2)) varies from 6% to 11%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.07.013DOI Listing
January 2006
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