Publications by authors named "Jan Gerritse"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High biodiversity in a benzene-degrading nitrate-reducing culture is sustained by a few primary consumers.

Commun Biol 2021 May 5;4(1):530. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, AIMMS, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A key question in microbial ecology is what the driving forces behind the persistence of large biodiversity in natural environments are. We studied a microbial community with more than 100 different types of species which evolved in a 15-years old bioreactor with benzene as the main carbon and energy source and nitrate as the electron acceptor. Using genome-centric metagenomics plus metatranscriptomics, we demonstrate that most of the community members likely feed on metabolic left-overs or on necromass while only a few of them, from families Rhodocyclaceae and Peptococcaceae, are candidates to degrade benzene. We verify with an additional succession experiment using metabolomics and metabarcoding that these few community members are the actual drivers of benzene degradation. As such, we hypothesize that high species richness is maintained and the complexity of a natural community is stabilized in a controlled environment by the interdependencies between the few benzene degraders and the rest of the community members, ultimately resulting in a food web with different trophic levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01948-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099898PMC
May 2021

Fragmentation of plastic objects in a laboratory seawater microcosm.

Sci Rep 2020 07 2;10(1):10945. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Environment and Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We studied the fragmentation of conventional thermoplastic and compostable plastic items in a laboratory seawater microcosm. In the microcosm, polyurethane foams, cellulose acetate cigarette filters, and compostable polyester and polylactic acid items readily sank, whereas polyethylene air pouches, latex balloons, polystyrene foams and polypropylene cups remained afloat. Microbial biofilms dominated by Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteriodetes grew on the plastics, and caused some of the polyethylene items to sink to the bottom. Electrical resistances (ER) of plastic items decreased as function of time, an indication that seawater had penetrated into microscopic crevices in the plastic that had developed over time. Rate constants for ER decrease in polyethylene items in the microcosm were similar to tensile elongation decrease of polyethylene sheets floating in sea, measured previously by others. Weight loss of plastic items was ≤ 1% per year for polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene, 3-5% for latex, polyethylene terephthalate and polyurethane, 15% for cellulose acetate, and 7-27% for polyester and polylactic acid compostable bags. The formation of microplastics observed in the microcosm was responsible for at least part of the weight loss. This study emphasizes the need to obtain experimental data on plastic litter degradation under conditions that are realistic for marine environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67927-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331685PMC
July 2020

Passive Dosing of Organic Substrates for Nitrate-Removing Bioreactors Applied in Field Margins.

J Environ Qual 2019 Mar;48(2):394-402

Denitrifying bioreactors are dependent on organic matter supply as a substrate for effective NO removal. In this study, the difference in removal efficiency and side effects when using different organic matter sources and dosing strategies was tested in two field experiments. The organic matter sources tested were woodchips and ethanol. The effect of woodchips was tested using woodchip-enveloped drains. Ethanol was supplied to a flow-through reactor by passive dosing by diffusion through silicone tubing. The woodchip-enveloped drains showed a removal efficiency of 80% during the first year of application, but this rate decreased during the second and third years of application, coinciding with a decrease in dissolved organic C and an increase in redox potential. The removal efficiency was higher and remained higher over a longer period of time when the drains were installed more deeply. The flow-through reactor with ethanol could lead to a higher removal efficiency (up to 95%) at higher hydraulic retention time (HRT, 0.1 d) than the woodchip-enveloped drains (HRT = 5 d). Passive dosing of organic substrates is simple, needs little maintenance and no energy, and can be performed independent of electricity. A denitrifying bioreactor with a controlled drainage inlet and outlet is a promising setup for optimizing N removal and minimizing side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2018.04.0165DOI Listing
March 2019

Ethyl tert-butyl ether (EtBE) degradation by an algal-bacterial culture obtained from contaminated groundwater.

Water Res 2019 01 22;148:314-323. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Deltares, Subsurface and Groundwater Systems, Daltonlaan 600, 3584 BK, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

EtBE is a fuel oxygenate that is synthesized from (bio)ethanol and fossil-based isobutylene, and replaces the fossil-based MtBE. Biodegradation of EtBE to harmless metabolites or end products can reduce the environmental and human health risks after accidental release. In this study, an algal-bacterial culture enriched from contaminated groundwater was used to (i) assess the potential for EtBE degradation, (ii) resolve the EtBE degradation pathway and (iii) characterize the phylogenetic composition of the bacterial community involved in EtBE degradation in contaminated groundwater. In an unamended microcosm, algal growth was observed after eight weeks when exposed to a day-night light cycle. In the fed-batch reactor, oxygen produced by the algae Scenedesmus and Chlorella was used by bacteria to degrade 50 μM EtBE replenishments with a cumulative total of 1250 μM in a day/night cycle (650 lux), over a period of 913 days. The microbial community in the fed-batch reactor degraded EtBE, using a P450 monooxygenase and 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA mutase, to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), ethanol and CO as determined using C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography. Stable isotope probing (SIP) with C labeled EtBE in a fed-batch vessel showed no significant difference in community profiles of the C and C enriched DNA fractions, with representatives of the families Halomonadaceae, Shewanellaceae, Rhodocyclaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, Candidatus Moranbacteria, Omnitrophica, Anaerolineaceae, Nocardiaceae, and Blastocatellaceae. This is the first study describing micro-oxic degradation of EtBE by an algal-bacterial culture. This algal-bacterial culture has advantages compared with conventional aerobic treatments: (i) a lower risk of EtBE evaporation and (ii) no need for external oxygen supply in the presence of light. This study provides novel leads towards future possibilities to implement algal-bacterial consortia in field-scale groundwater or wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.050DOI Listing
January 2019

A benzene-degrading nitrate-reducing microbial consortium displays aerobic and anaerobic benzene degradation pathways.

Sci Rep 2018 03 14;8(1):4490. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Wageningen University & Research, Laboratory of Microbiology, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

In this study, we report transcription of genes involved in aerobic and anaerobic benzene degradation pathways in a benzene-degrading denitrifying continuous culture. Transcripts associated with the family Peptococcaceae dominated all samples (21-36% relative abundance) indicating their key role in the community. We found a highly transcribed gene cluster encoding a presumed anaerobic benzene carboxylase (AbcA and AbcD) and a benzoate-coenzyme A ligase (BzlA). Predicted gene products showed >96% amino acid identity and similar gene order to the corresponding benzene degradation gene cluster described previously, providing further evidence for anaerobic benzene activation via carboxylation. For subsequent benzoyl-CoA dearomatization, bam-like genes analogous to the ones found in other strict anaerobes were transcribed, whereas gene transcripts involved in downstream benzoyl-CoA degradation were mostly analogous to the ones described in facultative anaerobes. The concurrent transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved in oxygenase-mediated aerobic benzene degradation suggested oxygen presence in the culture, possibly formed via a recently identified nitric oxide dismutase (Nod). Although we were unable to detect transcription of Nod-encoding genes, addition of nitrite and formate to the continuous culture showed indication for oxygen production. Such an oxygen production would enable aerobic microbes to thrive in oxygen-depleted and nitrate-containing subsurface environments contaminated with hydrocarbons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22617-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852087PMC
March 2018

Anaerobic degradation of a mixture of MtBE, EtBE, TBA, and benzene under different redox conditions.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Apr 24;102(7):3387-3397. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Deltares, Subsurface and Groundwater Systems, Daltonlaan 600, 3584 BK, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

The increasing use of biobased fuels and fuel additives can potentially change the typical fuel-related contamination in soil and groundwater. Anaerobic biotransformation of the biofuel additive ethyl tert-butyl ether (EtBE), as well as of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE), benzene, and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA, a possible oxygenate metabolite), was studied at an industrially contaminated site and in the laboratory. Analysis of groundwater samples indicated that in the field MtBE was degraded, yielding TBA as major product. In batch microcosms, MtBE was degraded under different conditions: unamended control, with medium without added electron acceptors, or with ferrihydrite or sulfate (with or without medium) as electron acceptor, respectively. Degradation of EtBE was not observed under any of these conditions tested. TBA was partially depleted in parallel with MtBE. Results of microcosm experiments with MtBE substrate analogues, i.e., syringate, vanillate, or ferulate, were in line with the hypothesis that the observed TBA degradation is a cometabolic process. Microcosms with ferulate, syringate, isopropanol, or diethyl ether showed EtBE depletion up to 86.5% of the initial concentration after 83 days. Benzene was degraded in the unamended controls, with medium without added electron acceptors and with ferrihydrite, sulfate, or chlorate as electron acceptor, respectively. In the presence of nitrate, benzene was only degraded after addition of an anaerobic benzene-degrading community. Nitrate and chlorate hindered MtBE, EtBE, and TBA degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-018-8853-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852185PMC
April 2018

Benzene degradation in a denitrifying biofilm reactor: activity and microbial community composition.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Jun 20;101(12):5175-5188. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Deltares, Subsurface and Groundwater Systems, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Benzene is an aromatic compound and harmful for the environment. Biodegradation of benzene can reduce the toxicological risk after accidental or controlled release of this chemical in the environment. In this study, we further characterized an anaerobic continuous biofilm culture grown for more than 14 years on benzene with nitrate as electron acceptor. We determined steady state degradation rates, microbial community composition dynamics in the biofilm, and the initial anaerobic benzene degradation reactions. Benzene was degraded at a rate of 0.15 μmol/mg protein/day and a first-order rate constant of 3.04/day which was fourfold higher than rates reported previously. Bacteria belonging to the Peptococcaceae were found to play an important role in this anaerobic benzene-degrading biofilm culture, but also members of the Anaerolineaceae were predicted to be involved in benzene degradation or benzene metabolite degradation based on Illumina MiSeq analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Biomass retention in the reactor using a filtration finger resulted in reduction of benzene degradation capacity. Detection of the benzene carboxylase encoding gene, abcA, and benzoic acid in the culture vessel indicated that benzene degradation proceeds through an initial carboxylation step.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8214-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486827PMC
June 2017

Genome analysis and physiological comparison of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601(T.).

PLoS One 2013 25;8(6):e66971. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The genomes of the Betaproteobacteria Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601(T) have been sequenced to get insight into the physiology of the two strains. Strain BC degrades benzene with chlorate as electron acceptor. The cyclohexanol-degrading denitrifying strain K601(T) is not able to use chlorate as electron acceptor, while strain BC cannot degrade cyclohexanol. The 16S rRNA sequences of strains BC and K601(T) are identical and the fatty acid methyl ester patterns of the strains are similar. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of predicted open reading frames of both strains showed most hits with Acidovorax sp. JS42, a bacterium that degrades nitro-aromatics. The genomes include strain-specific plasmids (pAlide201 in strain K601(T) and pAlide01 and pAlide02 in strain BC). Key genes of chlorate reduction in strain BC were located on a 120 kb megaplasmid (pAlide01), which was absent in strain K601(T). Genes involved in cyclohexanol degradation were only found in strain K601(T). Benzene and toluene are degraded via oxygenase-mediated pathways in both strains. Genes involved in the meta-cleavage pathway of catechol are present in the genomes of both strains. Strain BC also contains all genes of the ortho-cleavage pathway. The large number of mono- and dioxygenase genes in the genomes suggests that the two strains have a broader substrate range than known thus far.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066971PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3692508PMC
February 2014

Anaerobic benzene degradation under denitrifying conditions: Peptococcaceae as dominant benzene degraders and evidence for a syntrophic process.

Environ Microbiol 2012 May 1;14(5):1171-81. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Deltares, Princetonlaan 6, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

An anaerobic microbial community was enriched in a chemostat that was operated for more than 8 years with benzene and nitrate as electron acceptor. The coexistence of multiple species in the chemostat and the presence of a biofilm, led to the hypothesis that benzene-degrading species coexist in a syntrophic interaction, and that benzene can be degraded in syntrophy by consortia with various electron acceptors in the same culture. The benzene-degrading microorganisms were identified by DNA-stable isotope probing with [U-(13) C]-labelled benzene, and the effect of different electron donors and acceptors on benzene degradation was investigated. The degradation rate constant of benzene with nitrate (0.7 day(-1) ) was higher than reported previously. In the absence of nitrate, the microbial community was able to use sulfate, chlorate or ferric iron as electron acceptor. Bacteria belonging to the Peptococcaceae were identified as dominant benzene consumers, but also those related to Rhodocyclaceae and Burkholderiaceae were found to be associated with the anaerobic benzene degradation process. The benzene degradation activity in the chemostat was associated with microbial growth in biofilms. This, together with the inhibiting effect of hydrogen and the ability to degrade benzene with different electron acceptors, suggests that benzene was degraded via a syntrophic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02697.xDOI Listing
May 2012

Genome sequences of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strains BC and K601T.

J Bacteriol 2011 Sep 8;193(18):5028-9. Epub 2011 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC and A. denitrificans strain K601(T) degrade cyclic hydrocarbons. These strains have been isolated from a mixture of wastewater treatment plant material and benzene-polluted soil and from a wastewater treatment plant, respectively, suggesting their role in bioremediation of soil and water. Although the strains are phylogenetically closely related, there are some clear physiological differences. The hydrocarbon cyclohexanol, for example, can be degraded by strain K601(T) but not by strain BC. Furthermore, both strains can use nitrate and oxygen as an electron acceptor, but only strain BC can use chlorate as electron acceptor. To better understand the nitrate and chlorate reduction mechanisms coupled to the oxidation of cyclic compounds, the genomes of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601(T) were sequenced. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of A. denitrificans strains BC and K601(T).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00365-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165661PMC
September 2011

Systematic study of effects of pH and ionic strength on attachment of phage PRD1.

Ground Water 2011 Jan-Feb;49(1):12-9. Epub 2010 Oct 29.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Objectives of this work are to investigate effects of pH and ionic strength (IS) on virus transport in saturated soil and to develop a quantitative relationship for these effects. A series of 50-cm column experiments with clean quartz sand under saturated conditions and with pH values of 5, 6, 7, 8, and IS values of 1, 10, and 20 mM were conducted. Bacteriophage PRD1 was used as a model virus. Applying a one-site kinetic model, attachment, detachment, and inactivation rate coefficients were determined from fitting breakthrough curves using the software package Hydrus-1D. Attachment rate coefficients increased with decreasing pH and increasing IS, in agreement with DLVO theory. Sticking efficiencies were calculated from the attachment rate coefficients and used to develop an empirical formula for sticking efficiency as a function of pH and IS. This relationship is applicable under unfavorable conditions for virus attachment. We compared sticking efficiencies predicted by the empirical formula with those from field and column experiments. Within the calibrated range of pH and IS, the predicted and observed sticking efficiencies are in reasonable agreement for bacteriophages PRD1 and MS2. However, the formula significantly overestimates sticking efficiencies for IS higher than 100 mM. In addition, it performs less well for viruses with different surface reactivity than PRD1 and MS2. Effects of pH and IS on detachment and inactivation rate coefficients were also investigated but the experimental results do not allow constraining these parameters with sufficient certainty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00767.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Stability of the total and functional microbial communities in river sediment mesocosms exposed to anthropogenic disturbances.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2010 Oct 5;74(1):72-82. Epub 2010 Jul 5.

Deltares, Princetonlaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

River systems are exposed to anthropogenic disturbances, including chemical pollution and eutrophication. This may affect the phylogenetic diversity as well as the abundance of various functional groups within sediment-associated microbial communities. To address such potential effects, mesocosms filled with Ebro delta sediment covered with river water were exposed to chlorinated organic compounds or to a high nutrient concentration as used for fertilization. Changes in the abundance of selected functional microbial groups, i.e. total aerobes, nitrate, sulfate and iron reducers, organohalide-respiring microorganisms as well as methanogens, were examined using culture-dependent most probable number and culture-independent PCR methods targeting phylogenetic as well as functional gene markers. It was concluded that the abundance of functional groups was neither affected by pollution with 1,2-dichloroethane and tetrachloroethene nor by elevated nutrient loads, although changes in the bacterial community composition were observed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted fingerprint techniques. This study reinforced the notion that complementary culture-dependent and molecular methods, focusing on different fractions of the microbial community (cultivable, active or total), should be used in combination for a comprehensive description of phylogenetic diversity and functional potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.00931.xDOI Listing
October 2010

Correlation of Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA and chloroethene-reductive dehalogenase genes with geochemical conditions in chloroethene-contaminated groundwater.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2010 Feb 11;76(3):843-50. Epub 2009 Dec 11.

Deltares, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Quantitative analysis of genes that code for Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA and chloroethene-reductive dehalogenases TceA, VcrA, and BvcA was done on groundwater sampled from 150 monitoring wells spread over 11 chlorinated ethene polluted European locations. Redundancy analysis was used to relate molecular data to geochemical conditions. Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA- and vinyl chloride (VC)-reductase genes were present at all tested locations in concentrations up to 10(6) gene copies per ml of groundwater. However, differences between and also within locations were observed. Variation in Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were most strongly correlated to dissolved organic carbon concentration in groundwater and to conditions appropriate for biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency score). In contrast, vcrA gene copy numbers correlated most significantly to VC and chlorinated ethene concentrations. Interestingly, bvcA and especially tceA were more correlated with oxidizing conditions. In groundwater microcosms, dechlorination of 1 mM VC was correlated to an increase of vcrA and/or bvcA gene copies by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude. Interestingly, in 34% of the monitoring wells and in 40% of the active microcosms, the amount of individual VC-reductase gene copies exceeded that of Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA gene copies. It is concluded that the geographical distribution of the genes was not homogeneous, depending on the geochemical conditions, whereby tceA and bvcA correlated to more oxidized conditions than Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA and vcrA. Because the variation in VC-reductase gene numbers was not directly correlated to variation in Dehalococcoides spp., VC-reductase genes are better monitoring parameters for VC dechlorination capacity than Dehalococcoides spp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01482-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813033PMC
February 2010

Degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane by microbial communities from river sediment at various redox conditions.

Water Res 2009 Jul 5;43(13):3207-16. Epub 2009 May 5.

Soil and Ground Water Systems, TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Princetonlaan 6, 3584 CB Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Insight into the pathways of biodegradation and external factors controlling their activity is essential in adequate environmental risk assessment of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon pollution. This study focuses on biodegradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in microcosms containing sediment sourced from the European rivers Ebro, Elbe and Danube. Biodegradation was studied under different redox conditions. Reductive dechlorination of 1,2-DCA was observed with Ebro and Danube sediment with chloroethane, or ethene, respectively, as the major dechlorination products. Different reductively dehalogenating micro-organisms (Dehalococcoides spp., Dehalobacter spp., Desulfitobacterium spp. and Sulfurospirillum spp.) were detected by 16S ribosomal RNA gene-targeted PCR and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that only 2-5 bacterial orders were represented in the microcosms. With Ebro and Danube sediment, indications for anaerobic oxidation of 1,2-DCA were obtained under denitrifying or iron-reducing conditions. No biodegradation of 1,2-DCA was observed in microcosms with Ebro sediment under the different tested redox conditions. This research shows that 1,2-DCA biodegradation capacity was present in different river sediments, but not in the water phase of the river systems and that biodegradation potential with associated microbial communities in river sediments varies with the geochemical properties of the sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.04.042DOI Listing
July 2009

Isolation and characterization of Alicycliphilus denitrificans strain BC, which grows on benzene with chlorate as the electron acceptor.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2008 Nov 12;74(21):6672-81. Epub 2008 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

A bacterium, strain BC, was isolated from a benzene-degrading chlorate-reducing enrichment culture. Strain BC degrades benzene in conjunction with chlorate reduction. Cells of strain BC are short rods that are 0.6 microm wide and 1 to 2 microm long, are motile, and stain gram negative. Strain BC grows on benzene and some other aromatic compounds with oxygen or in the absence of oxygen with chlorate as the electron acceptor. Strain BC is a denitrifying bacterium, but it is not able to grow on benzene with nitrate. The closest cultured relative is Alicycliphilus denitrificans type strain K601, a cyclohexanol-degrading nitrate-reducing betaproteobacterium. Chlorate reductase (0.4 U/mg protein) and chlorite dismutase (5.7 U/mg protein) activities in cell extracts of strain BC were determined. Gene sequences encoding a known chlorite dismutase (cld) were not detected in strain BC by using the PCR primers described in previous studies. As physiological and biochemical data indicated that there was oxygenation of benzene during growth with chlorate, a strategy was developed to detect genes encoding monooxygenase and dioxygenase enzymes potentially involved in benzene degradation in strain BC. Using primer sets designed to amplify members of distinct evolutionary branches in the catabolic families involved in benzene biodegradation, two oxygenase genes putatively encoding the enzymes performing the initial successive monooxygenations (BC-BMOa) and the cleavage of catechol (BC-C23O) were detected. Our findings suggest that oxygen formed by dismutation of chlorite can be used to attack organic molecules by means of oxygenases, as exemplified with benzene. Thus, aerobic pathways can be employed under conditions in which no external oxygen is supplied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00835-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2576721PMC
November 2008

Physiological and phylogenetic characterization of a stable benzene-degrading, chlorate-reducing microbial community.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2007 May 26;60(2):312-21. Epub 2007 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

A stable anoxic enrichment culture was obtained that degraded benzene with chlorate as an electron acceptor. The benzene degradation rate was 1.65 mM benzene per day, which is similar to reported aerobic benzene degradation rates but 20-1650 times higher than reported for anaerobic benzene degradation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of part of the 16S rRNA gene, cloning and sequencing showed that the culture had a stable composition after the seventh transfer. Five bacterial clones were further analyzed. Two clones corresponded to bacteria closely related to Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601. The three other clones corresponded to bacteria closely related to Zoogloea resiniphila PIV-3A2w, Mesorhizobium sp. WG and Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. DGGE analysis of cultures grown with different electron donors and acceptors indicated that the bacterium related to Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601 is able to degrade benzene coupled to chlorate reduction. The role of the other bacteria could not be conclusively determined. The bacterium related to Mesorhizobium sp. WG can be enriched with benzene and oxygen, but not with acetate and chlorate, while the bacterium related to Stenotrophomonas acidaminophila grows with acetate and chlorate, but not with benzene and oxygen. As oxygen is produced during chlorate reduction, an aerobic pathway of benzene degradation is most likely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00289.xDOI Listing
May 2007

Degradation pathway of 2-chloroethanol in Pseudomonas stutzeri strain JJ under denitrifying conditions.

Arch Microbiol 2004 Dec 22;182(6):514-9. Epub 2004 Oct 22.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Hesselink van Suchtelenweg 4, 6703 CT Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The pathway of 2-chloroethanol degradation in the denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri strain JJ was investigated. In cell-free extracts, activities of a phenazine methosulfate (PMS)-dependent chloroethanol dehydrogenase, an NAD-dependent chloroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase, and a chloroacetate dehalogenase were detected. This suggested that the 2-chloroethanol degradation pathway in this denitrifying strain is the same as found in aerobic bacteria that degrade chloroethanol. Activity towards primary alcohols, secondary alcohols, diols, and other chlorinated alcohols could be measured in cell-free extracts with chloroethanol dehydrogenase (CE-DH) activity. PMS and phenazine ethosulfate (PES) were used as primary electron acceptors, but not NAD, NADP or ferricyanide. Cells of strain JJ cultured in a continuous culture under nitrate limitation exhibited chloroethanol dehydrogenase activity that was a 12 times higher than in cells grown in batch culture. However, under chloroethanol-limiting conditions, CE-DH activity was in the same range as in batch culture. Cells grown on ethanol did not exhibit CE-DH activity. Instead, NAD-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase (E-DH) activity and PMS-dependent E-DH activity were detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-004-0737-6DOI Listing
December 2004

Properties of a trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-dechlorinating mixed culture with a Dehalococcoides as putative dechlorinating species.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2004 Feb;47(2):223-34

TNO Environment, Energy and Process Innovation, AH Apeldoorn, The Netherlands.

An anaerobic mixed culture enriched over 16 transfers (1/10) from Saale river sediment reductively dehalogenated 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TrCDD) to di- and monochlorinated congeners in the presence of pyruvate (or lactate) and fumarate as cosubstrates. Besides TrCDD, tetrachloroethene and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene were dechlorinated. Dioxin dehalogenation was sensitive to pasteurization, but was not remarkably influenced by inhibitors of methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria or Gram-positive bacteria. The rate of 1,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin formation increased with rising initial concentrations of 1,2,4-TrCDD (1-250 microM) from 0.05 to 5.4 micromol l(-1) day(-1). Two isolates, belonging to Sulfurospirillum and Trichococcus, did not show reductive dehalogenation. 16S rDNA-targeted methods further revealed the presence of Acetobacterium, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfuromonas and Dehalococcoides. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated the presence of Dehalococcoides in highest most probable number (MPN) dilutions that were positive for dioxin dechlorination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-6496(03)00282-4DOI Listing
February 2004

Volatile fatty acids as electron donors for the reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2002 ;37(4):439-49

Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China.

Uses of a mixture of six volatile fatty acids (VFAs) including acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric and isovaleric acids as electron donors for the reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes have been investigated by both microcosm and column studies. The fates of tetrachloroethene (PCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in the presence of VFAs and in the absence of VFAs were respectively documented. The results showed that VFAs stimulated complete reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes, either as direct substrates for the dechlorinating bacteria or via H2 formed during VFAs-degradation. There were sequential utilizations of different VFAs by fermenting bacteria. In the microcosm, propionic acid was the first to be used, followed by acetic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids, and their mean first-order degradation rates obtained were 0.128, 0.048, 0.016, 0.027, 0.025 and 0.003 day(-1), respectively. In the column, propionic acid was the first to be used, followed by butyric and valeric acids, and their calculated first-order degradation rates were 0.833, 0.403 and 0.260 day(-1), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/ese-120003226DOI Listing
December 2002