Publications by authors named "Jan G P Tijssen"

385 Publications

Alert system-supported lay defibrillation and basic life-support for cardiac arrest at home.

Eur Heart J 2021 Nov 14. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Location AMC.

Background: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are placed in public, but the majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occur at home.

Methods: In residential areas 785 AEDs were placed and 5735 volunteer responders recruited. For suspected OHCA, dispatchers activated nearby volunteer responders with text messages, directing two-thirds to an AED first and one-third directly to the patient. We analyzed survival (primary outcome) and neurologically favorable survival to discharge, time to first defibrillation shock and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before Emergency Medical Service (EMS) arrival of patients in residences found with ventricular fibrillation (VF), before and after introduction of this text-message alert system.

Results: Survival from OHCAs in residences increased from 26% to 39% [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.5 (95% CI 1.03-2.0)]. RR for neurologically favorable survival was 1.4 (95% CI 0.99 - 2.0). No CPR before ambulance arrival decreased from 22% to 9% (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 - 0.7). Text-message-responders with AED administered shocks to 16% of all patients in VF in residences, while defibrillation by EMS decreased from 73% to 39% in residences (p < 0.001). Defibrillation by first responders in residences increased from 22% to 40% (p < 0.001). Use of public AEDs in residences remained unchanged (6% and 5%) (p = 0.81). Time from emergency call to defibrillation decreased from median 11.7 min to 9.3 min; mean difference -2.6 (95% CI -3.5 - -1.6).

Conclusion: Introducing volunteer responders directed to AEDs, dispatched by text-message was associated with significantly reduced time to first defibrillation, increased bystander CPR and increased overall survival for OHCA patients in residences found with VF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab802DOI Listing
November 2021

Long-term outcome of targeted therapy of underlying conditions in patients with early persistent atrial fibrillation and heart failure: data of the RACE 3 trial.

Europace 2021 Nov 13. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB The Netherlands.

Aims: The Routine vs. Aggressive risk factor driven upstream rhythm Control for prevention of Early persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) (RACE 3) trial demonstrated that targeted therapy of underlying conditions improved sinus rhythm maintenance at 1 year. We now explored the effects of targeted therapy on the additional co-primary endpoints; sinus rhythm maintenance and cardiovascular outcome at 5 years.

Methods And Results: Patients with early persistent AF and mild-to-moderate stable HF were randomized to targeted or conventional therapy. Both groups received rhythm control therapy according to guidelines. The targeted group additionally received four therapies: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), statins, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), and cardiac rehabilitation. The presence of sinus rhythm and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality at 5-year follow-up were assessed. Two hundred and sixteen patients consented for long-term follow-up, 107 were randomized to targeted and 109 to conventional therapy. At 5 years, MRAs [76 (74%) vs. 10 (9%) patients, P < 0.001] and statins [81 (79%) vs. 59 (55%), P < 0.001] were used more in the targeted than conventional group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/ARBs and physical activity were not different between groups. Sinus rhythm was present in 49 (46%) targeted vs. 43 (39%) conventional group patients at 5 years (odds ratio 1.297, lower limit of 95% confidence interval 0.756, P = 0.346). Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity occurred in 20 (19%) in the targeted and 15 (14%) conventional group patients, P = 0.353.

Conclusion: In patients with early persistent AF and HF superiority of targeted therapy in sinus rhythm maintenance could not be preserved at 5-year follow-up. Cardiovascular outcome was not different between groups.

Trial Registration Number: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00877643.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab270DOI Listing
November 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Appropriate Shocks and Antitachycardia Pacing in Transvenous and Subcutaneous Implantable Defibrillators: An Analysis of All Appropriate Therapy in the PRAETORIAN trial.

Circulation 2021 Nov 14. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

The PRAETORIAN trial showed non-inferiority of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) compared to the transvenous ICD (TV-ICD) with regard to inappropriate shocks and complications. In contrast to the TV-ICD, the S-ICD cannot provide antitachycardia pacing (ATP) for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). This pre-specified secondary analysis evaluates appropriate therapy and whether ATP reduces the number of appropriate shocks. The PRAETORIAN trial was an international, investigator-initiated randomized trial, which included patients with an indication for ICD therapy. Patients with prior VTs below 170 bpm or refractory recurrent monomorphic VTs were excluded. In 39 centers, 849 patients were randomized to receive an S-ICD (N=426) or TV-ICD (N=423) and were followed for a median of 49.1 months. ICD programming was mandated by protocol. Appropriate ICD therapy was defined as therapy for ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmias were classified as discrete episodes and storm episodes (≥3 episodes within 24 hours). Analyses were performed in the modified intention-to-treat population. In the S-ICD group, 86/426 patients received appropriate therapy, versus 78/423 patients in the TV-ICD group, during a median follow-up of 52 months (48-month Kaplan-Meier estimates 19.4% and 17.5%, P=0.45). In the S-ICD group, 83 patients received at least one shock, versus 57 patients in the TV-ICD group (48-month Kaplan-Meier estimates 19.2% and 11.5%, P=0.02). Patients in the S-ICD group had a total of 254 shocks, compared to 228 shocks in the TV-ICD group (P=0.68). First shock efficacy was 93.8% in the S-ICD group and 91.6% in the TV-ICD group (P=0.40). The first ATP attempt successfully terminated 46% of all monomorphic VTs, but accelerated the arrhythmia in 9.4%. Ten S-ICD patients experienced 13 electrical storms, versus 18 TV-ICD patients with 19 electrical storms. Patients with appropriate therapy had an almost two-fold increased relative risk of electrical storms in the TV-ICD group compared to the S-ICD group (P=0.05). In this trial, no difference was observed in shock efficacy of the S-ICD compared with the TV-ICD. Although patients in the S-ICD group were more likely to receive an ICD shock, the total number of appropriate shocks was not different between the two groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.057816DOI Listing
November 2021

The Enduring Legacy of Failed Revascularization Trials.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Nov;78(19):1886-1889

ACTION Group, INSERM UMRS 1166, Institut de Cardiologie, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.08.059DOI Listing
November 2021

The Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Mortality in Patients With Coronary Lesions Who Underwent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Oct;33(10):E823-E832

Meibergdreef 9, B2-253, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To analyze the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) before transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after TAVR, differentiating between significant proximal lesions and the non-proximal (residual) lesions.

Methods: An institutional TAVR database was complemented with data on the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD), lesion location, lesion severity, and the location of PCI. Survival analysis was performed to investigate the impact on 6-month and 3-year mortality after TAVR in all patients and in subgroups of patients with significant proximal lesions (>70% diameter stenosis [DS], >50% DS in left main), the non-proximal residual lesions, and in a propensity score matched cohort.

Results: Among the 577 included patients, mean age was 83 years, 50% were female, and 31% had diabetes mellitus. Preprocedural PCI of unselected lesions was independently associated with increased 6-month mortality (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.6; P=.04), but selective PCI of significant proximal lesions did not have an association with higher mortality, nor did we find a significant effect of PCI on mortality in the propensity-matched cohort.

Conclusion: Routine pre-TAVR PCI is not associated with mortality reduction in TAVR patients with coronary lesions in any segment or in patients with proximal coronary lesions. Despite the lack of a beneficial effect of routine pre-TAVR PCI, we cannot exclude a beneficial effect in a selection of patients with proximal lesions. Therefore, we strongly support the current clinical guidelines to only consider pre-TAVR PCI in proximal coronary lesions, while advocating a restrictive pre-TAVR PCI strategy.
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October 2021

ACTION-1: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on ACT-guided heparinization during open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

Trials 2021 Sep 19;22(1):639. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Dijklander ziekenhuis, Maelsonstraat 3, 1624, NP, Hoorn, The Netherlands.

Background: Heparin is used worldwide for 70 years during all non-cardiac arterial procedures (NCAP) to reduce thrombo-embolic complications (TEC). But heparin also increases blood loss causing possible harm for the patient. Heparin has an unpredictable effect in the individual patient. The activated clotting time (ACT) can measure the effect of heparin. Currently, this ACT is not measured during NCAP as the standard of care, contrary to during cardiac interventions, open and endovascular. A RCT will evaluate if ACT-guided heparinization results in less TEC than the current standard: a single bolus of 5000 IU of heparin and no measurements at all. A goal ACT of 200-220 s should be reached during ACT-guided heparinization and this should decrease (mortality caused by) TEC, while not increasing major bleeding complications. This RCT will be executed during open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery, as this is a standardized procedure throughout Europe.

Methods: Seven hundred fifty patients, who will undergo open AAA repair of an aneurysm originating below the superior mesenteric artery, will be randomised in 2 treatment arms: 5000 IU of heparin and no ACT measurements and no additional doses of heparin, or a protocol of 100 IU/kg bolus of heparin and ACT measurements after 5 min, and then every 30 min. The goal ACT is 200-220 s. If the ACT after 5 min is < 180 s, 60 IU/kg will be administered; if the ACT is between 180 and 200 s, 30 IU/kg. If the ACT is > 220 s, no extra heparin is given, and the ACT is measured after 30 min and then the same protocol is applied. The expected incidence for the combined endpoint of TEC and mortality is 19% for the 5000 IU group and 11% for the ACT-guided group.

Discussion: The ACTION-1 trial is an international RCT during open AAA surgery, designed to show superiority of ACT-guided heparinization compared to the current standard of a single bolus of 5000 IU of heparin. A significant reduction in TEC and mortality, without more major bleeding complications, must be proven with a relevant economic benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION {2A}: NTR NL8421 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04061798 . Registered on 20 August 2019 EudraCT 2018-003393-27 TRIAL REGISTRATION: DATA SET {2B}: Data category Information Primary registry and trial identifying number ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT04061798 Date of registration in primary registry 20-08-2019 Secondary identifying numbers NTR: NL8421 EudraCT: 2018-003393-27 Source(s) of monetary or material support ZonMw: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development Dijklander Ziekenhuis Amsterdam UMC Primary sponsor Dijklander Ziekenhuis Secondary sponsor(s) N/A Contact for public queries A.M. Wiersema, MD, PhD [email protected] 0031-229 208 206 Contact for scientific queries A.M. Wiersema, MD, PhD [email protected] 0031-229 208 206 Public title ACT Guided Heparinization During Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair (ACTION-1) Scientific title ACTION-1: ACT Guided Heparinization During Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair, a Randomised Trial Countries of recruitment The Netherlands. Soon the recruitment will start in Germany Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied Abdominal aortic aneurysm, arterial disease, surgery Intervention(s) ACT-guided heparinization 5000 IU of heparin Key inclusion and exclusion criteria Ages eligible for the study: ≥18 years Sexes eligible for the study: both Accepts healthy volunteers: no Inclusion criteria: Study type Interventional Allocation: randomized Intervention model: parallel assignment Masking: single blind (patient) Primary purpose: treatment Phase IV Date of first enrolment March 2020 Target sample size 750 Recruitment status Recruiting Primary outcome(s) The primary efficacy endpoint is 30-day mortality and in-hospital mortality during the same admission. The primary safety endpoint is the incidence of bleeding complications according to E-CABG classification, grade 1 and higher. Key secondary outcomes Serious complications as depicted in the Suggested Standards for Reports on Aneurysmal disease: all complications requiring re-operation, longer hospital stay, all complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05552-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8449992PMC
September 2021

Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Scaffolds Versus Everolimus-Eluting Stents: Final 5-Year Results of the AIDA Randomized Clinical Trial.

EuroIntervention 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Amsterdam UMC, Heart Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) related events have been reported between 1 and 3 years - the period of active scaffold bioresorption. Data on the performance of Absorb BVS in daily clinical practice beyond this time point is scarce.

Aims: This report provides the final five-year clinical follow-up of the Absorb BVS in comparison with Xience everolimus-eluting stent (EES). In addition, we evaluated the effect of prolonged dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) administration on events in the scaffold group.

Methods: AIDA was a multicentre, investigator-initiated, non-inferiority trial, in which 1,845 unselected patients with coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to either Absorb BVS (n=924) or Xience EES (n=921). Target vessel failure (TVF), composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularisation, was the primary endpoint. Scaffold thrombosis cases were matched with controls and tested for effect of prolonged DAPT.

Results: Through 5 years follow-up, there was no difference in TVF between Absorb BVS (17.7%) and Xience EES (16.1%) (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 0.90-1.41, p=0.302). Definite or probable device thrombosis (DT) occurred in 43 patients (4.8%) of the scaffold group compared to 13 patients (1.5%) of the stent group (hazard ratio 3.32; 95% CI 1.78-6.17; p<0.001). DT between 3- and 4-years occurred six times in Absorb-arm versus three in Xience-arm. Between 4- and 5-years the incidence was 3 versus 2, respectively. Of those three DT in scaffold group, two occurred in Xience EES treated lesions. The odds ratio of scaffold thrombosis in patients on DAPT compared to off DAPT throughout 5-year follow-up was 0.36 (95% CI 0.15-0.86).

Conclusions: The excess risk of Absorb BVS on late adverse events, in particular device thrombosis, in routine PCI continues up to 4-years and seems to plateau afterwards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00419DOI Listing
August 2021

Colchicine in Patients With Chronic Coronary Disease in Relation to Prior Acute Coronary Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(9):859-866

Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Northwest Clinics, Alkmaar, the Netherlands; Dutch Network for Cardiovascular Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Colchicine reduces risk of cardiovascular events in patients post-myocardial infarction and in patients with chronic coronary disease. It remains unclear whether this effect is related to the time of onset of treatment following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Objectives: This study investigates risk for major adverse cardiovascular events in relation to history and timing of prior ACS, to determine whether the benefits of colchicine are consistent independent of prior ACS status.

Methods: The LoDoCo2 (Low-Dose Colchicine 2) trial randomly allocated patients with chronic coronary disease to colchicine 0.5 mg once daily or placebo. The rate of the composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization was compared between patients with no prior, recent (6-24 months), remote (2-7 years), or very remote (>7 years) ACS; interaction between ACS status and colchicine treatment effect was assessed.

Results: In 5,522 randomized patients, risk of the primary endpoint was independent of prior ACS status. Colchicine consistently reduced the primary endpoint in patients with no prior ACS (incidence: 2.8 vs 3.4 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-1.27), recent ACS (incidence: 2.4 vs 3.3 events per 100 person-years; HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.51-1.10), remote ACS (incidence: 1.8 vs 3.2 events per 100 person-years, HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37-0.82), and very remote ACS (incidence: 3.0 vs 4.3 events per 100 person-years, HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.96) (P for interaction = 0.59).

Conclusions: The benefits of colchicine are consistent irrespective of history and timing of prior ACS. (The LoDoCo2 Trial: Low Dose Colchicine for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease [LoDoCo2] ACTRN12614000093684).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.06.037DOI Listing
August 2021

Rate control drugs differ in the prevention of progression of atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Cardiology, Martini Hospital, Van Swietenplein 1, 9728 NT Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: We hypothesize that in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), verapamil is associated with lower AF progression compared to beta blockers or no rate control.

Methods And Results: In this pre-specified post hoc analysis of the RACE 4 randomized trial, the effect of rate control medication on AF progression in paroxysmal AF was analysed. Patients using Vaughan-Williams Class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite of first electrical cardioversion (ECV), chemical cardioversion (CCV), or atrial ablation. Event rates are displayed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox regression analyses are used to adjust for baseline differences. Out of 666 patients with paroxysmal AF, 47 used verapamil, 383 used beta blockers, and 236 did not use rate control drugs. The verapamil group was significantly younger than the beta blocker group and contained more men than the no rate control group. Over a mean follow-up of 37 months, the primary outcome occurred in 17% in the verapamil group, 33% in the beta blocker group, and 33% in the no rate control group (P = 0.038). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, patients using verapamil have a significantly lower chance of receiving ECV, CCV, or atrial ablation compared to patients using beta blockers [hazard ratio (HR) 0.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19-0.83] and no rate control (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.93).

Conclusion: In patients with newly diagnosed paroxysmal AF, verapamil was associated with less AF progression, as compared to beta blockers and no rate control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab191DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficacy and safety of the GOLD FORCE multicentre randomized clinical trial: multielectrode phased radiofrequency vs. irrigated radiofrequency single-tip catheter with contact force ablation for treatment of symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2021 Dec;23(12):1931-1938

St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Aims: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) has become increasingly safe and effective with the evolution of single-tip ablation catheters aided by contact force sensing (ST-CF) and single-shot devices such as the second-generation pulmonary vein ablation catheter (PVAC) Gold multi-electrode array. The multicentre randomized GOLD FORCE trial was conducted to evaluate non-inferiority of safety and efficacy of PVAC Gold PVI compared to ST-CF ablation for paroxysmal AF.

Methods And Results: The primary efficacy endpoint documented AF recurrence ≥30 s was assessed by time-to-first-event analysis after a 90-day blanking period using repeated 7-day Holters. Secondary endpoints include acute success and procedural characteristics. Safety endpoints included procedural complications, stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA), tamponade, bleeding, and access site complications. Two hundred and eight patients underwent randomization and PVI (103 assigned to PVAC Gold, 105 to ST-CF). Acute success rates were 95% and 97% for PVAC Gold and ST-CF, respectively. At 12 months, AF recurrence was observed in 46.6% of the PVAC Gold group and in 26.2% of the ST-CF group [absolute efficacy difference 20.4% (95% confidence interval, CI 7.5-33.2%), hazard ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.28-3.29), P = 0.003]. PVAC Gold had significantly shorter procedure and ablation times. Complication rates were 5.7% and 4.9% for PVAC Gold and ST-CF, respectively (P = 0.782).

Conclusion: In this multicentre randomized clinical trial, ablation with ST-CF and PVAC Gold ablation catheters non-inferiority for efficacy was not met. AF recurrence was significantly more frequent in the PVAC Gold group compared to single-tip contact force group. Both groups had similarly low rates of adverse events. PVAC Gold ablation had significantly shorter procedure and ablation times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab168DOI Listing
December 2021

Antiarrhythmic drugs in patients with early persistent atrial fibrillation and heart failure: results of the RACE 3 study.

Europace 2021 09;23(9):1359-1368

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: Maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is challenging. We explored the efficacy of class I and III antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) in patients with persistent AF and mild to moderate heart failure (HF).

Methods And Results: In the RACE 3 trial, patients with early persistent symptomatic AF and short history of mild to moderate HF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were randomized to targeted or conventional therapy. Both groups received AF and HF guideline-driven treatment. Additionally, the targeted-group received mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or receptor blockers, and cardiac rehabilitation. Class I and III AADs could be instituted in case of symptomatic recurrent AF. Eventually, pulmonary vein isolation could be performed. Primary endpoint was sinus rhythm on 7-day Holter after 1-year. Included were 245 patients, age 65 ± 9 years, 193 (79%) men, AF history was 3 (2-6) months, HF history 2 (1-4) months, 72 (29.4%) had HF with reduced LVEF. After baseline electrical cardioversion (ECV), 190 (77.6%) had AF recurrences; 108 (56.8%) received class I/III AADs; 19 (17.6%) flecainide, 36 (33.3%) sotalol, 3 (2.8%) dronedarone, 50 (46.3%) amiodarone. At 1-year 73 of 108 (68.0%) patients were in sinus rhythm, 44 (40.7%) without new AF recurrences. Maintenance of sinus rhythm was significantly better with amiodarone [n = 29/50 (58%)] compared with flecainide [n = 6/19 (32%)] and sotalol/dronedarone [n = 9/39 (23%)], P = 0.0064. Adverse events occurred in 27 (25.0%) patients, were all minor and reversible.

Conclusion: In stable HF patients with early persistent AF, AAD treatment was effective in nearly half of patients, with no serious adverse effects reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427339PMC
September 2021

Efficacy and safety of low-dose colchicine in patients with coronary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

Eur Heart J 2021 07;42(28):2765-2775

Dutch Network for Cardiovascular Research (WCN), Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Aims: Recent randomized trials demonstrated a benefit of low-dose colchicine added to guideline-based treatment in patients with recent myocardial infarction or chronic coronary disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to obtain best estimates of the effects of colchicine on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).

Methods And Results: We searched the literature for randomized clinical trials of long-term colchicine in patients with atherosclerosis published up to 1 September 2020. The primary efficacy endpoint was MACE, the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. We combined the results of five trials that included 11 816 patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 578 patients. Colchicine reduced the risk for the primary endpoint by 25% [relative risk (RR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.92; P = 0.005], myocardial infarction by 22% (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.94; P = 0.010), stroke by 46% (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86; P = 0.009), and coronary revascularization by 23% (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.90; P < 0.001). We observed no difference in all-cause death (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.71-1.62; P = 0.73), with a lower incidence of cardiovascular death (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.55-1.23; P = 0.34) counterbalanced by a higher incidence of non-cardiovascular death (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.99-1.92; P = 0.060).

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicates that low-dose colchicine reduced the risk of MACE as well as that of myocardial infarction, stroke, and the need for coronary revascularization in a broad spectrum of patients with coronary disease. There was no difference in all-cause mortality and fewer cardiovascular deaths were counterbalanced by more non-cardiovascular deaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab115DOI Listing
July 2021

More Confidence Intervals and Fewer p Values: A Positive Trend?

Authors:
Jan G P Tijssen

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 03;77(12):1562-1563

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.02.004DOI Listing
March 2021

An immediate or early invasive strategy in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: The OPTIMA-2 randomized controlled trial.

Am Heart J 2021 04 7;234:42-50. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Heart Center, OLVG Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: In intermediate- and high-risk non-ST elevated acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients, a routine invasive approach is recommended. The timing of coronary angiography remains controversial. To assess whether an immediate (<3 hours) invasive treatment strategy would reduce infarct size and is safe, compared with an early strategy (12-24 hours), for patients admitted with NSTE-ACS while preferably treated with ticagrelor.

Methods: In this single-center, prospective, randomized trial an immediate or early invasive strategy was randomly assigned to patients with NSTE-ACS. At admission, the patients were preferably treated with a combination of aspirin, ticagrelor and fondaparinux. The primary endpoint was the infarct size as measured by area under the curve (AUC) of CK-MB in 48 hours. Secondary endpoints were bleeding outcomes and major adverse cardiac events (MACE): composite of all-cause death, MI and unplanned revascularization. Interim analysis showed futility regarding the primary endpoint and trial inclusion was terminated.

Results: In total 249 patients (71% of planned) were included. The primary endpoint of in-hospital infarct size was a median AUC of CK-MB 186.2 ng/mL in the immediate group (IQR 112-618) and 201.3 ng/mL in the early group (IQR 119-479). Clinical follow-up was 1-year. The MACE-rate was 10% in the immediate and 10% in the early group (hazard ratio [HR] 1.13, 95% CI: 0.52-2.49).

Conclusions: In NSTE-ACS patients randomized to either an immediate or an early-invasive strategy the observed median difference in the primary endpoint was about half the magnitude of the expected difference. The trial was terminated early for futility after 71% of the projected enrollment had been randomized into the trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.01.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Duodenal mucosal resurfacing combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonism to discontinue insulin in type 2 diabetes: a feasibility study.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 07 24;94(1):111-120.e3. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Duodenal mucosal resurfacing (DMR) is an endoscopic intervention in which the duodenal mucosa is ablated by hydrothermal energy. DMR improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), most likely by altered duodenal signaling leading to insulin sensitization. We studied whether we could discontinue insulin use in T2D patients by combining DMR with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and lifestyle counseling.

Methods: In this single-arm, single-center feasibility study in 16 insulin-treated patients with T2D (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] ≤8.0%, basal insulin <1 U/kg/day, C-peptide ≥.5 nmol/L), patients underwent a single DMR followed by a 2-week postprocedural diet, after which GLP-1RA (liraglutide) was introduced. Lifestyle counseling was provided per American Diabetes Association guidelines. The primary endpoint was percentage of patients without insulin with an HbA1c ≤7.5% (responders) at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were changes in multiple glycemic and metabolic parameters and percentage of responders at 12 and 18 months, respectively.

Results: All 16 patients underwent successful DMR without procedure-related serious adverse events. At 6 months, 69% of patients were off insulin therapy with an HbA1c ≤7.5%. At 12 and 18 months 56% and 53% remained off insulin, respectively. All patients significantly improved in the glycemic and metabolic parameters of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, body mass index, weight, and liver fat fraction.

Conclusions: In this feasibility study, the combination of a single DMR and GLP-1RA, supported by lifestyle counseling, eliminated the need for insulin therapy in most patients with T2D through 18 months postprocedure, with adequate beta-cell capacity, while improving glucose regulation and metabolic health in all patients. A randomized-sham controlled trial is currently initiated based on these results. (Clinical trial registration number: EudraCT 2017-00349-30.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2020.12.021DOI Listing
July 2021

Three-year clinical outcomes of the absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold compared to Xience everolimus-eluting stent in routine PCI in patients with diabetes mellitus-AIDA sub-study.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 10 29;98(4):713-720. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Heart Center; department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In this prespecified AIDA-trial sub-study we investigate the clinical performance of absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) compared to Xience everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in routine percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) at complete 3-year follow-up.

Methods And Results: All 1,845 randomized patients were subdivided by medical history with DM or without DM. Of the 924 Absorb BVS patients, 171 (18.5%) patients had DM, of which 65 (38.0%) were treated with insulin (iTDM). Of the 921 Xience EES patients, 153 (16.6%) patients had DM, of which 45 (29.4%) were insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (iTDM). Target vessel failure (TVF), composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization, occurred in 18.7% of diabetic patients treated with Absorb patients versus in 18.0% patients treated with Xience EES (p = .840). In nondiabetics the rates of TVF were 12.3% in Absorb BVS versus 11.0% in Xience EES (p = .391). Definite/probable device thrombosis occurred more frequently in Absorb BVS compared to Xience EES in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients (4.8% versus 0.7%; p = .028 and 3.2% vs. 0.5%; p < .001, respectively).

Conclusions: In routine PCI practice, both Absorb BVS and Xience EES have worse clinical outcomes in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetic patients. Throughout all clinical presentations, Absorb BVS was associated with higher rates of device thrombosis at 3-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518754PMC
October 2021

Colchicine in Patients with Chronic Coronary Disease.

N Engl J Med 2020 11 31;383(19):1838-1847. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

From GenesisCare Western Australia (S.M.N., X.-F.X., M.A.I., D.L., A.W., R.H., P.S., I.T., A.G.T., A. Morton, P.L.T.), the Heart and Vascular Research Institute (S.M.N., P.L.T.) and the Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (G.J.H., P.L.T.) and the School of Population and Global Health (C.A.B.), University of Western Australia, Perth, the Department of Cardiology, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, WA (C.J.), and the Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Nedlands, WA (P.L.T.) - all in Australia; the Dutch Network for Cardiovascular Research (A.T.L.F., A. Mosterd, A.S., S.H.K.T., T.L., P.H., A.J., P.N., H.S., J.S., A.F.M.K., M.W.J.H., M.D., M.A., J.H.C.), the Netherlands Heart Institute (A.T.L.F.), and the Department of Cardiology (A.T.L.F.) and the Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care (A. Mosterd, M.A.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Department of Cardiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (A. Mosterd), the Departments of Cardiology (T.S.J.O., M.D., J.H.C.) and Internal Medicine (W.A.B.), Northwest Clinics, Alkmaar, the Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (T.S.J.O., J.H.C.), the Department of Cardiology, Treant Zorggroep, Hoogeveen, Emmen, and Stadskanaal (S.H.K.T.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen and Sittard (T.L.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Diaconessenhuis, Meppel (P.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (A.J.), the Department of Cardiology, Franciscus Hospital (P.N.), and Cardialysis (J.G.P.T.), Rotterdam, the Department of Cardiology, D&A Research and Genetics, Sneek (H.S.), the Department of Cardiology, Amphia and Breda (J.S., M.A.), the Department of Cardiology, Spaarne Hospital, Haarlem and Hoofddorp (A.F.M.K.), the Department of Cardiology, Green Heart Hospital, Gouda (M.W.J.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam (J.G.P.T.) - all in the Netherlands; and the Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (J.W.E.).

Background: Evidence from a recent trial has shown that the antiinflammatory effects of colchicine reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction, but evidence of such a risk reduction in patients with chronic coronary disease is limited.

Methods: In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned patients with chronic coronary disease to receive 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily or matching placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous (nonprocedural) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization. The key secondary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke.

Results: A total of 5522 patients underwent randomization; 2762 were assigned to the colchicine group and 2760 to the placebo group. The median duration of follow-up was 28.6 months. A primary end-point event occurred in 187 patients (6.8%) in the colchicine group and in 264 patients (9.6%) in the placebo group (incidence, 2.5 vs. 3.6 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.83; P<0.001). A key secondary end-point event occurred in 115 patients (4.2%) in the colchicine group and in 157 patients (5.7%) in the placebo group (incidence, 1.5 vs. 2.1 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92; P = 0.007). The incidence rates of spontaneous myocardial infarction or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization (composite end point), cardiovascular death or spontaneous myocardial infarction (composite end point), ischemia-driven coronary revascularization, and spontaneous myocardial infarction were also significantly lower with colchicine than with placebo. The incidence of death from noncardiovascular causes was higher in the colchicine group than in the placebo group (incidence, 0.7 vs. 0.5 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.31).

Conclusions: In a randomized trial involving patients with chronic coronary disease, the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly lower among those who received 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily than among those who received placebo. (Funded by the National Health Medical Research Council of Australia and others; LoDoCo2 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000093684.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021372DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of Adding Ticagrelor to Standard Aspirin on Saphenous Vein Graft Patency in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (POPular CABG): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Circulation 2020 11 31;142(19):1799-1807. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Cardiology (L.M.W., P.W.A.J., J.P., D.R.P.P.C.P.Y., M.E.G., K.F.B., J.C.K., B.J.W.M.R., M.J.S., J.M.t.B.), St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Background: Approximately 15% of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) occlude during the first year after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) despite aspirin use. The POPular CABG trial (The Effect of Ticagrelor on Saphenous Vein Graft Patency in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery) investigated whether ticagrelor added to standard aspirin improves SVG patency at 1 year after CABG.

Methods: In this investigator-initiated, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, patients with ≥1 SVGs were randomly assigned (1:1) after CABG to ticagrelor or placebo added to standard aspirin (80 mg or 100 mg). The primary outcome was SVG occlusion at 1 year, assessed with coronary computed tomography angiography, in all patients that had primary outcome imaging available. A generalized estimating equation model was used to perform the primary analysis per SVG. The secondary outcome was 1-year SVG failure, which was a composite of SVG occlusion, SVG revascularization, myocardial infarction in myocardial territory supplied by a SVG, or sudden death.

Results: Among 499 randomly assigned patients, the mean age was 67.9±8.3 years, 87.1% were male, the indication for CABG was acute coronary syndrome in 31.3%, and 95.2% of procedures used cardiopulmonary bypass. Primary outcome imaging was available in 220 patients in the ticagrelor group and 223 patients in the placebo group. The SVG occlusion rate in the ticagrelor group was 10.5% (51 of 484 SVGs) versus 9.1% in the placebo group (43 of 470 SVGs), odds ratio, 1.29 [95% CI, 0.73-2.30]; =0.38. SVG failure occurred in 35 (14.2%) patients in the ticagrelor group versus 29 (11.6%) patients in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.72-2.05]).

Conclusions: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the addition of ticagrelor to standard aspirin did not reduce SVG occlusion at 1 year after CABG. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02352402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050749DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparative Methodological Assessment of the Randomized GLOBAL LEADERS Trial Using Total Ischemic and Bleeding Events.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2020 08 30;13(8):e006660. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Cardiology, National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG), Ireland (F.S., Y.O., P.W.S.).

Background: Time-to-first-event analysis considers only the first event irrespective of its severity. There are several methods to assess trial outcomes beyond time-to-first-event analysis, such as analyzing total events and ranking outcomes. In the GLOBAL LEADERS study, time-to-first-event analysis did not show superiority of ticagrelor monotherapy following one-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention to conventional 12-month DAPT followed by aspirin monotherapy in the reduction of the primary composite end point of all-cause mortality or new Q-wave myocardial infarction. This study sought to explore various analytical approaches in assessing total ischemic and bleeding events after percutaneous coronary intervention in the GLOBAL LEADERS study.

Methods And Results: Total ischemic and bleeding events were defined as all-cause mortality, any stroke, any myocardial infarction, any revascularization, or Bleeding Academic Research Consortium grade 2 or 3 bleeding. We used various analytical approaches to analyze the benefit of ticagrelor monotherapy over conventional DAPT. For ischemic and bleeding events at 2 years after percutaneous coronary intervention, ticagrelor monotherapy demonstrated a 6% risk reduction, compared with conventional 12-month DAPT in time-to-first-event analysis (hazard ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.88-1.01]; log-rank =0.10). In win ratio analysis, win ratio was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.97-1.13; =0.20). Negative binomial regression and Andersen-Gill analyses which include repeated events showed statistically significant advantage for ticagrelor monotherapy (rate ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.85-0.99; =0.020] and hazard ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.85-0.99; =0.028], respectively), although in weighted composite end point analysis, the hazard ratio was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-1.04; log-rank =0.22).

Conclusions: Statistical analyses considering repeated events or event severity showed that ticagrelor monotherapy consistently reduced ischemic and bleeding events by 5% to 8%, compared with conventional 1-year DAPT. Applying multiple statistical methods could emphasize the multiple facets of a trial and result in accurate and more appropriate analyses. Considering the recurrence of ischemic and bleeding events, ticagrelor monotherapy appeared to be beneficial after percutaneous coronary intervention. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01813435.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.006660DOI Listing
August 2020

Subcutaneous or Transvenous Defibrillator Therapy.

N Engl J Med 2020 08;383(6):526-536

From the Heart Center, Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam (R.E.K., L.R.A.O.N., L.V.A.B., T.F.B., A.-F.B.E.Q., L.S., W.S., A.W., K.C.W., J.R.G., K.M.K., M.C.B., J.G.P.T., A.A.M.W.), ERN GUARD-Heart (E.R.B., P.D.L., A.A.M.W.), and the Department of Cardiology, OLVG (J.S.S.G.J.), Amsterdam, the Department of Cardiology, Isala Heart Centre, Zwolle (P.-P.H.M.D.), the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (L.V.A.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Flevoziekenhuis, Almere (N.R.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (M.A.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (K.V.), the Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda (M.A.), Werkgroep Cardiologische Centra Nederland, Utrecht (M.A.), and the Department of Electrophysiology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (F.A.L.E.B.) - all in the Netherlands; the First Department of Medicine-Cardiology, University Medical Center Mannheim, and the German Center for Cardiovascular Research Partner Site Heidelberg-Mannheim, Mannheim (J.K.), Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Schwerpunkt Kardiologie und Angiologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel (H.B.), the Department of Medicine I, Ludwig-Maximilians University Hospital, and the German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (S.K.), and the Department of Electrophysiology, Heart Center at University of Leipzig, Leipzig (S.R.) - all in Germany; the Division of Cardiology Section of Electrophysiology, Emory University, Atlanta (M.F.E.-C.); the Cardiology Clinical Academic Group, St. George's, University of London and St. George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust London (E.R.B.), and Office of the Director of Clinical Electrophysiology Research and Lead for Inherited Arrhythmia Specialist Services, University College London and Barts Heart Centre (P.D.L.), London, the Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford (T.R.B.), and Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool (D.J.W.) - all in the United Kingdom; Valley Health System, Ridgewood, NJ (S.M.); the Department of Cardiology, Homolka Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic (P.N.); and CorVita Science Foundation, Chicago (M.C.B.).

Background: The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was designed to avoid complications related to the transvenous ICD lead by using an entirely extrathoracic placement. Evidence comparing these systems has been based primarily on observational studies.

Methods: We conducted a noninferiority trial in which patients with an indication for an ICD but no indication for pacing were assigned to receive a subcutaneous ICD or transvenous ICD. The primary end point was the composite of device-related complications and inappropriate shocks; the noninferiority margin for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio (subcutaneous ICD vs. transvenous ICD) was 1.45. A superiority analysis was prespecified if noninferiority was established. Secondary end points included death and appropriate shocks.

Results: A total of 849 patients (426 in the subcutaneous ICD group and 423 in the transvenous ICD group) were included in the analyses. At a median follow-up of 49.1 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 68 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 68 patients in the transvenous ICD group (48-month Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative incidence, 15.1% and 15.7%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.39; P = 0.01 for noninferiority; P = 0.95 for superiority). Device-related complications occurred in 31 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 44 in the transvenous ICD group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.09); inappropriate shocks occurred in 41 and 29 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.89 to 2.30). Death occurred in 83 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 68 in the transvenous ICD group (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.70); appropriate shocks occurred in 83 and 57 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.12).

Conclusions: In patients with an indication for an ICD but no indication for pacing, the subcutaneous ICD was noninferior to the transvenous ICD with respect to device-related complications and inappropriate shocks. (Funded by Boston Scientific; PRAETORIAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01296022.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915932DOI Listing
August 2020

Rationale and design of the PRAETORIAN-COVID trial: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial with valsartan for PRevention of Acute rEspiraTORy dIstress syndrome in hospitAlized patieNts with SARS-COV-2 Infection Disease.

Am Heart J 2020 08 21;226:60-68. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

There is much debate on the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. Although it has been suggested that ARBs might lead to a higher susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, experimental data suggest that ARBs may reduce acute lung injury via blocking angiotensin-II-mediated pulmonary permeability, inflammation, and fibrosis. However, despite these hypotheses, specific studies on ARBs in SARS-CoV-2 patients are lacking. METHODS: The PRAETORIAN-COVID trial is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled 1:1 randomized clinical trial in adult hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (n = 651). The primary aim is to investigate the effect of the ARB valsartan compared to placebo on the composite end point of admission to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death within 14 days of randomization. The active-treatment arm will receive valsartan in a dosage titrated to blood pressure up to a maximum of 160 mg bid, and the placebo arm will receive matching placebo. Treatment duration will be 14 days, or until the occurrence of the primary end point or until hospital discharge, if either of these occurs within 14 days. The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04335786, 2020). SUMMARY: The PRAETORIAN-COVID trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled 1:1 randomized trial to assess the effect of valsartan compared to placebo on the occurrence of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. The results of this study might impact the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 patients globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239793PMC
August 2020

Bioresorbable vascular scaffold versus metallic drug-eluting stent in patients at high risk of restenosis: the COMPARE-ABSORB randomised clinical trial.

EuroIntervention 2020 Oct;16(8):645-653

Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes of patients at high risk of restenosis after implantation of a bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS).

Methods And Results: The COMPARE-ABSORB trial was an investigator-initiated, prospective randomised study. Patients at high risk of restenosis were randomly assigned to receive either a BVS or an everolimus-eluting stent (EES). A dedicated implantation technique was recommended for BVS. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure (TLF), defined as the composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (TVMI) or clinically indicated target lesion revascularisation at one year. The enrolment was discontinued prematurely because of a high thrombosis and TVMI rate in the BVS arm. A total of 1,670 patients were recruited (BVS 848 patients and EES 822 patients). TLF occurred in 43 patients (5.1%) of the BVS group and 34 patients (4.2%) of the EES group (absolute difference 0.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.2%-3.0%, p non-inferiority <0.001). Definite or probable device thrombosis (2.0% vs 0.6%, hazard ratio [HR] 3.32, 95% CI: 1.22-8.99, p=0.012) and TVMI (4.0% vs 2.1%, HR 1.96, 95% CI: 1.10-3.51, p=0.02) were significantly higher in the BVS group than in the EES group.

Conclusions: In patients at high risk of restenosis, non-inferiority of BVS compared with EES in terms of TLF was met at one year. BVS carried a higher risk of device thrombosis and TVMI than EES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-01079DOI Listing
October 2020

Optimal treatment of underlying conditions improves rhythm control outcome in atrial fibrillation - Data from RACE 3.

Am Heart J 2020 08 14;226:235-239. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.12.005DOI Listing
August 2020

Causes and predictors of early mortality in patients treated with left ventricular assist device implantation in the European Registry of Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS).

Intensive Care Med 2020 Jul 3;46(7):1349-1360. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Thoraxcenter, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to analyze early mortality after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation which remains high.

Methods: We analyzed consecutive (n = 2689) patients from the European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS) undergoing continuous-flow LVAD implantation. The primary outcome was early (< 90 days) mortality. Secondary outcomes were differential causes of early post-operative death following LVAD implantation.

Results: Univariable and multivariable analysis as well as regression analysis were used to examine determinants and differential causes of early (< 90 days) mortality after LVAD implantation. During the first 90 days, 2160 (80%) patients were alive with ongoing LVAD support, 40(2%) patients underwent heart transplantation, and 487(18%) deceased. The main causes of early death were MOF (36%), sepsis (28%), cardiopulmonary failure (CPF; 10%), CVA (9%), and right-sided heart failure (RHF, 8%). Furthermore, MOF and sepsis are 70% of causes of death in the first week. Independent clinical predictors of early death were age, female sex, INTERMACS profile 1 to 3, and ECMO. Laboratory predictors included elevated serum creatinine, total bilirubin, lactate, and low hemoglobin. Furthermore, hemodynamic predictors included elevated RA-to-PCWP ratio, pulmonary vascular resistance, and low systemic vascular resistance. Longer total implantation time was also independent predictor of early mortality. A simple model of 12 variables predicts early mortality following LVAD implantation with a good discriminative power with area under the curve of 0.75.

Conclusions: In the EUROMACS registry, approximately one out of five patients die within 90 days after LVAD implantation. Early mortality is primarily dominated by multiorgan failure followed by sepsis. A simple model identifies important parameters which are associated with early mortality following LVAD implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05939-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334284PMC
July 2020

The influence of implantation techniques on lesion oriented-outcomes in Absorb BVS and Xience EES lesions treated in routine clinical practice at complete three year follow-up: AIDA trial QCA substudy.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Apr 2;36(4):565-575. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Heart Center, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

It has been hypothesized that dedicated optimized Absorb BVS implantation techniques might mitigate the risk of adverse events such as target vessel failure and device thrombosis. In this explorative AIDA trial QCA substudy, we sought to investigate the influence of implantation techniques on lesion-oriented outcomes in both the Absorb BVS and Xience EES arm at complete 3-year follow-up. The current analysis includes 2152 study lesions treated with at least one study device, of which the baseline angiogram was suited for offline QCA analysis, including Dmax analysis. The lesion-oriented composite outcome (LOCE) of this analysis was a composite of definite device thrombosis, target lesion revascularization and target-vessel myocardial infarction. In Absorb BVS, the Lesion-oriented composite endpoint (LOCE) occurred numerically less in correctly QCA sized vessels when compared to incorrectly sized vessels 8.5% (58/696) versus 11.1% (39/358), p = 0.151. In Xience EES, LOCE had occurred more frequently in incorrectly sized devices according to device diameter/RVD matching; 2.2% (4/187) in correctly sized devices versus 7.1% (63/911) in incorrectly sized devices (p = 0.014). In this AIDA trial QCA substudy, rates of LOCE were significantly lower in Xience EES treated lesions in which devices were correctly sized according to the definitions of device diameter/RVD matching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-019-01756-wDOI Listing
April 2020

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of ticagrelor on saphenous vein graft patency in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery-Rationale and design of the POPular CABG trial.

Am Heart J 2020 02 13;220:237-245. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Rationale: An estimated 15% of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) occlude in the first year after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) despite aspirin therapy. Graft occlusion can result in symptoms, myocardial infarction, and death. SVG occlusion is primarily caused by atherothrombosis, in which platelet activation plays a pivotal role. Evidence regarding the effect of stronger platelet inhibition on SVG patency after CABG is limited. The main objective of the POPular CABG trial is to determine whether dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin plus ticagrelor improves SVG patency when compared to aspirin alone.

Study: The POPular CABG is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial investigating the effect of adding ticagrelor to standard aspirin therapy on the rate of SVG occlusion. A total of 500 patients undergoing CABG with ≥ 1 SVG are randomized to ticagrelor or placebo. The primary end point is SVG occlusion rate, assessed with coronary computed tomography angiography at 1 year. Secondary end points are stenoses and occlusions in both SVGs and arterial grafts and SVG failure at 1 year, defined as a composite of SVG occlusion on coronary computed tomography angiography or coronary angiography, SVG revascularization, myocardial infarction in the territory supplied by an SVG, or sudden death. Safety end points are bleeding events at 30 days and 1 year.

Conclusion: The POPular CABG trial investigates whether adding ticagrelor to standard aspirin after CABG reduces the rate of SVG occlusion at 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.12.001DOI Listing
February 2020

Ticagrelor monotherapy beyond one month after PCI in ACS or stable CAD in elderly patients: a pre-specified analysis of the GLOBAL LEADERS trial.

EuroIntervention 2020 Apr 3;15(18):e1605-e1614. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Aims: Antiplatelet treatment in the elderly post percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) remains a complex issue. Here we report the results of the pre-specified subgroup analysis of the GLOBAL LEADERS trial evaluating the long-term safety and cardiovascular efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy among patients categorised according to the pre-specified cut-off value of 75 years of age.

Methods And Results: This was a pre-specified analysis of the randomised GLOBAL LEADERS trial (n=15,991), comparing 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy (after one month of DAPT) with the reference treatment (12-month DAPT followed by 12 months of aspirin). Among elderly patients (>75 years; n=2,565), the primary endpoint (two-year all-cause mortality or new Q-wave core lab-adjudicated myocardial infarction [MI]) occurred in 7.2% and 9.4% of patients in the ticagrelor monotherapy and the reference group, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-0.99, p=0.041; pint=0.23); BARC-defined bleeding type 3/5 occurred in 5.2% and 4.1%, respectively (HR 1.29, 95% CI: 0.89-1.86; p=0.180; pint=0.06). The elderly with stable CAD had a higher rate of BARC 3/5 type bleeding (HR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.18-3.55) with ticagrelor monotherapy versus the reference treatment (pint=0.02). Elderly patients had a lower rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST) with ticagrelor monotherapy (0.4% vs 1.4%, p=0.015, pint=0.01), compared with the reference group.

Conclusions: In this pre-specified, exploratory analysis of the overall neutral trial, there was no differential treatment effect of ticagrelor monotherapy (after one-month dual therapy with aspirin) found in elderly patients undergoing PCI with respect to the rate of the primary endpoint of all-cause death or new Q-wave MI. The lower rate of ST in the elderly with ticagrelor monotherapy is hypothesis-generating. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01813435.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-00699DOI Listing
April 2020

A Controlled Trial of Rivaroxaban after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement.

N Engl J Med 2020 01 16;382(2):120-129. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

From the Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (G.D.D., G.G., A.K., R. Mehran); National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (G.D.D.); Amsterdam University Medical Centers-University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (J.G.P.T.), and Cardialysis, Academic Research Organization, Rotterdam (J.G.P.T., A.H.C.G., R.G.M.A.) - both in the Netherlands; the Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, Ulm (J.W., J.S.), the Department of Internal Medicine I, St. Johannes Hospital Dortmund, Dortmund (H.M.), the Department of Internal Medicine III, Heart Center, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne (S.B.), the Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (U.S.), and Bayer, Berlin (K.T.) - all in Germany; the Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (L.S., O.D.B.); La Cavale Blanche University Hospital, Cardiology Department, Brest (M.G.), and Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse (D.T.) - both in France; Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (R.R.M.); the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (H.C.H.); the Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo - all in Oslo (L.G.); the Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria (D.L.); Baylor Scott and White Health, Temple, TX (M.M.); the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of La Paz, Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research, Madrid (R. Moreno); the Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (M.V., S.W.); the Department of Cardiology and Critical Care Medicine, Hartcentrum Hasselt, and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Hasselt - all in Hasselt, Belgium (P.V.); Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (R.C.W.); Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ (P.W., A.A.V.); and Bayer, São Paulo (A.Z.).

Background: Whether the direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban can prevent thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is unclear.

Methods: We randomly assigned 1644 patients without an established indication for oral anticoagulation after successful TAVR to receive rivaroxaban at a dose of 10 mg daily (with aspirin at a dose of 75 to 100 mg daily for the first 3 months) (rivaroxaban group) or aspirin at a dose of 75 to 100 mg daily (with clopidogrel at a dose of 75 mg daily for the first 3 months) (antiplatelet group). The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of death or thromboembolic events. The primary safety outcome was major, disabling, or life-threatening bleeding. The trial was terminated prematurely by the data and safety monitoring board because of safety concerns.

Results: After a median of 17 months, death or a first thromboembolic event (intention-to-treat analysis) had occurred in 105 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 78 patients in the antiplatelet group (incidence rates, 9.8 and 7.2 per 100 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio with rivaroxaban, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.81; P = 0.04). Major, disabling, or life-threatening bleeding (intention-to-treat analysis) had occurred in 46 and 31 patients, respectively (4.3 and 2.8 per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.95 to 2.37; P = 0.08). A total of 64 deaths occurred in the rivaroxaban group and 38 in the antiplatelet group (5.8 and 3.4 per 100 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.53).

Conclusions: In patients without an established indication for oral anticoagulation after successful TAVR, a treatment strategy including rivaroxaban at a dose of 10 mg daily was associated with a higher risk of death or thromboembolic complications and a higher risk of bleeding than an antiplatelet-based strategy. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Pharmaceuticals; GALILEO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02556203.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1911425DOI Listing
January 2020

The effect of low-dose colchicine in patients with stable coronary artery disease: The LoDoCo2 trial rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.

Am Heart J 2019 12 20;218:46-56. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

Heart Research Institute of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia.

Because patients with stable coronary artery disease are at continued risk of major atherosclerotic events despite effective secondary prevention strategies, there is a need to continue to develop additional safe, effective and well-tolerated therapies for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. RATIONALE AND DESIGN: The LoDoCo (Low Dose Colchicine) pilot trial showed that the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine 0.5 mg once daily appears safe and effective for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Colchicine's low cost and long-term safety suggest that if its efficacy can be confirmed in a rigorous trial, repurposing it for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease would have the potential to impact the global burden of cardiovascular disease. LoDoCo2 is an investigator-initiated, international, multicentre, double-blind, event driven trial in which 5522 patients with stable coronary artery disease tolerant to colchicine during a 30-day run-in phase have been randomized to colchicine 0.5 mg daily or matching placebo on a background of optimal medical therapy. The study will have 90% power to detect a 30% reduction in the composite primary endpoint: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke and ischemia-driven coronary revascularization. Adverse events potentially related to the use of colchicine will also be collected, including late gastrointestinal intolerance, neuropathy, myopathy, myositis, and neutropenia. CONCLUSION: The LoDoCo2 Trial will provide information on the efficacy and safety of low-dose colchicine for secondary prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.09.011DOI Listing
December 2019
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