Publications by authors named "Jamilya Khizroeva"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hydroxychloroquine in obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: rationale and results of an observational study of refractory cases.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 27:1-8. Epub 2021 May 27.

The First I.M. Sechenov Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Background: The current recommended therapy of obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a long-term anticoagulant therapy that affects the final event, namely, when the thrombosis has already occurred. Unfortunately, this schedule is not always effective and fails despite the correct risk stratification and an adequate adjusted dose.

Materials And Methods: From 2013 to 2020 we observed 217 women with antiphospholipid antibodies and obstetric morbidities who were treated with conventional treatment protocol (aspirin low doses ± LMWH). Among them 150 (69.1%) successfully completed pregnancy with delivery and live birth on the background of LMWH and aspirin therapy and in 67 (30.9%) women despite a traditional therapy regimen, obstetric complications were noted. Later, 56 of these 67 women became pregnant again and were offered traditional therapy plus hydroxychloroquine. Fifteen women refused HCQ treatment due to possible potential side effects. The final cohort consisted of 41 women with positive antiphospholipid antibodies and obstetric and thrombotic complications who received LMWH, aspirin low doses and HCQ at a dose of 200-400mg per day from the beginning of pregnancy.

Results: Forty-one aPL women treated with HCQ after failed previous anticoagulant therapy had live births in 32 cases (78%). Adding of HCQ to the combination of LMWH and LDA showed good overall obstetric results and increased the number of live births in another 32 women. So, a total of 182 (83.8%) of initial 217 aPL-women ended their pregnancies with live birth after adding the HCQ to the traditional therapy with LMWH and low doses of aspirin.

Conclusion: In 20-30% of cases the live birth despite anticoagulation cannot be achieved. Perhaps APS is not just anticoagulation. The study of pathophysiological mechanisms suggests that some patients will benefit from other therapy (in addition to anticoagulant). Therapy that affects the early effects of aPL on target cells (monocytes, endothelial cells, etc.) or before binding to receptors-this therapy will be preferable and potentially less harmful than the officially accepted one to date. From this point of view, HCQ looks promising and can be used as an alternative candidate for women with refractory obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Adding HCQ should be considered in some selected patients with failed pregnancy after treatment with anticoagulants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1908992DOI Listing
May 2021

Early ADAMTS13 testing associates with pre-eclampsia occurrence in antiphospholipid syndrome.

Thromb Res 2021 Apr 27;203:101-109. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Russian Federation; Department of Haematology, CHU Nîmes, Univ Montpellier, Nîmes, France; Faculty of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France; UA 011 INSERM- Université de Montpellier, Institut Desbrest d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (oAPS) still develop placental diseases, mainly pre-eclampsia (PEcl), which diagnosis is associated with reduced ADAMTS13 levels. Testing ADAMTS13 in newly pregnant oAPS may provide evidence for risk stratification.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of ADAMTS13 activity, antigen and antibodies on stored plasma samples obtained prior to beginning low-molecular weight heparin-low dose aspirin treatment in 513 oAPS women.

Results: Some women had evidences of early positive ADAMTS13 antibodies and low ADAMTS13 activity:antigen ratio, suggestive of ADAMTS13 dysfunction. Women with a subsequent PEcl had higher ADAMTS13 antibodies (p < 0.0001), and lower ADAMTS13 activity and activity:antigen ratios (p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, these markers were significant risk factors for PEcl and for the most devastating PEcl subgroups (early-onset PEcl, severe PEcl, PEcl with no living child after 28 days). ADAMTS13-related markers showed acceptable discrimination power to predict clinical events, particularly for ADAMTS13 activity:antigen ratio in predicting PEcl cases with no living child after 28 days (AUC: 0.844 (0.712-0.974), p < 0.0001), with excellent negative predictive value (0.990).

Conclusions: The characterization of ADAMTS13 in newly pregnant women with oAPS depicts the risk of PEcl occurrence. ADAMTS13 might help identify pregnant women with oAPS not requiring escalating treatment strategies to prevent PEcl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2021.04.021DOI Listing
April 2021

Cardiac function in fetal growth restriction: a review.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Ospedale Cristo Re, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy -

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of the fetus to reach its growth potential. According to the onset of the disease is defined early (< 32 weeks) or late (≥ 32 weeks). FGR is associated with an increased risk of adverse short- and long-term outcomes, including hypoxemic events and neurodevelopmental delay compared to normally grown fetuses and increased risk of complications in the infanthood and adulthood. The underlying cause of FGR is placental insufficiency leading to chronic fetal hypoxia that affects cardiac hemodynamic with different mechanism in early and late onset growth restriction. In early onset FGR adaptive mechanisms involve the diversion of the cardiac output preferentially in favour of the brain and the heart, while abnormal arterial and venous flow manifest in the case of further worsening of fetal hypoxia. In late FGR the fetal heart shows a remodelling of its shape and function mainly related to a reduction of umbilical vein flow. In this review we discuss the modifications occurring at the level of the fetal cardiac hemodynamic in fetuses with early and late FGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-606X.21.04787-0DOI Listing
April 2021

The Influence of Treatment of Inflammatory Arthritis During Pregnancy on the Long-Term Children's Outcome.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:626258. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Unit, ASST Spedali Civili and University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

The management of reproductive issues in women with inflammatory arthritis has greatly changed over decades. In the 1980-1990s, women with refractory forms of arthritis were either not able to get pregnant or did choose not to get pregnant because of their disabling disease. Hence, the traditional belief that pregnancy can induce a remission of arthritis. The availability of biologic agents has allowed a good control of aggressive forms of arthritis. The main topic of discussion during preconception counselling is the use of drugs during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Physicians are now supported by international recommendations released by the European League Against Rheumatism and the American College of Rheumatology, but still they must face with cultural reluctance in accepting that a pregnant woman can take medications. Patient-physician communication should be centered on the message that active maternal disease during pregnancy is detrimental to fetal health. Keeping maternal disease under control with drugs which are not harmful to the fetus is the best way to ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby. However, there might be concerns about the influence of the exposure to medications on the newborn's health conditions. Particularly, studies suggesting an increased risk of autism-spectrum-disorders in children born to women with rheumatoid arthritis has raised questions about neuropsychological impairment in the offspring of women with chronic arthritis. As a multidisciplinary group of rheumatologists and child neuropsychiatrists, we conducted a study on 16 women with chronic forms of arthritis whose diagnosis was determined before pregnancy and their 18 school-age children. The children underwent a complete neurological examination and validated tests/questionnaires. Behavioral aspects of somatization and anxiety/depression (internalizing problem) or an "adult profile" were found in nearly one third of children. Children at a high risk of neurodevelopmental problems were born to mothers with a longer history of arthritis and were breastfeed for less than 6 months of age or were not breastfeed at all. No association was found with other maternal characteristics such as autoantibody existence and disease activity during and after the pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.626258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013697PMC
March 2021

Effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second half of pregnancy on fetal growth and hemodynamics: A prospective study.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 06 9;100(6):1034-1039. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Università di Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: Our objective was to compare the fetal growth velocity and fetal hemodynamics in pregnancies complicated and in those not complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Material And Methods: Prospective case-control study of consecutive pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the second half of pregnancy matched with unaffected women. The z scores of head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight were compared between the two groups. Fetal growth was assessed by analyzing the growth velocity of head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight between the second- and third-trimester scans. Similarly, changes in the pulsatility index of uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, and their ratios were compared between the two study groups.

Results: Forty-nine consecutive pregnancies complicated, and 98 not complicated, by SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. General baseline and pregnancy characteristics were similar between pregnant women with and those without SARS-CoV-2 infection. There was no difference in head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight z scores between pregnancies complicated and those not complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection at both the second- and third-trimester scans. Likewise, there was no difference in the growth velocity of all these body parameters between the two study groups. Finally, there was no difference in the pulsatility index of both maternal and fetal Doppler scans throughout gestation between the two groups.

Conclusions: Pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection are not at higher risk of developing fetal growth restriction through impaired placental function. The findings from this study do not support a policy of increased fetal surveillance in these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8013660PMC
June 2021

Role of ante-partum ultrasound in predicting vaginal birth after cesarean section: A prospective cohort study.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Jan 21;256:385-390. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Obstetric-Section and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: Vaginal birth after caesarean delivery is associated with better outcomes compared to repeat caesarean section. Accurate antenatal risk stratification of women undergoing a trial of labor after caesarean section is crucial in order to maximize perinatal and maternal outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to explore the role of antepartum ultrasound in predicting the probability of vaginal birth in women attempting trial of labor; the secondary aim was to build a multiparametric prediction model including pregnancy and ultrasound characteristics able to predict vaginal birth and compare its diagnostic performance with previously developed models based exclusively upon clinical and pregnancy characteristics.

Methods: Prospective study of consecutive singleton pregnancies scheduled for trial of labor undergoing a dedicated antepartum ultrasound assessment at 36-38 weeks of gestation. Head circumference, estimated fetal weight cervical length, sub-pubic angle were recorded before the onset of labour. The obstetricians and midwives attending the delivery suite were blinded to the ultrasound findings. Multivariate logistic regression and area under the curve analyses were used to explore the strength of association and test the diagnostic accuracy of different maternal and ultrasound characteristics in predicting vaginal birth. Comparison with previously reported clinical models developed by the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Network (Grobman's models) was performed using De Long analysis.

Results: A total of 161women who underwent trial of labor were included in the study. Among them 114 (70.8 %) women had successful vaginal birth. At multivariable logistic regression analysis maternal height (adjusted odds ratio (aOR):1.24;9 5% Confidence Interval (CI)1.17-1.33), previous C-section for arrest labor (aOR:0.77; 95 %CI0.66-0.93), cervical dilation at admission (aOR:1.35 ; 95 %CI1.12-1.74), fetal head circumference (aOR:0.77 ; 5%CI0.43-0.89), subpubic angle (aOR:1.39 95 %CI1.11-1.99) and cervical length (aOR:0.82 95 % CI0.54-0.98) were independently associated with VBAC. A model integrating these variables had an area under curve of 0.839(95 % CI 0.710-0.727) for the prediction of vaginal birth, significantly higher than those achieved with intake (0.694; 95 %CI0.549-0.815; p = 0.01) and admission (0.732: 95 % CI 0.590-0.84; p = 0.04) models reported by Grobman.

Conclusion: Antepartum prediction of vaginal birth after a caesarean section is feasible. Fetal head circumference, subpubic angle and cervical length are independently associated and predictive of vaginal birth. Adding these variables to a multiparametric model including maternal parameters improves the diagnostic accuracy of vaginal birth compared to those based only on maternal characteristic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.11.056DOI Listing
January 2021

The added value of umbilical vein flow in predicting fetal macrosomia at 36 weeks of gestation: A prospective cohort study.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 05 21;100(5):900-907. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Introduction: Current models based on fetal biometry and maternal characteristics have a poor performance in predicting macrosomia. The primary aim of this study was to elucidate the diagnostic performance of fetal venous and arterial Dopplers in predicting macrosomia in the third trimester of pregnancy; the secondary aim was to build a multiparametric prediction model including pregnancy, ultrasound and Doppler characteristics able to predict macrosomia accurately.

Material And Methods: Prospective cohort study including 2156 singleton pregnancies scheduled for routine ultrasound assessment at 36 weeks of gestation. Fetal biometry, estimated fetal weight (EFW), pulsatility index of the uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, cerebroplacental ratio and umbilical vein blood flow (UVBF) normalized for fetal abdominal circumference (UVBF/AC) were recorded. Primary outcome was the prediction of fetal macrosomia, defined as a birthweight >90th percentile; secondary outcome was the prediction of newborns >4000 g. Logistic regression and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were used to analyze the data.

Results: Fetal macrosomia complicated 9.8% of pregnancies, and 7.7% of newborns had a birthweight >4000 g. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal body mass index (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.23), pregestational diabetes (aOR 1.83), a prior newborn with a birthweight >95th centile (aOR 1.49), EFW (aOR 2.23) and UVBF (aOR1.84) were independently associated with macrosomia, whereas gestational diabetes mellitus (P = .07) or any of the other Doppler parameters were not. EFW had an AUC of 0.750 and of 0.801 alone and in association with maternal characteristics for the prediction of macrosomia, respectively. The addition of UVBF to this model significantly improved the prediction of fetal macrosomia provided by maternal and ultrasound parameters with an AUC of 0.892 (De Long P = .044 and P = .0078, respectively). The predictive performance for birthweight >4000 g was similar and significantly improved when UVBF was included in the diagnostic algorithm.

Conclusions: Umbilical vein blood flow evaluation in the third trimester improves the diagnosis of fetal macrosomia. The optimal diagnostic performance for macrosomia is achieved by a multiparametric model including umbilical vein flow, maternal characteristics and EFW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14047DOI Listing
May 2021

Venous thrombosis risk factors in pregnant women.

J Perinat Med 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Objectives: Assess all risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and puerperium.

Methods: Different guidelines for VTE prevention have been analyzed.

Results: Various recommendations have appeared for practitioners during the last 10-15 years on the basis of the risk factors analysis in order to prevent VTE in pregnant women more effectively. Nevertheless, none of these recommendations can yet take into account all risk factors, although convenient scoring systems have emerged for risk assessment and clear recommendations on anti-thrombotic prophylaxis regimens in risk groups in recent years.

Conclusions: VTE is the third most common cause of death on Earth after myocardial infarctions and strokes, according to the World Health Organization. Pregnancy is a unique condition of woman, when enormous changes occur in functioning of the most important systems of homeostasis in a relatively short time. These are physiological hypercoagulation, slowing of blood flow, increase in circulating blood volume, etc. However, while being physiological, these changes increase the risks of venous thromboembolism by almost six times. In some cases, there appears an imbalance or dissociation between the functioning of natural antithrombotic systems and the activation of coagulation as a consequence of genetically or acquired determined causes (genetic thrombophilia, antiphospholipid syndrome, comorbidities, obstetric complications and other exogenous and endogenous factors). Accordingly, identification of risk factors, their systematization, and determination of VTE risks in pregnancy and puerperium is one of the most important tasks of clinical medicine. This article will review historical understanding of thrombosis in pregnant women, progress in understanding VTE risk factors in pregnant women, and available reserves in identifying new risk factors during pregnancy and puerperium in order to stratify risks more efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2020-0011DOI Listing
October 2020

The pathogenic role of circulating Hashimoto's Thyroiditis-derived TPO-positive IgG on fetal loss in naïve mice.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 01 20;85(1):e13331. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Laboratory of the Mosaic of Autoimmunity, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Problem: Antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), often are associated with recurrent fetal loss. One of the ATD is Hashimoto's thyroiditis which recently showed association with complications of pregnancy with increased levels of circulating autoantibodies reactive with epitopes on thyroid tissue such as thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO). In retrospective study of sera analyses in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all patients had mainly elevated circulating anti-TPO autoantibodies.

Aim: We assessed the potential of human anti-TPO highly positive IgG, derived from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis sera associated with complications of pregnancy, to cause directly complications of pregnancy in murine model.

Method Of Study: Naïve ICR female mice, infused intravenously with 100 μg of anti-TPO-positive IgG, showed increased fetal loss and embryo small for date (P < .001) in comparison with mice passively transferred with commercial IgG or PBS. Moreover, we observed embryos small for date in the mice passively transferred with anti-TPO-positive IgG, exemplified by reduced weight of embryos and placentae (P = .001). Histopathological examination revealed delay in fetal development in 50% cases of anti-TPO-positive IgG-treated mice. Importantly, pathological changes in the transition zone, state of glycogen cells, and significant structural changes in the labyrinth part of placenta were observed in all anti-TPO-positive IgG samples.

Conclusion: The current study shows in the first time, a direct proof of concept, on the association of human TPO-positive IgG from Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients on fetal loss induction in murine model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aji.13331DOI Listing
January 2021

Sonoelastographic Assessment of the Uterine Cervix in the Prediction of Imminent Delivery in Singleton Nulliparous Women Near Term: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Mar 25;40(3):559-568. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Objectives: To explore the role of newly developed software to assess cervical sonoelastography in predicting the onset of spontaneous delivery in singleton pregnancies at term and to compare its diagnostic performance with that provided by the cervical length (CL) and posterior cervical angle (PCA).

Methods: This work was a prospective study including nulliparous singleton pregnancies at gestational ages of 37 weeks to 38 weeks 6 days. The CL, PCA, hardness ratio (HR), and mean strain from the internal os and external os were obtained by a transvaginal ultrasound approach using semiautomatic software (E-Cervix; Samsung Medison Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea). Multivariate logistic regression and area under the curve analyses were used to test the strength of the association and the diagnostic performance of the variables considered in predicting delivery within 7 days.

Results: A total of 398 women were included, and 24.6% delivered within 7 days. The CL was shorter (19.5 versus 2 7 mm; P = .0001), PCA narrower (99° versus 102°; P = .02) HR lower (35.3 versus 40.7; P = .0001), mean strain from the external os higher (0.41 versus 0.35; P = .0001), and mean strain from the internal os higher (0.38 versus 0.33; P = .0001) higher in women who delivered within 7 days from the assessment. At the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the CL (adjusted odds ratio, 1.307) and HR (adjusted odds ratio, 1.227) were the only variables independently associated with delivery within 1 week. A model combining the CL and HR showed an area under the curve of 0.873 in predicting delivery within 7 days, higher than that obtained by using the CL and HR singularly (P ≤ .0001).

Conclusions: The HR assessed by sonoelastography improves the efficacy of the CL in predicting imminent delivery in nulliparous women close to term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15434DOI Listing
March 2021

"APS pregnancy - The offspring".

Lupus 2020 Oct 4;29(11):1336-1345. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Background: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease that affects women in childbearing age. In recent years, great improvements were achieved in the management of pregnancies in these women. Prematurity could be an issue in these pregnancies, mainly due to the direct pathogenic effect of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) on the placental surface. Maternal IgG aPL can cross the placenta and theoretically interact with the growing fetus; it could reach the fetal brain because of the incompleteness of the fetal blood-brain barrier: whether this can have an effect on brain development is still debated. Neonatal thrombosis episodes have been described in children positive for aPL, not always associated with maternal antibody positivity, suggesting the hypothesis of a possible aPL de novo synthesis in fetus and neonates.

Methods: A keyword-based literature search was conducted. We also described a case of neonatal catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS).

Results: Offspring of patients with APS are generally healthy but the occurrence of neonatal thrombosis or minor neurological disorders were reported.

Conclusions: The limited number of the available data on this sensitive issue supports the need for further studies. Clinical follow-up of children of mothers with APS seems to be important to exclude, in the neonatal period, the occurrence of aPL associated pathological events such as thrombosis, and in the long-term, impairment in learning skills or behavioral problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961203320947154DOI Listing
October 2020

COVID-19, neutrophil extracellular traps and vascular complications in obstetric practice.

J Perinat Med 2020 Nov;48(9):985-994

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

An issue of the novel coronavirus infection spreading is currently in the first place among others in the list of the international medical community. Due to lack of information, conflicting research findings, multicomponent effect of the virus on the body host, as well as various consequences that the virus triggers in the body, now every medical specialty does study the viral attack pathogenesis. Recent months showed that vascular complications are the most severe in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are the main cause of death in the patients. The mechanisms of vascular complications are complex and affect both the hemostatic system and immune responses, "inflammatory storm", disorders of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endotheliopathy, etc. Due to the leading role of vascular complications in the viral infection pathogenesis, several groups of patients are at extra risk, including pregnant women, patients with a burdened obstetric history, with hereditary thrombophilia and antiphospholipid syndrome, and patients after in vitro fertilization (IVF). In this category of pregnant women, use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) is particularly important for both prevention of vascular and obstetric complications, and for pathogenetic therapy of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2020-0280DOI Listing
November 2020

Administration of antenatal corticosteroid is associated with reduced fetal growth velocity: a longitudinal study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Jul 29:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Foggia, Università di Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Objective: To elucidate whether antenatal administration of corticosteroids in pregnancies with threatened preterm labor affects growth velocity.

Methods: A cohort of 262 pregnancies exposed to antenatal corticosteroids longitudinally studied and delivered from 36 weeks (cases) were compared to an unexposed group of 270 women (controls).

Methods: Fetal growth was assessed analyzing the growth velocity of head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and estimated fetal weight (EFW). Growth velocity (GV) was calculated as the difference in the Z-score between the biometric measurements recorded at the time of steroids administration and at 36 week of gestation, divided by the time interval (expressed in days) between the two scans and multiplied by 100. Similarly, changes in the Pulsatility Index (PI) of uterine, umbilical (UA), middle cerebral (MCA) arteries and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) during the same time interval were also computed.

Results: Median gestational age at steroid administration (30.2 weeks vs 30.4) and follow-up ultrasound (36.4 weeks vs 36.4) were similar between cases and controls. In pregnancies exposed to antenatal corticosteroids, growth velocity in the HC (-0.61 vs. 0.12;  ≤ 0.001), AC (-0.55 vs. -0.04;  ≤ 0.001) and EFW (-0.89 vs. 0.06;  ≤ 0.001) were lower when compared to pregnancies not exposed to steroid therapy, while there was no difference in the growth velocity of FL (-0.05 vs 0.19;  = .06) or in any of the Doppler parameters explored.

Conclusion: In pregnancies exposed to antenatal steroid therapy, there is a significant reduction in fetal growth velocity not otherwise associated with changes in cerebroplacental Dopplers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1800634DOI Listing
July 2020

Fetal Cardiac Remodeling Is Affected by the Type of Embryo Transfer in Pregnancies Conceived by in vitro Fertilization: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Fetal Diagn Ther 2020 Jul 13:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

Objective: Pregnancies conceived via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are associated with a higher risk of fetal cardiac remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the type of embryo transfer may affect the magnitude of fetal cardiac remodeling in pregnancies conceived via ICSI.

Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study including 212 pregnancies conceived by ICSI (111 with frozen and 101 with fresh embryos) and 120 spontaneously conceived gestations. All women underwent ultrasound biometric evaluation, Doppler, and echocardiographic assessment, including evaluation of left and right atrial areas and sphericity index (SI), at 20-24 weeks of gestation. The χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to analyze the data.

Results: There was no difference in maternal characteristics, gestational age at ultrasound, Doppler, and fetal weight among the study groups. In pregnancies conceived by ICSI, left and right atrial areas were higher (p < 0.0001) and SI was lower (p < 0.0001) compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Left (p = 0.004) and right (p = 0.023) atrial areas and left (p = 0.036) and right (p = 0.002) SIs were more affected in ICSI pregnancies conceived by fresh embryos.

Conclusion: The risk of fetal cardiac remodeling is higher in pregnancies conceived by ICSI and independent from fetal size and Doppler. The magnitude of these changes is affected by the type of ICSI technique and is higher in pregnancies conceived by fresh embryos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508987DOI Listing
July 2020

In utero exposure to Azathioprine in autoimmune disease. Where do we stand?

Autoimmun Rev 2020 Sep 30;19(9):102525. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Synapse Research Institute, Maastricht, the Netherlands; Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Azathioprine (AZA), an oral immunosuppressant, is safe during pregnancy. Some reports suggested different impairments in the offspring of mothers with autoimmune diseases (AI) exposed in utero to AZA. These observations are available from retrospective studies or case reports. However, data with respect to the long-term safety in the antenatally exposed child are still lacking. The aim of this study is to summarize the current knowledge in this field and to focus on the need for a prospective study on this population. We performed a PubMed search using several search terms. The actual data show that although the risk of congenital anomalies in offspring, as well as the infertility risk, are similar to those found in general population, there is a higher incidence of prematurity, of lower weight at birth and an intra-uterine delay of development. There is also an increased risk of materno- fetal infections, especially cytomegalovirus infection. Some authors raise the interrogations about neurocognitive impairment. Even though the adverse outcomes might well be a consequence of maternal illness and disease activity, interest has been raised about a contribution of this drug. However, the interferences between the external agent (in utero exposure to AZA), with the host (child genetic susceptibility, immune system anomalies, emotional status), environment (public health, social context, availability of health care), economic, social, and behavioral conditions, cultural patterns, are complex and represent confounding factors. In conclusion, it is necessary to perform studies on the medium and long-term outcome of children born by mothers with autoimmune diseases, treated with AZA, in order to show the safety of AZA exposure. Only large-scale population studies with long-term follow-up will allow to formally conclude in this field. TAKE HOME MESSAGES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102525DOI Listing
September 2020

Neonatal thrombosis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Mar 23:1-9. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Neonatal thromboembolism in pediatric patients is a rare but life-threatening condition mainly caused by combinations of at least 2 prothrombotic triggering risk factors such as the central venous lines, septic condition, and prematurity. Other risk factors include asphyxia, dehydration, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and maternal condition. Neonatal hemostatic system is different from one of the older children and adults. Coagulation proteins do not cross the placenta but are synthesized in the fetus from an early stage. In the term neonate, concentrations of several procoagulant proteins, particularly the vitamin K dependent and contact factors are reduced when compared with adults. Conversely, levels of antithrombin, heparin cofactor II and protein C and S are low at birth and fibrinolysis system is characterized by the decreased level of plasminogen and alpha-1-antiplasmin, increased tissue plasminogen activator. These features all tend to be gestational dependent and are more present in the preterm infant. Primarily in this context neonates appear to be at a higher risk of thrombosis than older children. Thrombotic complications reach their peak in the group of children born at 22-27 weeks. The role of inherited thrombophilic risk factors in neonatal VTE development is poorly defined. The presence of inherited and acquired thrombophilia in mother and newborn is also responsible for the development of thrombosis in neonates and should be considered. Thrombophilia in the mother can lead to increased coagulation potential and prethrombotic conditions during pregnancy, causing thrombotic vasculopathy at the placental level. The benefit of identifying thrombophilia in the sick preterm newborns who are in the group of risk for development of thrombotic complications may facilitate the thromboprophylaxis. Further research regarding assessment of risk factors, diagnostics and treatment strategy is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1743668DOI Listing
March 2020

Infertility in women with systemic autoimmune diseases.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 12 2;33(6):101369. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Infertility consists by definition in" failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse" while the term subfertility means a delay to achieve pregnancy. Several factors can contribute to infertility or subfertility in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. The association of systemic autoimmune conditions with endometriosis, celiac disease and thyroid autoimmunity that are well known causes of infertility and/or subfertility need to be taken in consideration when difficulties in the onset of pregnancy is reported. The majority of the used antirheumatic drugs do not interfere with fertility. However, the use of cyclophosphamide, limited to severe disease, can provoke premature ovarian failure; to preserve fertility a preventive treatment is available. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause temporary infertility and corticosteroids are associated to a prolonged time to pregnancy in some rheumatic diseases. Data on the association of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) with infertility are still debated but in general an increased rate of aPL is described patients undergoing medically assisted reproductive techniques. In systemic lupus erythematosus aPL and other autoantibodies (i.e. anti-oocytes) can contribute to the infertility of some patients. Subfertility, rather than infertility, is observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; the particular physical conditions of these women can also account for this. Physicians should not forget the patients' age, that is mandatory in order to preserve their chance to have children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2019.101369DOI Listing
December 2019

Antepartum ultrasound prediction of failed vacuum-assisted operative delivery: a prospective cohort study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Nov 12:1-7. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Foggia University Hospital, Foggia, Italy.

Failed vacuum-assisted delivery (VD) is associated with increased risk of maternal perineal trauma and neonatal morbidity. Knowledge of the risk factors related to failed VD is essential in the clinical decision-making. To elucidate the strength of association and the predictive accuracy of different ante-partum ultrasound parameters in predicting the risk of failed VD prior to the onset of Labor and to test the diagnostic performance of a multiparametric model including pregnancy and Labor characteristics, ante and intra-partum ultrasound in anticipating failed VD. Prospective study of consecutive singleton pregnancies complicated by VD undergoing a dedicated ultrasound assessment at 36-38 weeks of gestation. Head circumference (HC), estimated fetal weight (EFW) and subpubic angle and (SPA) were recorded before the onset of Labor. At the time of the VD, occiput position, head perineum distance (HPD) and angle of progression (AOP) were also recorded. Multivariate logistic regression and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were used to explore the strength of association and test the diagnostic accuracy of different maternal, Labor and ultrasound characteristics in predicting g failed VD. Four hundred eight pregnancies with successful and 26 with failed VD were included in the analysis. Fetuses experiencing failed VD had a larger HC (1.21 versus 1.07 MoM;  = .0001), a higher EFW -value (0.56 versus 0.33 values;  = .002) and a narrower SPA (114 versus 122  = .0001) compared to those having a successful VD. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, maternal height (aOR 0.89 95% CI 0.76-0.98), nulliparity (aOR: 1.14 95% CI 1.06-1.36), HC MoM (aOR: 1.24 95% CI 1.13-1.55) and SPA angle (aOR: 0.82 95% CI 0.67-0.95), but not EFW ( = .08) were independently associated with failed VD. When intrapartum ultrasound variables were added to the multivariate model, fetal occipital position (aOR: 1.45 95th CI 1.11-1.99) and HPD (aOR: 0.77 95th CI 0.44-0.96) were independently associated with failed VD. A multiparametric model integrating pregnancy and Labor characteristics and ante-partum ultrasound variables had an AUC of 0.837 (95% CI 0.797-0.876) for the prediction of failed VE. The addition of intra-partum ultrasound variables to the prediction model, improved the accuracy for failed VD provided by maternal and antepartum ultrasound characteristics with an AUC of 0.913 (0.888-0.937). Antepartum prediction of failed VD is feasible. HC, SPA but not EFW are independently associated and predictive of failed VD. Adding these variables to a multiparametric model including maternal and intrapartum ultrasound parameters improves the diagnostic accuracy for failed VD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1683540DOI Listing
November 2019

Autoimmune diseases and pregnancy.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 12 11;33(6):101322. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Pregnancy in autoimmune diseases remains an argument of debate. In last years great improvements were done and with the correct medical support women with disease such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus or Antiphospholipid Syndrome can afford a pregnancy and have healthy babies. The starting point is a good counselling. Women should be informed about risks that can occur taking some medications while pregnant and, on the other hand, that there are medications that can be safety assumed during pregnancy. Furthermore, there are known maternal risks factor such as the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies or anti-Ro/SSA antibodies that must be carefully manage by both rheumatologists and obstetrics. In addition, also disease activity during pregnancy can represent an issue. For all these reason, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory in order to give our patients an optimal medical support, before, during and after pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2019.101322DOI Listing
December 2019

Hemodynamic factors associated with fetal cardiac remodeling in late fetal growth restriction: a prospective study.

J Perinat Med 2019 Sep;47(7):683-688

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Background Altered cardiac geometry affects a proportion of fetuses with growth restriction (FGR). The aim of this study was to explore the hemodynamic factors associated with cardiac remodeling in late FGR. Methods This was a prospective study of singleton pregnancies complicated by late-onset FGR undergoing assessment of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular sphericity-index (SI). The study population was divided in two groups according to the presence of cardiac remodelling, defined as LVSI <5th centile. The following outcomes were explored: gestational age at birth, birthweight, caesarean section (CS) for fetal distress, umbilical artery (UA) pH and neonatal admission to special care unit. The differences between the 2 groups in UA pulsatility index (PI), middle cerebral artery (MCA) PI, uterine artery PI, cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and umbilical vein (UV) flow corrected for fetal abdominal circumference (UVBF/AC) were tested. Results In total, 212 pregnancies with late FGR were enrolled in the study. An abnormal LV SI was detected in 119 fetuses (56.1%). Late FGR fetuses with cardiac remodeling had a lower birthweight (2390 g vs. 2490; P = 0.04) and umbilical artery pH (7.21 vs. 7.24; P = 0.04) and were more likely to have emergency CS (42.8% vs. 26.9%; P = 0.023) and admission to special care unit (13.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.03) compared to those with normal LVSI. No difference in either UA PI (p = 0.904), MCA PI (P = 0.575), CPR (P = 0.607) and mean uterine artery PI (P = 0.756) were present between fetuses with or without an abnormal LV SI. Conversely, UVBF/AC z-score was lower (-1.84 vs. -0.99; P ≤ 0.001) in fetuses with cardiac remodeling and correlated with LV (P ≤ 0.01) and RV SI (P ≤ 0.02). Conclusion Fetal cardiac remodelling occurs in a significant proportion of pregnancies complicated by late FGR and is affected by a high burden of short-term perinatal compromise. The occurrence of LV SI is independent from fetal arterial Dopplers while it is positively associated with umbilical vein blood flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0217DOI Listing
September 2019

Unusual thrombosis or pregnancy complications associated to ovarian cancers: two clinical cases.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 21;34(9):1430-1434. Epub 2019 Jul 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First I.M. Sechenov Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: Using illustrative cases of two patients with ovarian cancer who developed unusual thrombosis in pregnancy, to describe the difficulties in diagnosing and managing such patients.

Methods: We present the analysis of two cases of thrombosis of unusual localization (central artery of the retina and transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis) during pregnancy in women with hidden ovarian cancer.

Results: In both cases, the symptomatic of unususal thrombosis was interpreted as a manifestation of eclampsia, leading to a choice of non-optimal obstetric tactics on a background of hidden ovarian cancer, which in both cases were diagnosed only postpartum.

Conclusions: Pregnancy itself is a risk factor for thrombotic complications and in case malignancy develops in parallel with pregnancy, this risk is multiplied. In patients with ovarian cancer, difficulties arise both in detecting the tumor itself due to the enlarged uterus and in interpreting some of the symptoms, which can be regarded as a manifestation of pregnancy complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1638359DOI Listing
May 2021

Skin pathologies in pregnancy.

J Perinat Med 2019 May;47(4):371-380

Faculty of Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Progesterone is a hormone responsible for pregnancy maintenance and the amount of progesterone increases in a woman's body during pregnancy, as well as the level of female sex hormones, estrogens are also upregulated. Due to these changes the cutaneous sensitivity to external stimuli (meteorological factors, bacteria, etc.) increases. In general, all skin changes during pregnancy can be divided into three groups: physiological changes (hormone-associated), nonspecific or dermatoses that existed before pregnancy or were triggered by it, and specific pregnancy-related dermatoses, which appear during pregnancy and resolve in the postpartum period. In this brief  review, we describe the dermatoses commonly seen in pregnancy and present our own clinical examples. We hope the review will be of some practical help for dermatologists and obstetricians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2018-0338DOI Listing
May 2019

HIBISCUS: Hydroxychloroquine for the secondary prevention of thrombotic and obstetrical events in primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

Autoimmun Rev 2018 Dec 12;17(12):1153-1168. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

MITOVASC institute and CARFI facility, UMR CNRS 6015, INSERM U1083, University of Angers, Angers, France.

The relapse rate in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) remains high, i.e. around 20%-21% at 5 years in thrombotic APS and 20-28% in obstetrical APS [2, 3]. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) appears as an additional therapy, as it possesses immunomodulatory and anti-thrombotic various effects [4-16]. Our group recently obtained the orphan designation of HCQ in antiphospholipid syndrome by the European Medicine Agency. Furthermore, the leaders of the project made the proposal of an international project, HIBISCUS, about the use of Hydroxychloroquine in secondary prevention of obstetrical and thrombotic events in primary APS. This study has been launched in several countries and at now, 53 centers from 16 countries participate to this international trial. This trial consists in two parts: a retrospective and a prospective study. The French part of the trial in thrombosis has been granted by the French Minister of Health in December 2015 (the academic trial independent of the pharmaceutical industry PHRC N PAPIRUS) and is coordinated by one of the members of the leading consortium of HIBISCUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2018.05.012DOI Listing
December 2018

fertilization outcomes in women with antiphospholipid antibodies circulation.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Jun 2;33(12):1988-1993. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department #2, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have a multifaceted effect on the hemostatic system, damaging all its protective links. To study the effect of APA on outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). We examined 267 women with infertility, who planned pregnancy using ART. They included 178 women with IVF failure (I group) and 89 women with pregnancy after the IVF program (II group). The comparison group consisted of 80 pregnant women after IVF (male factor); a control group included 80 pregnant women with physiological pregnancy. Results of study demonstrated a high frequency of aPL circulation in a group of women with IVF failures. Overall, the proportion of aPL among all 267 women who planned pregnancy with ART was 32.6%. Elevated levels of aPL in the structure of causes of IVF failures (group I) were observed in 42.1% of them. Among women whose pregnancy occurred with ART (II group) the rate of APA was 19.1%. In the comparison group, in 6.3% of cases, aPL circulation was observed. In the control group, the rate was 3.4%. Considering the high percentage of aPL circulation in the case of IVF failures, authors think that high titers of aPL are a temporary contraindication for IVF. Patients with a history of aPL circulation are required to receive anticoagulant therapy from the first days of the hormonal protocol. The drug of choice is a group of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). An individual approach is extremely important with the possible identification of causes of IVF failures and selective therapy, which leads to a significant improvement in the outcomes of the IVF program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2018.1535586DOI Listing
June 2020

Thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women with thrombophilia and a history of thrombosis.

J Perinat Med 2018 Oct;46(8):893-899

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology #2 of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Background Despite intensive research, thromboembolism still accounts for significant maternal morbidity and mortality. We examined thrombophilia in patients with thromboembolism during pregnancy and evaluated the efficiency of antithrombotic prophylaxis in patients with thrombophilia for the prevention of recurrent thromboembolism. Materials and methods Sixty-eight women with a history of thromboembolism were managed during pregnancy, in light of their thrombotic history and the result of thrombophilia assessment. Group I (n=50) received prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)±aspirin (50-100 mg/day) in preconception period or from the 1st trimester, during pregnancy and at least 6 weeks postpartum. Group II (n=18) received LMWH±aspirin from the II to III trimester. Results Thromboses were associated with pregnancy in 27 patients (39.7%), with systemic diseases - in nine (13.2%), oral contraceptives use - 22 (32.3%), immobilization due to surgery and/or trauma, long flight - six (8.9%), septic complications - two (2.9%). Nevertheless, 24.5% of patients had no apparent provoking factor for the development of thrombotic complications. Thirty-seven (54%) patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) had familial history of VTE, and 25 (36.7%) had personal history of pregnancy complications (fetal loss syndrome, preeclampsia and placental abruption) (P<0.05 vs. control). Thrombophilia was detected in 58 (85.3%). Usual thrombogenic polymorphisms [factor V (FV) Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, heterozygous forms] were revealed in 16 (23.5%) and eight (11.7%) patients, respectively. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) circulation was found in 34 (50%) patients. Non-usual thrombogenic polymorphisms were identified in 44 (64.7%) of the women and hyperhomocysteinemia - in 30 (44.2%). In group I no one had severe obstetric complications. All the patients were delivered at term and all the babies were alive. In group II moderate-to-severe obstetric complications were noted: preeclampsia - in 11 (16.2%), severe preeclampsia - seven (10.3%), preterm delivery - in 18 (26.4%) patients from subgroup II (P<0.05). Conclusions Women with a personal or a family history of thromboembolism and obstetric complications should be screened for thrombophilia. Beginning anticoagulant therapy early in such patients is effective not only for preventing recurring thrombosis but also preventing obstetric complications. Late prophylaxis after the completion of the trophoblast invasion therapy is much less effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2017-0329DOI Listing
October 2018

Prenatal care and labor in patients with mesenchimal dysplasias (Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia).

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Feb 6;33(3):373-379. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Mesenchymal dysplasias or inherited connective tissue diseases are the group of diseases with deficiency of various components of connective tissue. Connective tissue disorders can affect different organs: skeleton, sight organ, skin, lungs, heart. But the most dangerous is vascular wall insufficiency leading to high risk of hemorrhage, especially during pregnancy and delivery due to hemodynamic and hormonal effects on the walls of the modified vessels. To evaluate the risk of complications during the pregnancy and delivery in patients with mesenchymal dysplasias. Fifty-six pregnancies in patients with mesenchymal dysplasias, including subclinical forms of diseases: 23 with Marfan syndrome (I group), 22 with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (II group), and 11 with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) (III group) of the age from 18 to 36. The study included retrospective analysis (for the period from 1993 to 2005) and prospective study. Results of study showed high risk of life-threatening complications during pregnancy and delivery, especially the risk of hemorrhage and cardiovascular complications. In all the patients, we observed the progression of bleeding or development of bleeding in new localizations (epistaxis in 27 patients, easy brushing in 22, skin and mucosa telangiectasia in 20, gastrointestinal bleedings in 4, hemoptysis in 4, hematomas for minor traumas in 14, conjunctivas hemorrhages in 5). The pathogenesis of bleeding in such patients has mixed pattern: besides vascular wall pathology coagulation deficiency plays some role. The preferred delivery method for such patients is caesarean section. Deep vaginal ruptures and serious hemorrhage accompany vaginal delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2018.1493102DOI Listing
February 2020

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (Ronald Asherson syndrome) and obstetric pathology.

J Perinat Med 2018 May;46(4):387-400

Professors of the Chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Medical Prophylaxis Faculty of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Zemlyanoi Val, 62, 109004 Moscow, Russia.

Background: Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is an uncommon, often fatal, variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) that results in a widespread coagulopathy and high titres of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and affects predominantly small vessels supplying organs with the development of multiorgan failure. It remains unclear why some patients develop the typical clinical picture of APS (thrombosis of large vessels), whereas others show the development of progressive microthrombosis, which the authors called "thrombotic storm" and multiple organ failure, that is, CAPS.

Materials And Methods: Since 2001-2016, we discovered 17 patients with CAPS development.

Conclusion: CAPS is life-threatening condition, but optimal treatment for CAPS is not developed yet and the mortality rate is as high as 30%-40%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2017-0092DOI Listing
May 2018