Publications by authors named "Jamil Ahmad"

180 Publications

Comparison of safety and number of post-operative visits of patients in convenient day versus conventional first day follow-up after phacoemulsification.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Sep-Oct;37(5):1440-1444

Farah Huma, MBBS. Post Graduate Trainee, Department of Ophthalmology, Unit 1, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Pakistan.

Objectives: To compare safety and number of post-operative visits of patients in convenient day versus conventional first day follow-up after phacoemulsification.

Methods: This observational cohort study was conducted in Department of ophthalmology, Sahiwal Medical College, Sahiwal from November 2019 to August 2020. There were 600 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Patients were allocated into two groups. Group-I comprised of patients with convenient day follow-up during the first post-operative week. Group-II comprised of the patients with conventional first day follow-up. Rate of complications, number of visits during the first month and final visual acuity were recorded.

Results: In Group-I post-operative complications were noted in 12.67% cases on first follow up visit and in 2.67% cases on first month follow up visit. In Group-II post-operative complication were noted in 22 % cases on first follow up visit and in 4% cases on first month follow up visit. Common postoperative complications were corneal oedema, anterior segment intraocular inflammation, residual lens matter in anterior chamber and intraocular lens subluxation. There was no difference in presenting and postoperative visual acuity between the two groups. Mean follow-up visits were 2.23 ± 0.42 in Group-I and 3.55 ± 0.50 in Group-II.

Conclusion: Convenient day follow-up is as safe as conventional first day follow-up. Convenient day follow-up significantly reduces the number of post-operative visits. This would translate into cost reduction both for the patients and the health care facility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.5.4121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377886PMC
January 2021

Effect of exogenous administration of oxytocin on postpartum follicular dynamics, oestrous rate and ovulation in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

Reprod Domest Anim 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics, Jonkoping International Business School, Jonkoping University, Jonkoping, Sweden.

Based on different surveys, dairy farmers are concerned about extensive use of exogenous oxytocin in buffaloes, which is being held responsible for reproductive problems including irregular oestrous cycle and delayed ovulation. For these concerns, effects of oxytocin injection on postpartum follicular dynamics, postpartum oestrous interval (PEI), oestrous length, the interval from onset of estrus to ovulation and blood progesterone (P4) were studied in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. For this purpose, 23 animals within 1 week after calving were randomly divided into three groups: without oxytocin (CON; n = 7), 10 i.u. oxytocin (LOW; n = 8), 30 i.u. oxytocin - (HIGH; n = 8) and used to record the PEI for the study period of 154 days. At subsequent estrus, three buffaloes from each group (not served) were selected randomly to monitor two cycles for 6 weeks. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed to evaluate follicular and corpus luteum (CL) development, and blood sampling was done for progesterone (P4) analysis. These results revealed that postpartum oestrous interval (PEI) decreased significantly in oxytocin-treated groups. The number of small, medium and total follicles on the left ovary was significantly higher in the HIGH group. However, an overall number of small and total follicles on both right and left ovaries was significantly higher in CON and HIGH groups. On the other hand, there was no difference in the number of follicles on the right ovary among all treatment groups. The same was true for the size of pre-ovulatory follicles, CL, P4 concentrations and oestrous cycle length. The intervals from onset of estrus to ovulation and from standing estrus to ovulation were increased considerably in the HIGH group. It is concluded that exogenous oxytocin administration resulted in the shortening of PEI but triggered a delay in ovulation. Moreover, a higher dose of oxytocin could stimulate the growth of small, medium, and total follicles in postpartum Nili-Ravi buffaloes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.14001DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluating the Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses About Breast Augmentation Using AMSTAR.

Aesthet Surg J Open Forum 2021 Sep 22;3(3):ojab020. Epub 2021 May 22.

Division of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed cosmetic surgeries worldwide. Therefore, it is imperative to have evidence with high methodological quality to guide clinical decision making.

Objectives: To evaluate the methodological quality of the systematic reviews (SRs) focused on breast augmentation.

Methods: A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews was performed. SRs that have a particular focus on breast augmentation and were published in the top 15 plastic and reconstructive surgery journals were included. Quality assessment was performed using a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews (AMSTAR). Study characteristics were extracted including journal and impact factor, year of publication, country affiliation of the corresponding author, reporting adherence to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, number of citations, and number of studies included.

Results: Among the 22 studies included for analysis, the mean AMSTAR score was moderate (5.55), with no SR achieving good quality (AMSTAR score of ≥9). There were no significant associations between AMSTAR score and journal impact factor, number of citations, year of publication, or number of included studies. Studies that reported adherence to PRISMA guidelines on average scored higher on the AMSTAR tool ( = 0.03).

Conclusions: The methodological quality of reviews about breast augmentation was found to be moderate, with no significant increase in studies or quality over time. Adherence to PRISMA guidelines and increased appraisal of SRs about breast augmentation using methodological assessment tools would further strengthen methodological quality and confidence in study findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asjof/ojab020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259036PMC
September 2021

Long non-coding RNAs and their targets as potential biomarkers in breast cancer.

IET Syst Biol 2021 Jul 15;15(5):137-147. Epub 2021 May 15.

Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences - ASAB, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Breast cancer is among the lethal types of cancer with a high mortality rate, globally. Its high prevalence can be controlled through improved analysis and identification of disease-specific biomarkers. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported as key contributors of carcinogenesis and regulate various cellular pathways through post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. The specific aim of this study was to identify the novel interactions of aberrantly expressed genetic components in breast cancer by applying integrative analysis of publicly available expression profiles of both lncRNAs and mRNAs. Differential expression patterns were identified by comparing the breast cancer expression profiles of samples with controls. Significant co-expression networks were identified through WGCNA analysis. WGCNA is a systems biology approach used to elucidate the pattern of correlation between genes across microarray samples. It is also used to identify the highly correlated modules. The results obtained from this study revealed significantly differentially expressed and co-expressed lncRNAs and their cis- and trans-regulating mRNA targets which include RP11-108F13.2 targeting TAF5L, RPL23AP2 targeting CYP4F3, CYP4F8 and AL022324.2 targeting LRP5L, AL022324.3, and Z99916.3, respectively. Moreover, pathway analysis revealed the involvement of identified mRNAs and lncRNAs in major cell signalling pathways, and target mRNAs expression is also validated through cohort data. Thus, the identified lncRNAs and their target mRNAs represent novel biomarkers that could serve as potential therapeutics for breast cancer and their roles could also be further validated through wet labs to employ them as potential therapeutic targets in future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/syb2.12020DOI Listing
July 2021

Commentary on: The Impact of Facial Asymmetry on the Surgical Outcome of Crooked Nose: A Case Control Study.

Authors:
Jamil Ahmad

Aesthet Surg J 2021 05;41(6):NP295-NP299

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjab023DOI Listing
May 2021

Commentary on: Five Year Safety and Satisfaction With the Lightweight Breast Implant.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjab154DOI Listing
March 2021

Petri Net modelling approach for analysing the behaviour of [inline-formula removed] and signalling pathways in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

IET Syst Biol 2020 12;14(6):350-367

Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited heart muscle disease that may result in arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden death. The hallmark pathological findings are progressive myocyte loss and fibro fatty replacement, with a predilection for the right ventricle. This study focuses on the adipose tissue formation in cardiomyocyte by considering the signal transduction pathways including [inline-formula removed] and regulation system. These pathways are modelled and analysed using stochastic petri nets (SPN) in order to increase our comprehension of ARVC and in turn its treatment regimen. The [inline-formula removed] model predicts that the dysregulation or absence of signalling, inhibition of dishevelled and elevation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 along with casein kinase I are key cytotoxic events resulting in apoptosis. Moreover, the SPN model demonstrates that the gene inhibited by protein in the event of endoplasmic reticulum stress due to action potential and increased amount of intracellular Ca which recovers the Ca homeostasis by phospholipase C, this event positively regulates the to suppress the mitochondrial apoptosis which causes ARVC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-syb.2020.0038DOI Listing
December 2020

The Safe Resumption of Elective Plastic Surgery in Accredited Ambulatory Surgery Facilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Aesthet Surg J 2020 Dec 23. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Background: On March 11, 2020 the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a worldwide pandemic resulting in an unprecedented shift in the Canadian health care system, where protection of an already overloaded health care system became a priority; all elective surgeries and non-essential activities were ceased. With the impact being less than predicted, on May 26, 2020, elective surgeries and non-essential activities were permitted to resume.

Objectives: To examine outcomes following elective aesthetic surgery and the impact on the Canadian health care system with the resumption of these services during the COVID-19 worldwide pandemic.

Methods: Data was collected in a prospective manner on consecutive patients undergoing elective plastic surgery procedures in six accredited ambulatory surgery facilities. Data included patient demographics, procedural characteristics, COVID-19 PCR test status, airway management and postoperative outcomes.

Results: 368 patients underwent elective surgical procedures requiring a general anesthetic. All 368 patients that underwent surgery were negative on pre visit screening. A COVID-19 PCR test was completed by 352 patients (95.7%) and all were negative. In the postoperative period, seven patients (1.9%) had complications, three patients (0.8%) required a hospital visit, and one patient (0.3%) required hospital admission. No patients or health care providers developed COVID-19 symptoms or had a positive test for COVID-19 within 30 days of surgery.

Conclusions: With appropriate screening and safety precautions, elective aesthetic plastic surgery can be performed in a manner that is safe for patients and health care providers and with a very low risk for accelerating virus transmission within the community.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799347PMC
December 2020

Evidence-Based Performance Measures for Rhinoplasty: A Multidisciplinary Performance Measure Set.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 02;147(2):222e-230e

From the Johns Hopkins Hospital; Fedok Plastic Surgery and Laser Center; the American Society of Plastic Surgeons; The Plastic Surgery Clinic; Westlake Dermatology and Cosmetic Surgery; The Center for Facial Restoration; the University of Pennsylvania; the University of Michigan; the University of Southern California; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School; the University of Wisconsin; private practice; Stanford University; Case Western Reserve University; TLKM Plastic Surgery; Yale School of Medicine; the University of California, Davis; and the Dallas Plastic Surgery Institute.

Summary: The American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery commissioned the multidisciplinary Rhinoplasty Performance Measure Development Work Group to identify and draft quality measures for the care of patients undergoing both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. One outcome measure and three process measures were identified. The outcome looked at patient satisfaction with rhinoplasty procedures. The process measures look at motivations and expectations of the procedure, airway assessment, and nonnarcotic shared decision-making strategies for pain management. All measures in this report were approved by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Quality and Performance Measures Work Group and Executive Committee, and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Rhinoplasty Society, and the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. The Work Group recommends the use of these measures for quality initiatives, Continuing Medical Education, Maintenance of Certification, Qualified Clinical Data Registry reporting, and national quality reporting programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000007598DOI Listing
February 2021

Hot Topics in Breast Surgery.

Clin Plast Surg 2021 Jan 3;48(1):131-139. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

The Plastic Surgery Clinic, 1421 Hurontario Street, Mississauga, Ontario L5G 3H5, Canada; Division of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Since the first implant-based breast surgeries were performed nearly 70 years ago, breast augmentation it has changed drastically. As understanding of breast augmentation has advanced, so too have the technologies and techniques used to improve results and minimize the risk of complications in breast implant surgery. This article reviews some of the novel techniques and technologies used today in breast augmentation surgery. How these tools and techniques will withstand the test of time remains to be seen, but they no doubt will add to the fascinating and ever-evolving history of breast augmentation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cps.2020.09.004DOI Listing
January 2021

Anti-Neuroinflammatory Potential of Polyphenols by Inhibiting NF-κB to Halt Alzheimer's Disease.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 ;27(3):402-414

King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irrevocable chronic brain disorder featured by neuronal loss, microglial accumulation, and progressive cognitive impairment. The proper pathophysiology of this life-threatening disorder is not completely understood and no exact remedies have been found yet. Over the last few decades, research on AD has mainly highlighted pathomechanisms linked to a couple of the major pathological hallmarks, including extracellular senile plaques made of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) made of tau proteins. Aβ can induce apoptosis, trigger an inflammatory response, and inhibit the synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus, which ultimately contributes to reducing cognitive functions and memory impairment. Recently, a third disease hallmark, the neuroinflammatory reaction that is mediated by cerebral innate immune cells, has become a spotlight in the current research area, assured by pre-clinical, clinical, and genetic investigations. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a cytokine producer, is significantly associated with physiological inflammatory proceedings and thus shows a promising candidate for inflammation- based AD therapy. Recent data reveal that phytochemicals, mainly polyphenol compounds, exhibit potential neuroprotective functions and these may be considered as a vital resource for discovering several drug candidates against AD. Interestingly, phytochemicals can easily interfere with the signaling pathway of NF-κB. This review represents the anti-neuroinflammatory potential of polyphenols as inhibitors of NF-κB to combat AD pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666201118092422DOI Listing
April 2021

Commentary on: Transitioning From Conventional Textured to Nanotextured Breast Implants: Our Early Experience and Modifications for Optimal Breast Augmentation Outcomes.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 01;41(2):196-199

Division of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa288DOI Listing
January 2021

Disease Detection in Plum Using Convolutional Neural Network under True Field Conditions.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Sep 28;20(19). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Agricultural Research Institute, Mingora Swat 19200, Pakistan.

The agriculture sector faces crop losses every year due to diseases around the globe, which adversely affect food productivity and quality. Detecting and identifying plant diseases at an early stage is still a challenge for farmers, particularly in developing countries. Widespread use of mobile computing devices and the advancements in artificial intelligence have created opportunities for developing technologies to assist farmers in plant disease detection and treatment. To this end, deep learning has been widely used for disease detection in plants with highly favorable outcomes. In this paper, we propose an efficient convolutional neural network-based disease detection framework in plum under true field conditions for resource-constrained devices. As opposed to the publicly available datasets, images used in this study were collected in the field by considering important parameters of image-capturing devices such as angle, scale, orientation, and environmental conditions. Furthermore, extensive data augmentation was used to expand the dataset and make it more challenging to enable robust training. Investigations of recent architectures revealed that transfer learning of scale-sensitive models like Inception yield results much better with such challenging datasets with extensive data augmentation. Through parameter quantization, we optimized the Inception-v3 model for deployment on resource-constrained devices. The optimized model successfully classified healthy and diseased fruits and leaves with more than 92% accuracy on mobile devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20195569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583767PMC
September 2020

Forensic and phylogenetic characterization of 15 autosomal STRs in Hazara population of Pakistan.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2020 Nov 8;47:101786. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Biotechnology, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta, Pakistan.

In the current study, 217 unrelated individuals of the Hazara population were genotyped for 15 autosomal short tandem repeats to generate parentage and forensic efficacy parameters. Hazaras belong to the Shi'a sect and are recognized by their Turko-Mogholi features. We found that D2S1338 was the most discriminatory locus with a maximum power of exclusion and high value of polymorphism information content. Whilst the Combined Power of Discrimination (CPD), Combined Matching Probability (CMP) and Combined Power of Exclusion (CPE) were 0.999999999999999, 2.76796338879E and 0.999999040733479 respectively. Furthermore, the pattern of genetic affinity with genetically assumed related populations was demonstrated through Heat Map and Phylogenetic analysis, which revealed a great level of genetic closeness of Hazaras with Mongol population and descendants of Genghis Khan. The resulting data can be used for forensic applications and anthropological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101786DOI Listing
November 2020

Neuroprotective role of polyphenols against oxidative stress-mediated neurodegeneration.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Nov 13;886:173412. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Besançon, France.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by disorders with progressive deterioration of the structure and/or function of neurons. Genetic mutations can lead to many NDs. Nevertheless, neurodegeneration can also take place due to several biological processes. The pathogenesis of several NDs including Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's (HD) diseases are associated with oxidative stress (OS). In order to maintain the normal functions of neurons, lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are important, since their increased levels can cause neuronal cell death. It has been found that OS-mediated neurodegeneration involves a number of events including mitochondrial dysfunction, Ca overload, and excitotoxicity. A growing number of studies are suggesting the benefit of using polyphenols for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Indeed, in order to treat most of the NDs, synthetic drugs are extensively used which are found to exert side effects in the course of the treatment. There is mounting evidence that researchers have identified several naturally-occurring chemical compounds in plants, which are used for the management of NDs. Overall, polyphenolic phytochemicals are safer in nature and have negligible side effects. In this article, we have focused on the potential efficacy of polyphenols such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin and methylated polyphenols berberine against the most common neurodegenerative disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173412DOI Listing
November 2020

Synthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by chemical and green methods and their antifungal activities against wheat rust.

Chemosphere 2020 Nov 10;258:127352. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan; Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The production of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) by green and ecofriendly methods has received consideration during the recent past. The present study summarized the comparative production of titanium dioxide (TiO) NPs by plant extracts of Trianthema portulacastrum (T2) and Chenopodium quinoa (T3) and by conventional chemical (sol-gel) method (T1). Synthesized TiO-NPs were examined by high-tech. techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transmission Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscope, SEM-EDS spot analysis and elemental mapping. Synthesized TiO-NPs were applied on wheat rust (Ustilago tritici) for the evaluation of their antifungal activity against toxic plant pathogens. XRD results confirmed the (2θ) peak at 25.3 related to 101 anatase form. EDS-spot analysis and elemental mapping confirms the formation of TiO-NPs by using these techniques. SEM secondary electrons (SEs) images demonstrated the nano range of particles in cluster form with fewer porous structures. The average size of all three TiO-NPs was found less than 15 nm. FT-IR analysis of all three TiO-NPs perfectly matched with the standard parameters. The NPs prepared by both sol-gel and green methods have a good antifungal response against U. tritici, and the green prepared TiO-NPs were found to have the best antifungal activity against wheat rust especially NPs synthesized with the extract of C. quinoa. Overall, green method can be used for the large scale and less toxic synthesis of TiO-NPs because of their wide range of environmental applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127352DOI Listing
November 2020

Deciphering the expression dynamics of ANGPTL8 associated regulatory network in insulin resistance using formal modelling approaches.

IET Syst Biol 2020 04;14(2):47-58

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (SEECS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan.

ANGPTL8 is a recently identified novel hormone which regulates both glucose and lipid metabolism. The increase in ANGPTL8 during compensatory insulin resistance has been recently reported to improve glucose tolerance and a part of cytoprotective metabolic circuit. However, the exact signalling entities and dynamics involved in this process have remained elusive. Therefore, the current study was conducted with a specific aim to model the regulation of ANGPTL8 with emphasis on its role in improving glucose tolerance during insulin resistance. The main contribution of this study is the construction of a discrete model (based on kinetic logic of René Thomas) and its equivalent Stochastic Petri Net model of ANGPTL8 associated Biological Regulatory Network (BRN) which can predict its dynamic behaviours. The predicted results of these models are in-line with the previous experimental observations and provide comprehensive insights into the signalling dynamics of ANGPTL8 associated BRN. The authors' results support the hypothesis that ANGPTL8 plays an important role in supplementing the insulin signalling pathway during insulin resistance and its loss can aggravate the pathogenic process by quickly leading towards Diabetes Mellitus. The results of this study have potential therapeutic implications for treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and are suggestive of its potential as a glucose-lowering agent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-syb.2019.0032DOI Listing
April 2020

Emerging promise of sulforaphane-mediated Nrf2 signaling cascade against neurological disorders.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 21;707:135624. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Chrono-Environnement Laboratory, UMR CNRS 6249, Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, Besançon, France. Electronic address:

Neurological disorders represent a great challenge and are the leading cause of death and disability globally. Although numerous complicated mechanisms are involved in the progressions of chronic and acute neurodegenerative disorders, most of the diseases share mutual pathogenic features such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, protein misfolding, excitotoxicity, and neuronal damage, all of these are the common targets of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling cascade. No cure has yet been discovered to tackle these disorders, so, intervention approaches targeting phytochemicals have been recommended as an alternative form of treatment. Sulforaphane is a sulfur-rich dietary phytochemical which has several activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor via multiple targets and various mechanisms. Given its numerous actions, sulforaphane has drawn considerable attention for neurological disorders in recent years. Nrf2 is one of the most crucial targets of sulforaphane which has potential in regulating the series of cytoprotective enzyme expressions that have neuroprotective, antioxidative, and detoxification actions. Neurological disorders are auspicious candidates for Nrf2-targeted treatment strategy. Sulforaphane protects various neurological disorders by regulating the Nrf2 pathway. In this article, we recapitulate current studies of sulforaphane-mediated Nrf2 activation in the treatment of various neurological disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135624DOI Listing
March 2020

Barriers to implementation of emergency obstetric and neonatal care in rural Pakistan.

PLoS One 2019 5;14(11):e0224161. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari, Pakistan.

Background: Recognizing the need for improving maternal and newborn care, the Punjab public health department (Pakistan) launched emergency obstetric neonatal care (EmONC) services under WHO guideline. Unfortunately, the program implementation is facing some serious problems. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to implementation of EmONC in district Bahawalnagar (Pakistan).

Methods: This study used sequential exploratory design. Specifically, a qualitative study was conducted to identify barriers to EmONC. Subsequently, the relative importance of these barriers was determined in a quantitative study. Participants were health service providers involved in 24-hours basic EmONC services in the basic health units of district Bahawalnagar (Pakistan). Qualitative data were gathered by interviewing the participants using key informant guide. Quantitative data were collected in a rank order survey of the same participants. The methodological quality was assessed using mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2011.

Results: The results indicate that lack of teamwork, conflict management, communication, and improper power distribution are important interpersonal barriers. The significant organizational-level barriers include job insecurity, lack of organizational culture, human resource deployment issues, and lack of role clarity. Lack of target management, lack of resource availability, house job requirement, and dual practice issues were identified as major system-level barriers.

Conclusion: Barriers to EmONC implementation must be addressed for improving maternal and neonatal care in district Bahawalnagar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224161PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830770PMC
April 2020

Posterior Vaginoplasty With Perineoplasty: A Canadian Experience With Vaginal Tightening Surgery.

Aesthet Surg J Open Forum 2019 Dec 15;1(4):ojz030. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto,, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Following vaginal trauma, most commonly vaginal delivery, women may experience vaginal laxity as a result of local tissue stretching and separation of the pelvic floor musculature. In addition to this generalized sensation of laxity, women may complain of decreased sexual satisfaction, gaping of the perineum, and excessive vaginal secretions. Since 2014, the authors have used a posterior vaginoplasty with perineoplasty technique for the surgical management of vaginal laxity. To date, the authors have performed surgical vaginal tightening in 30 consecutive patients and found that the posterior vaginoplasty with perineoplasty technique has allowed us to achieve reproducible outcomes with no postoperative complications. This article will review the authors' approach to patients presenting for surgical vaginal tightening and the authors' experience to date, including our preoperative screening, perioperative management, and detailed steps of the procedure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asjof/ojz030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780460PMC
December 2019

Response to "Periareolar Augmentation/Mastopexy: How Does it Measure Up?"

Aesthet Surg J 2019 10;39(11):NP455-NP457

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjz225DOI Listing
October 2019

Does Implant Surface Texture Affect the Risk of Capsular Contracture in Subglandular Breast Augmentation and Breast Augmentation-Mastopexy?

Aesthet Surg J 2020 04;40(5):499-512

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Previous studies have reported decreased rates of capsular contracture associated with the use of textured surface breast implants placed in the subglandular plane during breast augmentation. However, since the publication of these studies, our understanding of the pathophysiology of capsular contracture, as well as the surgical techniques utilized to minimize bacterial contamination of the implant, have advanced considerably.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate the relation between implant surface texturization and capsular contracture rates for breast implants placed in the subglandular plane during primary breast augmentation.

Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed of all primary subglandular breast augmentation procedures involving the use of either smooth or textured round silicone gel implants, with or without simultaneous mastopexy. The primary outcome measures included clinically significant capsular contracture (Baker grade III/IV) and revision surgery for capsular contracture.

Results: Between 2010 and 2017, 526 patients underwent primary subglandular breast augmentation with either smooth (n = 212) or textured (n = 314) round silicone gel implants; 248 patients underwent breast augmentation, whereas 278 underwent breast augmentation-mastopexy. Average follow-up was 756 days in the textured group and 461 days in the smooth group. Five cases of capsular contracture were observed in the textured group, and 7 cases of capsular contracture were observed in the smooth group (P = 0.20).

Conclusions: Smooth surface implants placed in the subglandular plane were not at a significantly increased risk of capsular contracture compared with textured surface implants. We suggest that adherence to a surgical technique focused on minimizing bacterial contamination of the implant is of greater clinical significance than implant surface characteristics when discussing capsular contracture.

Level Of Evidence: 4:
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjz241DOI Listing
April 2020

Formal model of the interplay between TGFβ1 and MMP-9 and their dynamics in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Math Biosci Eng 2019 04;16(5):3285-3310

Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) have been associated with migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies have suggested a positive feedback loop between TGFβ1 and MMP-9 mediated by the PI3K signaling pathway that confers acquired invasion and metastasis in HCC via induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which grows into invasive carcinoma. But the potential molecular mechanism of this loop on HCC has not been clarified yet. Therefore, this study is designed to explore the association between the two entities and their key determinants such as NFκB, TIMP-1, and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Hence, a qualitative modeling framework is implemented that predict the role of biological regulatory network (BRN) during recovery and HCC metastasis. Qualitative modeling predicts discrete trajectories, stable states, and cycles that highlight the paths leading to disease recovery and homeostasis, respectively. The deadlock stable state (1, 1, 1, 1, 1) predicts high expression of all the entities in the BRN, resulting in the progression of HCC. The qualitative model predicts 30 cycles representing significant paths leading to recovery and homeostasis and amongst these the most significant discrete cycle was selected based on the highest betweenness centralities of the discrete states. We further verified our model with network modeling and simulation analysis based on petri net modeling approach. The BRN dynamics were analyzed over time. The results implied that over the course of disease condition or homeostasis, the biological entities are activated in a variable manner. Taken together, our findings suggest that the TGFβ1 and the MMP-9 feedback loop is critical in tumor progression, as it may aid in the development of treatment strategies that are designed to target both TGFβ and MMP-9.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2019164DOI Listing
April 2019

Moringa oleifera and glycemic control: A review of current evidence and possible mechanisms.

Phytother Res 2019 Nov 19;33(11):2841-2848. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Malta, Msida, MSD, 2080, Malta.

Maintaining glycemic control in diabetes and prediabetes is necessary to prevent many health complications and mortality. Although different hypoglycemic drugs are used for this purpose, there is still a growing interest in the use of medicinal plants due to their low price, easy availability, and fewer or no side effects. Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used in the management of diabetes. This review aims to present the existing literature published until February 2019 on the role of moringa leaves in glycemia and their physiological mechanisms. In the conducted studies, moringa leaves have shown to reduce glycemia, without causing any adverse effects. The proposed mechanisms for reducing glycemia include inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, increased glucose uptake in the muscles and liver, inhibition of glucose uptake from the intestine, decreased gluconeogenesis in the liver, and increased insulin secretion and sensitivity. However, these studies are limited in numbers and mostly conducted in animals, in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, long-term human studies are required to determine the hypoglycemic effect of moringa leaves, their physiological mechanisms, active ingredients, and safety. Overall, this review provides evidence that moringa leaves have the possibility to be used as a glycemic control agent in diabetes and prediabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6473DOI Listing
November 2019

Commentary on: The Public's Perception on Breast and Nipple Reconstruction: A Crowdsourcing-Based Assessment.

Aesthet Surg J 2019 08;39(9):NP377-NP379

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjz015DOI Listing
August 2019

Two-dimensional transition metal carbide (TiCT) as an efficient adsorbent to remove cesium (Cs).

Dalton Trans 2019 Aug 15;48(31):11803-11812. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Chemistry Division, Directorate of Science, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad, 45650 Pakistan.

Industrial utilization of nuclear resources greatly depends on the effective treatment of nuclear waste. The efficient removal of radioactive nuclides from liquid effluents by using different adsorbents has thus become crucial. Herein, for the first time, two-dimensional transition metal carbides (MXenes) are investigated as scavengers of cesium (Cs) from contaminated water. Due to the combined advantages of the layered structure and the presence of heterogeneous sites (hydroxyl, oxygen and fluorine groups), the adsorbent reached the steady state within 1 min with the maximum Cs adsorption capacity of 25.4 mg g at room temperature. The kinetics studies of the Cs scavenging process demonstrated that the adsorption of Cs followed the pseudo-second-order model whereas the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic. The adsorbent showed an excellent Cs removal efficiency in neutral to slightly alkaline solutions. Moreover, it can retain Cs even in the presence of a high concentration of competing cations (Li, Na, K, Mg and Sr). The Cs loaded adsorbent was regenerated with a 0.2 M HCl solution and reused at least five times for over 91% removal of contaminants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt01965kDOI Listing
August 2019

Periareolar Augmentation-Mastopexy.

Aesthet Surg J 2019 08;39(9):953-965

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The authors describe their surgical technique for single-stage periareolar mastopexy with subglandular breast augmentation. They have performed this procedure in 85 patients since 2009 and found that this operative technique has allowed them to achieve reproducible outcomes in a single-stage procedure. Periareolar mastopexy with subglandular breast augmentation is an excellent procedure for patients who desire a larger breast size and who present with mild to moderate nipple ptosis with a paucity of excess skin in the lower pole of the breast. This article will review the perioperative management and detailed steps of the procedure and outline its indications for utilization and some of the common complications the authors have encountered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjz128DOI Listing
August 2019

Development and Validation of a Physical Activity Educational Module for Overweight and Obese Adolescents: CERGAS Programme.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 04 28;16(9). Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Nutritional Sciences Programme & Centre for Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Educational modules can be effective in educating and motivating adolescents to participate in physical activity (PA). This paper describes the development and validation of a PA educational module for use in an obesity intervention programme, CEria Respek Gigih Aktif Sihat (CERGAS). The present study was conducted in three phases: Phase I was composed of needs assessments with four focus group discussions to elicit adolescents' opinions regarding module content and design, Phase II was the development of the PA module, while Phase III was content and face validation. A content validity index (CVI) was used to assess content validity quantitatively, with a CVI of more than 0.79 being considered appropriate. The needs assessments indicated that content of interest to adolescents included: the benefits of exercise; exercise techniques; ways to increase PA and how to stay motivated. Attractive graphic design was determined as a way to draw the adolescents' attention. The module covered five topics: "Let's Be Active"; "Exercise and Fitness"; "Staying Safe during Exercise and Physical Activity"; "Planning for Success" and "How to Overcome Sedentariness and Get Moving". The module was found to have good content validity (mean CVI = 0.85). Expert members made suggestions to improve the module. These suggestions were then accepted, and the module was modified accordingly. We concluded that the module has good content validity and can be used to improve PA knowledge amongst CERGAS participants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539209PMC
April 2019
-->