Publications by authors named "Jamie Taylor"

31 Publications

A harmonised, high-coverage, open dataset of solar photovoltaic installations in the UK.

Sci Data 2020 11 13;7(1):394. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

The Alan Turing Institute, London, NW1 2DB, UK.

Solar photovoltaic (PV) is an increasingly significant fraction of electricity generation. Efficient management, and innovations such as short-term forecasting and machine vision, demand high-resolution geographic datasets of PV installations. However, official and public sources have notable deficiencies: spatial imprecision, gaps in coverage and lack of crucial meta data, especially for small-scale solar panel installations. We present the results of a major crowd-sourcing campaign to create open geographic data for over 260,000 solar PV installations across the UK, covering an estimated 86% of the capacity in the country. We focus in particular on capturing small-scale domestic solar PV, which accounts for a significant fraction of generation but was until now very poorly documented. Our dataset suggests nameplate capacities in the UK (as of September 2020) amount to a total of 10.66 GW explicitly mapped, or 13.93 GW when missing capacities are inferred. Our method is applied to the UK but applicable worldwide, and compatible with continual updating to track the rapid growth in PV deployment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00739-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666217PMC
November 2020

A Case Study of Eukaryogenesis: The Evolution of Photoreception by Photolyase/Cryptochrome Proteins.

J Mol Evol 2020 Nov 26;88(8-9):662-673. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Eukaryogenesis, the origin of the eukaryotes, is still poorly understood. Herein, we show how a detailed all-kingdom phylogenetic analysis overlaid with a map of key biochemical features can provide valuable clues. The photolyase/cryptochrome family of proteins are well known to repair DNA in response to potentially harmful effects of sunlight and to entrain circadian rhythms. Phylogenetic analysis of photolyase/cryptochrome protein sequences from a wide range of prokaryotes and eukaryotes points to a number of horizontal gene transfer events between ancestral bacteria and ancestral eukaryotes. Previous experimental research has characterised patterns of tryptophan residues in these proteins that are important for photoreception, specifically a tryptophan dyad, a canonical tryptophan triad, an alternative tryptophan triad, a tryptophan tetrad and an alternative tetrad. Our results suggest that the spread of the different triad and tetrad motifs across the kingdoms of life accompanied the putative horizontal gene transfers and is consistent with multiple bacterial contributions to eukaryogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-020-09965-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560933PMC
November 2020

The Pharmacy Student Population: Applications Received 2018-19, Degrees Conferred 2018-19, Fall 2019 Enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 07;84(7):ajpe8207

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Arlington, Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405301PMC
July 2020

Coordination Cost and Super-Efficiency in Teamwork: The Role of Communication, Psychological States, Cardiovascular Responses, and Brain Rhythms.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2020 12;45(4):323-341

School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Darwin Building 114, Preston, PR1 2HE, UK.

To advance knowledge on the psychophysiological markers of "coordination cost" in team settings, we explored differences in meta-communication patterns (i.e., silence, speaking, listening, and overlap), perceived psychological states (i.e., core affect, attention, efficacy beliefs), heart rate variability (i.e., RMSSD), and brain rhythms (i.e., alpha, beta and theta absolute power) across three studies involving 48 male dyads (Mage = 21.30; SD = 2.03). Skilled participants cooperatively played three consecutive FIFA-17 (Xbox) games in a dyad against the computer, or competed against the computer in a solo condition and a dyad condition. We observed that playing in a team, in contrast to playing alone, was associated with higher alpha peak and global efficiency in the brain and, at the same time, led to an increase in focused attention as evidenced by participants' higher theta activity in the frontal lobe. Moreover, we observed that overtime participants' brain dynamics moved towards a state of "neural-efficiency", characterized by increased theta and beta activity in the frontal lobe, and high alpha activity across the whole brain. Our findings advance the literature by demonstrating that (1) the notion of coordination cost can be captured at the neural level in the initial stages of team development; (2) by decreasing the costs of switching between tasks, teamwork increases both individuals' attentional focus and global neural efficiency; and (3) communication dynamics become more proficient and individuals' brain patterns change towards neural efficiency over time, likely due to team learning and decreases in intra-team conflict.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-020-09479-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644465PMC
December 2020

The Pharmacy Student Population: Applications Received 2017-18, Degrees Conferred 2017-18, Fall 2018 Enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2019 08;83(6):7658

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Arlington, Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6718495PMC
August 2019

Asymmetries of total arterial supply of cerebral hemispheres do not exist.

Heliyon 2019 Jan 9;5(1):e01086. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Adelaide Medical School, Biological and Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Research Unit, The University of Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Total blood supply to an organ, or its part, is proportional to its function. The aim of this project was to investigate whether there is a lateralisation of total functions of cerebral hemispheres by determining differences in the arterial blood supply to left and right cerebral hemispheres.

Methods: Diameters of right and left anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries were measured at specific sites and cross-sectional areas calculated in 203 adult brains (51 donated and dissected brain specimens and 152 cerebral arterial Computed Tomography Angiography and Magnetic Resonance Angiography images).

Findings: The sample size was large enough to provide a power of detecting as significant differences of 4%, but neither of the average cross-sectional areas of right anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries were significantly different from those of the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries of the left side. Furthermore, combined areas of the three right cerebral arteries were not significantly different from combined areas of the left three arteries. This clearly indicates that the blood supply into the right cerebral hemisphere is not different from that of the left cerebral hemisphere. Therefore, there is no total functional lateralisation between the two cerebral hemispheres.

Conclusion: Brain lateralisation, frequently discussed in the literature, does not deferentially influence the total activity levels of cerebral hemispheres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328356PMC
January 2019

The Pharmacy Student Population: Applications Received 2016-17, Degrees Conferred 2016-17, Fall 2017 Enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2018 08;82(6):7188

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Arlington, Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116875PMC
August 2018

The Pharmacy Student Population: Applications Received 2015-16, Degrees Conferred 2015-16, Fall 2016 Enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2017 Sep;81(7):S8

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Alexandria Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe817S8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663662PMC
September 2017

Density functional theory for dense nematic liquid crystals with steric interactions.

Phys Rev E 2017 Aug 7;96(2-1):022704. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240, USA.

The celebrated work of Onsager on hard particle systems, based on the truncated second order virial expansion, is valid at relatively low volume fractions for large aspect ratio particles. While it predicts the isotropic-nematic phase transition, it does not provide a realistic equation of state in that the pressure remains finite for arbitrarily high densities. In this work, we derive a mean field density functional form of the Helmholtz free energy for nematics with hard core repulsion. In addition to predicting the isotropic-nematic transition, the model provides a more realistic equation of state. The energy landscape is much richer, and the orientational probability distribution function in the nematic phase possesses a unique feature-it vanishes on a nonzero measure set in orientation space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.96.022704DOI Listing
August 2017

The cerebral basal arterial network: morphometry of inflow and outflow components.

J Anat 2017 Jun 29;230(6):833-841. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The aim of this project was to study how the morphology of the incoming and outgoing arterial components of the cerebral basal arterial network influence the blood flow to the brain. The cerebral basal arterial network consists of the circulus arteriosus cerebri anteriorly and the basilar artery posteriorly. Diameters of inflow vessels (bilateral vertebral and internal carotid arteries), connecting vessels (anterior communicating, basilar and bilateral posterior communicating arteries) and outflow vessels (anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries) were measured and cross-sectional areas calculated in 51 cadaveric brain specimens. The individual and the average cross-sectional areas of inflow arteries (51.43 mm ) were significantly bigger than the major outflow arteries (37.76 mm ) but smaller than the combined cross-sectional areas of outflow (37.76 mm ) and connecting (25.33 mm ) arteries. The difference in the size of arterial cross-sectional area and the presence of the connecting arteries in the cerebral basal arterial network provides a mechanism for lowering peaks in pressure, and demonstrates a function of the cerebral basal arterial network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5442140PMC
June 2017

The Pharmacy Student Population: Applications Received 2014-15, Degrees Conferred 2014-15, Fall 2015 Enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2016 Aug;80(6):S3

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Alexandria, Virginia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe806S3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5023992PMC
August 2016

The creation of a superstitious belief regarding putters in a laboratory-based golfing task.

Int J Sport Exerc Psychol 2015 Oct 25;13(4):335-343. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

TaylorMade-Adidas Golf , Jays Close, Viables Business Park, Basingstoke RG224BS , UK.

The objective was to determine the extent to which it was possible to induce superstitious behaviour and beliefs in a golf putting task in a laboratory. Participants ( = 28) took part in a putting task using three identical clubs in which visual feedback regarding performance was restricted. Participants were provided with verbal feedback of their performance, which was honest when they used one putter, negative with a second putter (they did better than they were told) and positive with a third (they did worse than they were told). After this initial acquisition phase, a competition was announced and participants were asked to select a putter they would like to use. The participants were then asked to rate various qualities of the putters. Significantly more participants selected the "positive" putter for the competition ( = 22) compared to the "negative" putter (= 1),  < .001. In addition, participants claimed that the positive putter had a better weight, was more comfortable and easier to use than the negative putter (all  < .001). Overall, this evidence can be taken to show that a superstitious belief can be formed in a short amount of time within a laboratory setting and that it can affect both the perceptions and choices of an individual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2014.982675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4725187PMC
October 2015

Real-time, portable genome sequencing for Ebola surveillance.

Authors:
Joshua Quick Nicholas J Loman Sophie Duraffour Jared T Simpson Ettore Severi Lauren Cowley Joseph Akoi Bore Raymond Koundouno Gytis Dudas Amy Mikhail Nobila Ouédraogo Babak Afrough Amadou Bah Jonathan Hj Baum Beate Becker-Ziaja Jan-Peter Boettcher Mar Cabeza-Cabrerizo Alvaro Camino-Sanchez Lisa L Carter Juiliane Doerrbecker Theresa Enkirch Isabel Graciela García Dorival Nicole Hetzelt Julia Hinzmann Tobias Holm Liana Eleni Kafetzopoulou Michel Koropogui Abigail Kosgey Eeva Kuisma Christopher H Logue Antonio Mazzarelli Sarah Meisel Marc Mertens Janine Michel Didier Ngabo Katja Nitzsche Elisa Pallash Livia Victoria Patrono Jasmine Portmann Johanna Gabriella Repits Natasha Yasmin Rickett Andrea Sachse Katrin Singethan Inês Vitoriano Rahel L Yemanaberhan Elsa G Zekeng Racine Trina Alexander Bello Amadou Alpha Sall Ousmane Faye Oumar Faye N'Faly Magassouba Cecelia V Williams Victoria Amburgey Linda Winona Emily Davis Jon Gerlach Franck Washington Vanessa Monteil Marine Jourdain Marion Bererd Alimou Camara Hermann Somlare Abdoulaye Camara Marianne Gerard Guillaume Bado Bernard Baillet Déborah Delaune Koumpingnin Yacouba Nebie Abdoulaye Diarra Yacouba Savane Raymond Bernard Pallawo Giovanna Jaramillo Gutierrez Natacha Milhano Isabelle Roger Christopher J Williams Facinet Yattara Kuiama Lewandowski Jamie Taylor Philip Rachwal Daniel Turner Georgios Pollakis Julian A Hiscox David A Matthews Matthew K O'Shea Andrew McD Johnston Duncan Wilson Emma Hutley Erasmus Smit Antonino Di Caro Roman Woelfel Kilian Stoecker Erna Fleischmann Martin Gabriel Simon A Weller Lamine Koivogui Boubacar Diallo Sakoba Keita Andrew Rambaut Pierre Formenty Stephan Gunther Miles W Carroll

Nature 2016 Feb 3;530(7589):228-232. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

The European Mobile Laboratory Consortium, Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany.

The Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa is the largest on record, responsible for over 28,599 cases and more than 11,299 deaths. Genome sequencing in viral outbreaks is desirable to characterize the infectious agent and determine its evolutionary rate. Genome sequencing also allows the identification of signatures of host adaptation, identification and monitoring of diagnostic targets, and characterization of responses to vaccines and treatments. The Ebola virus (EBOV) genome substitution rate in the Makona strain has been estimated at between 0.87 × 10(-3) and 1.42 × 10(-3) mutations per site per year. This is equivalent to 16-27 mutations in each genome, meaning that sequences diverge rapidly enough to identify distinct sub-lineages during a prolonged epidemic. Genome sequencing provides a high-resolution view of pathogen evolution and is increasingly sought after for outbreak surveillance. Sequence data may be used to guide control measures, but only if the results are generated quickly enough to inform interventions. Genomic surveillance during the epidemic has been sporadic owing to a lack of local sequencing capacity coupled with practical difficulties transporting samples to remote sequencing facilities. To address this problem, here we devise a genomic surveillance system that utilizes a novel nanopore DNA sequencing instrument. In April 2015 this system was transported in standard airline luggage to Guinea and used for real-time genomic surveillance of the ongoing epidemic. We present sequence data and analysis of 142 EBOV samples collected during the period March to October 2015. We were able to generate results less than 24 h after receiving an Ebola-positive sample, with the sequencing process taking as little as 15-60 min. We show that real-time genomic surveillance is possible in resource-limited settings and can be established rapidly to monitor outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817224PMC
February 2016

Statistical machine learning to identify traumatic brain injury (TBI) from structural disconnections of white matter networks.

Neuroimage 2016 Apr 28;129:247-259. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, The Australian e-Health & Research Centre, Herston, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Identifying diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting with normal appearing radiological MRI presents a significant challenge. Neuroimaging methods such as diffusion MRI and probabilistic tractography, which probe the connectivity of neural networks, show significant promise. We present a machine learning approach to classify TBI participants primarily with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on altered structural connectivity patterns derived through the network based statistical analysis of structural connectomes generated from TBI and age-matched control groups. In this approach, higher order diffusion models were used to map white matter connections between 116 cortical and subcortical regions. Tracts between these regions were generated using probabilistic tracking and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) measures along these connections were encoded in the connectivity matrices. Network-based statistical analysis of the connectivity matrices was performed to identify the network differences between a representative subset of the two groups. The affected network connections provided the feature vectors for principal component analysis and subsequent classification by random forest. The validity of the approach was tested using data acquired from a total of 179 TBI patients and 146 controls participants. The analysis revealed altered connectivity within a number of intra- and inter-hemispheric white matter pathways associated with DAI, in consensus with existing literature. A mean classification accuracy of 68.16%±1.81% and mean sensitivity of 80.0%±2.36% were achieved in correctly classifying the TBI patients evaluated on the subset of the participants that was not used for the statistical analysis, in a 10-fold cross-validation framework. These results highlight the potential for statistical machine learning approaches applied to structural connectomes to identify patients with diffusive axonal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.01.056DOI Listing
April 2016

Evidence for Skill Level Differences in the Thought Processes of Golfers During High and Low Pressure Situations.

Front Psychol 2015 7;6:1974. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

School of Psychology, Bournemouth UniversityBournemouth, UK; Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, Victoria UniversityMelbourne, Australia.

Two studies examined differences in the cognition of golfers with differing levels of expertise in high and low pressure situations. In study 1, six high skill and six low skill golfers performed six holes of golf, while verbalizing their thoughts using Think Aloud (TA) protocol. Higher skilled golfers' cognitive processes centered more on planning in comparison to lower skilled golfers. Study 2 investigated whether thought processes of golfers changed in response to competitive pressure. Eight high skill and eight moderate skilled golfers, completed a practice round and a competition round whilst verbalizing thoughts using TA. To create pressure in the competition condition, participants were instructed that monetary prizes would be awarded to the top three performers and scores of all golfers would be published in a league table in the club house. When performing under competitive pressure, it was found that higher skilled golfers were more likely to verbalize technical rules compared to practice conditions, especially during putting performance. This shift in cognition toward more technical aspects of motor performance was strongly related to scores on the Decision Specific Reinvestment Scale, suggesting individuals with a higher propensity for reinvestment show the largest changes in cognition under pressure. From a practical perspective, TA can aid a player, coach or sport psychologist by allowing thought processes to be identified and investigate a performer's thoughts when faced with the pressure of a competition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4703827PMC
January 2016

The Pharmacy Student Population: Applications Received 2013-14, Degrees Conferred 2013-14, Fall 2014 Enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2015 Jun;79(5):S3

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Alexandria VA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe795S3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571050PMC
June 2015

Examination of the suitability of collecting in event cognitive processes using Think Aloud protocol in golf.

Front Psychol 2015 28;6:1083. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Centre for Behavioural Change, Psychology Department, Bournemouth University Bournemouth, UK ; Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, Victoria University Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Two studies examined the use of Think Aloud (TA) protocol as a means for collecting data of cognitive processes during performance in golf. In Study 1, TA was employed to examine if different verbalisation (Level 2 or Level 3 TA) instructions influence performance of high and low skilled golfers. Participants performed 30 putts using TA at either Levels 2, 3, or no verbalization condition. Although Level 3 verbalization produced a higher volume of verbal data than Level 2, TA at either Level 2 or 3 did not impair putting performance compared to no verbalization. Study 2 examined the congruence between data collected via TA at Level 3 and cued retrospective recall of cognitive processes during golf performance. Experienced golfers performed six holes of golf whilst engaging in Level 3 TA. After performance, three semi-structured retrospective interviews were conducted (10 min after performance, 24 h after performance and 48 h after performance). A comparison of the themes identified large discrepancies between the information reported during TA and at interview, with only 38-41% similarity in variables reported to influence decision making on each hole. Both studies suggest TA is a valuable method for recording cognitive processes of individuals during task performance. TA provides richer verbal data regarding decisions than cued retrospective recall, and TA does not negatively impact performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4516813PMC
August 2015

The pharmacy student population: applications received 2012-13, degrees conferred 2012-13, fall 2013 enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2014 Sep;78(7):S2

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Alexandria, VA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe787S2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4174387PMC
September 2014

The pharmacy student population: applications received 2011-12, degrees conferred 2011-12, fall 2012 enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2013 Aug;77(6):S3

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Alexandria, Virginia, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe776S3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748317PMC
August 2013

The pharmacy student population: applications received 2010-11, degrees conferred 2010-11, fall 2011 enrollments.

Am J Pharm Educ 2012 Aug;76(6):S2

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Alexandria, VA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe766S2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3425934PMC
August 2012

Reality bites: a case of severe rattlesnake envenomation.

J Intensive Care Med 2013 Sep-Oct;28(5):314-9. Epub 2012 May 15.

Department Fellow of Internal Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Rattlesnake venoms can cause a wide range of adverse human health effects. However, with the availability of modern antivenin, toxicity can generally be minimized and controlled. We present a rare case of rattlesnake envenomation resulting in severe systemic effects and syndrome relapse. Management considerations and patient course are described in the context of the current literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066612446415DOI Listing
April 2014

The medial sural artery as recipient vessel and the impact on the medial gastrocnemius.

Ann Plast Surg 2011 Oct;67(4):382-6

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Microsurgical free tissue transfer is a valuable technique for the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects around the knee, and the medial sural artery (MSA) is an ideal recipient vessel for anastomosis. Previously, the vessel has been described as the dominant supply to the medial gastrocnemius, but no research has addressed the subsequent effect to the muscle after interruption of MSA. The volume of the postoperative medial gastrocnemius of 4 patients treated with free flap reconstruction using MSA as recipient, was assessed clinically and using magnetic resonance imaging, with muscle function assessed using a patient questionnaire, and measurement of ankle torque with concurrent electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging volume assessment revealed the postoperative medial head of gastrocnemius proportional to its synergist of separate blood supply, the lateral gastrocnemius and functional assessment suggest little difference between limbs such that the MSA should be used with confidence as recipient vessel for free flap reconstruction of soft-tissue defects around the knee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0b013e318209a761DOI Listing
October 2011

To Treat or to Palliate? A Case of Endocarditis, Severe Sepsis, and Advanced Cancer.

J Intensive Care Med 2011 Jan 21. Epub 2011 Jan 21.

Department of Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066610393302DOI Listing
January 2011

A painful HIT.

J Intensive Care Med 2011 Sep-Oct;26(5):335-40. Epub 2011 Jan 10.

Department of Anesthesia, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066610393843DOI Listing
June 2015

The average pathlength map: a diffusion MRI tractography-derived index for studying brain pathology.

Neuroimage 2011 Mar 13;55(1):133-41. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

The University of Queensland, Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, Australia.

Magnetic resonance diffusion tractography provides a powerful tool for the assessment of white matter architecture in vivo. Quantitative tractography metrics, such as streamline length, have successfully been used in the study of brain pathology. To date, these studies have relied on a priori knowledge of which tracts are affected by injury or pathology and manual delineation of regions of interest (ROIs) for use as waypoints in tractography. This limits the analyses to specific tracts under investigation and relies on the accurate and consistent placement of ROIs. We present a fully automated technique for the voxel-wise analysis of streamline length within the entire brain, the Average Pathlength Map (APM). We highlight the precision and reproducibility of voxel-wise average streamline length over time, and assess normal variability of pathlength values in a cohort of 43 healthy participants. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of this approach by performing voxel-wise comparison between pathlength values obtained from a patient with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, Glasgow Coma Scale Score=7) and those from control participants. Our analysis shows that voxel-wise average pathlength values are comparable to fractional anisotropy (FA) in terms of reproducibility and variability. For the TBI patient, we observed a significant reduction in streamline pathlength in the genu of the corpus callosum and its projections into the frontal lobe. This study demonstrates that the average pathlength map can be used for voxel-based analysis of a quantitative tractography metric within the whole brain, removing both the dependence on a priori knowledge of affected pathways and time-consuming manual delineation of ROIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.12.010DOI Listing
March 2011

An automated strategy for the delineation and parcellation of commissural pathways suitable for clinical populations utilising high angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography.

Neuroimage 2010 Apr 14;50(3):1044-53. Epub 2010 Jan 14.

Centre for Magnetic Resonance, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

There is a growing interest in understanding alterations to the interhemispheric transfer of information as a result of brain injury and neurological disease. To facilitate research, we have developed a fully automated method for the accurate extraction of commissural pathways (corpus callosum (CC) and anterior commissure (AC)) and functional parcellation of the CC using a high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) based probabilistic tractography approach that is applicable to clinical populations. The CC was divided into 33 functional divisions based on its connections to cortical parcellations derived from individual structural images in 8 healthy participants. Probabilistic CC population maps acquired at two different b-values (1000 s mm(-2) and 3000 s mm(-2)) are presented. Topography of the CC was consistent with histology reports. We show that HARDI data acquired at a higher b-value reveals more callosal-temporal connections than low b-value data. With respect to intra-subject precision, data acquired using a higher b-value show superior reproducibility of the delineated CC area on the midsagittal plane (MSP), as well as the total number of callosal streamlines and the number of clustered callosal streamlines. The AC was delineated in all 8 participants using high b-value HARDI tractography. Cortical projections of the AC were analysed and are in agreement with known anatomy. We conclude that, while data acquired at a lower b-value may be used, this is associated with a loss in quality, both in the delineation of commissural pathways and, potentially, the reproducibility of results over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.01.020DOI Listing
April 2010

Can a broken heart be fixed?

J Intensive Care Med 2009 Sep-Oct;24(5):338-43. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066609340525DOI Listing
January 2010

Genetic counseling practice analysis.

J Genet Couns 2009 Jun 11;18(3):205-16. Epub 2009 Mar 11.

American Board of Genetic Counseling, Olathe, KS, USA.

The American Board of Genetic Counseling (ABGC) performed a genetic counseling practice analysis (PA) to determine the content of the certification examination. The ABGC-appointed PA Advisory Committee worked with psychometricians to develop a survey which was distributed to 2,038 genetic counselors in the United States and Canada. The survey was also accessible on the ABGC website. Multiple criteria were used to establish the significance of the tasks included in the survey. A total of 677 responses were used in the analysis, representing a 37.1% corrected response rate. Five major content domains with 143 tasks were identified in the PA. New certification test specifications were developed on the basis of PA results and will be used in developing future examination forms. In keeping with credentialing standards, ABGC plans to conduct a PA on a regular basis so that the content of the examination reflects current practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10897-009-9216-1DOI Listing
June 2009

Stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness: gender, type of sport, and skill differences.

J Sports Sci 2007 Nov;25(13):1521-30

Department of Psychology, University of Hull, Hull, UK.

The aim of this study was to examine stressors, coping, and coping effectiveness as a function of gender, type of sport, and skill. The sample consisted of 749 undergraduate athletes (455 males, 294 females) aged 18-38 years (mean= 19.8 years). Skill was classified as international/national, county, university, and club standard. Participants completed a stressor and coping concept map (Novak & Gowin, 1984). The results revealed gender, type of sport, and skill differences in relation to stressor frequencies, coping strategy deployment, and coping effectiveness. In contrast to previous research, females used a variety of problem-focused (e.g. planning, communication, technique-orientated coping) strategies more frequently than males. Team sport athletes reported a variety of sport-specific stressors relating to the demands of playing in a team environment. The group of national/international athletes reported using more planning, blocking, and visualization, and also reported that their coping was more effective than that of less-skilled athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410701230479DOI Listing
November 2007

Early investigation and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea after acute stroke.

J Clin Neurosci 2007 Apr 21;14(4):328-33. Epub 2006 Jun 21.

Department of Neurology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000.

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension, which is a major cause of stroke. The prevalence and associations of OSA in a cohort of stroke patients were studied. The safety and tolerability of early treatment with nasal continuous airways pressure (nCPAP) was also assessed. Consecutive subjects admitted with acute stroke were assessed clinically, radiologically and with scales assessing prior OSA risk, dysphagia and disability. Sleep studies were performed within the first few days of admission using a portable diagnostic system. Twenty-nine of 55 (53%) subjects had evidence of OSA, using an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 10 or greater. The AHI was significantly associated with an index of prior OSA symptoms, but not with history of hypertension, degree of dysphagia, or type and severity of stroke. Use of a portable diagnostic system for detecting OSA in the acute stroke setting was well tolerated. OSA is common after acute stroke and exceeds rates seen in control populations of similar age (53% vs. 11%). Early treatment with nCPAP was effective and well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2006.01.017DOI Listing
April 2007