Publications by authors named "Jamie Henningson"

50 Publications

Experimental Infection of North American Sheep with .

Pathogens 2021 Apr 9;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center of Excellence for Vector-Borne Diseases (CEVBD), Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

, a tick-borne rickettsial, causes heartwater in ruminants resulting from vascular damage. Severity of heartwater varies greatly in ruminant species and breeds, age of animals and for diverse geographic . strains. and a tick vector, , originating from Africa, are well established in certain Caribbean islands two centuries ago. Besides the possibility of introduction of heartwater through African exotic animal importation, presence of the pathogen, and the tick vector in the Caribbean pose a high risk to ruminants in the USA and other western hemisphere countries. Scientific evidence supporting the heartwater threat to nonendemic regions, however, is lacking. We describe the first infection study in sheep reared in the USA with seven strains. All infected sheep exhibited clinical signs characteristic of subacute to subclinical disease, which included labored breathing, depression, coughing, and nasal discharges. Gross and microscopic lesions consistent with heartwater disease including edema and hemorrhage were observed in several organs. Pathogen-specific IgG antibody response was detected in animals infected with all seven strains, while molecular analysis confirmed the pathogen presence only when infected with in vitro cultures. This is the first infection study demonstrating severe heartwater in sheep reared in North America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070521PMC
April 2021

Data standardization implementation and applications within and among diagnostic laboratories: integrating and monitoring enteric coronaviruses.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 May 19;33(3):457-468. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Every day, thousands of samples from diverse populations of animals are submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) for testing. Each VDL has its own laboratory information management system (LIMS), with processes and procedures to capture submission information, perform laboratory tests, define the boundaries of test results (i.e., positive or negative), and report results, in addition to internal business and accounting applications. Enormous quantities of data are accumulated and stored within VDL LIMSs. There is a need for platforms that allow VDLs to exchange and share portions of laboratory data using standardized, reliable, and sustainable information technology processes. Here we report concepts and applications for standardization and aggregation of data from swine submissions to multiple VDLs to detect and monitor porcine enteric coronaviruses by RT-PCR. Oral fluids, feces, and fecal swabs were the specimens submitted most frequently for enteric coronavirus testing. Statistical algorithms were used successfully to scan and monitor the overall and state-specific percentage of positive submissions. Major findings revealed a consistently recurrent seasonal pattern, with the highest percentage of positive submissions detected during December-February for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine deltacoronavirus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). After 2014, very few submissions tested positive for TGEV. Monitoring VDL data proactively has the potential to signal and alert stakeholders early of significant changes from expected detection. We demonstrate the importance of, and applications for, data organized and aggregated by using LOINC and SNOMED CTs, as well as the use of customized messaging to allow inter-VDL exchange of information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10406387211002163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120076PMC
May 2021

Experimental re-infected cats do not transmit SARS-CoV-2.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):638-650

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 and responsible for the current global pandemic. We and others have previously demonstrated that cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can efficiently transmit the virus to naïve cats. Here, we address whether cats previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 can be re-infected with SARS-CoV-2. In two independent studies, SARS-CoV-2-infected cats were re-challenged with SARS-CoV-2 at 21 days post primary challenge (DPC) and necropsies performed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-secondary challenge (DP2C). Sentinels were co-mingled with the re-challenged cats at 1 DP2C. Clinical signs were recorded, and nasal, oropharyngeal, and rectal swabs, blood, and serum were collected and tissues examined for histologic lesions. Viral RNA was transiently shed via the nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal cavities of the re-challenged cats. Viral RNA was detected in various tissues of re-challenged cats euthanized at 4 DP2C, mainly in the upper respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues, but less frequently and at lower levels in the lower respiratory tract when compared to primary SARS-CoV-2 challenged cats at 4 DPC. Viral RNA and antigen detected in the respiratory tract of the primary SARS-CoV-2 infected cats at early DPCs were absent in the re-challenged cats. Naïve sentinels co-housed with the re-challenged cats did not shed virus or seroconvert. Together, our results indicate that cats previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 can be experimentally re-infected with SARS-CoV-2; however, the levels of virus shed was insufficient for transmission to co-housed naïve sentinels. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats induces immune responses that provide partial, non-sterilizing immune protection against re-infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1902753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023599PMC
December 2021

Near-Complete Genome Sequences of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Isolates from the 2020 Outbreak in Kansas.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Feb 18;10(7). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA

Here, we report the near-complete genome sequences of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotype Indiana isolates from the 2020 U.S. outbreak. The sequences were obtained from swabs collected from Kansas horses in July and August. The four genome sequences help improve our understanding of VSV outbreak dynamics in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01454-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892671PMC
February 2021

Angioinvasive lymphoma (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) in a cat, with cutaneous and ocular metastasis.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Mar 10;33(2):340-344. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare variant of an angioinvasive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder that primarily affects the lungs, with common sites of metastasis including the skin and subcutis. In humans, it is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our case is a 7-y-old, spayed female, domestic longhair cat that decompensated and was euthanized following an initial diagnosis of angioinvasive lymphoma from a skin biopsy. Autopsy revealed nodules in the lungs and subcutis, and corneal thickening and cloudiness. Histologic examination of cutaneous nodules, lungs, and eye showed similar angioinvasive cellular infiltrates and pattern to that of the original skin biopsy, consistent with a diagnosis of LYG. The neoplastic cells displayed CD3-positive immunoreactivity in the skin, eye, and lung, and PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) showed T-cell clonality in all tissues tested. This is the third case of LYG to be reported in cats and is the only case in which PARR analysis and immunophenotyping immunohistochemical staining was performed. LYG with ocular involvement has not been reported previously in cats, to our knowledge. Our case demonstrates the necessity for considering LYG when presented with a cat with respiratory signs in conjunction with subcutaneous nodules and ocular lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638721990119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953099PMC
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):2322-2332

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and responsible for the current pandemic. Recent SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility studies in cats show that the virus can replicate in these companion animals and transmit to other cats. Here, we present an in-depth study of SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats. Cats were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 via intranasal and oral routes. One day post challenge (DPC), two sentinel cats were introduced. Animals were monitored for clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and viral shedding. examinations were performed at 4, 7 and 21 DPC. Viral RNA was not detected in blood but transiently in nasal, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as various tissues. Tracheobronchoadenitis of submucosal glands with the presence of viral RNA and antigen was observed in airways of the infected cats. Serology showed that both, principals and sentinels, developed antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. All animals were clinically asymptomatic during the course of the study and capable of transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to sentinels. The results of this study are critical for understanding the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 in a naturally susceptible host species, and for risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1833687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594869PMC
December 2020

Susceptibility of swine cells and domestic pigs to SARS-CoV-2.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):2278-2288

Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic consequences. The susceptibility of different animal species to SARS-CoV-2 is of concern due to the potential for interspecies transmission, and the requirement for pre-clinical animal models to develop effective countermeasures. In the current study, we determined the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to (i) replicate in porcine cell lines, (ii) establish infection in domestic pigs via experimental oral/intranasal/intratracheal inoculation, and (iii) transmit to co-housed naïve sentinel pigs. SARS-CoV-2 was able to replicate in two different porcine cell lines with cytopathic effects. Interestingly, none of the SARS-CoV-2-inoculated pigs showed evidence of clinical signs, viral replication or SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses. Moreover, none of the sentinel pigs displayed markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data indicate that although different porcine cell lines are permissive to SARS-CoV-2, five-week old pigs are not susceptible to infection via oral/intranasal/intratracheal challenge. Pigs are therefore unlikely to be significant carriers of SARS-CoV-2 and are not a suitable pre-clinical animal model to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis or efficacy of respective vaccines or therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1831405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594707PMC
December 2020

Susceptibility of swine cells and domestic pigs to SARS-CoV-2.

bioRxiv 2020 Aug 16. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in an ongoing global pandemic with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic consequences. The susceptibility of different animal species to SARS-CoV-2 is of concern due to the potential for interspecies transmission, and the requirement for pre-clinical animal models to develop effective countermeasures. In the current study, we determined the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to (i) replicate in porcine cell lines, (ii) establish infection in domestic pigs via experimental oral/intranasal/intratracheal inoculation, and (iii) transmit to co-housed naive sentinel pigs. SARS-CoV-2 was able to replicate in two different porcine cell lines with cytopathic effects. Interestingly, none of the SARS-CoV-2-inoculated pigs showed evidence of clinical signs, viral replication or SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses. Moreover, none of the sentinel pigs displayed markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data indicate that although different porcine cell lines are permissive to SARS-CoV-2, five-week old pigs are not susceptible to infection via oral/intranasal/intratracheal challenge. Pigs are therefore unlikely to be significant carriers of SARS-CoV-2 and are not a suitable pre-clinical animal model to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis or efficacy of respective vaccines or therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.15.252395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430576PMC
August 2020

Prediction of seasonal patterns of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA detection in the U.S. swine industry.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2020 May 10;32(3):394-400. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (Trevisan, LCM Linhares, Crim, Dubey, Schwartz, Burrough, Wang, Main, DCL Linhares).

We developed a model to predict the cyclic pattern of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA detection by reverse-transcription real-time PCR (RT-rtPCR) from 4 major swine-centric veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States and to use historical data to forecast the upcoming year's weekly percentage of positive submissions and issue outbreak signals when the pattern of detection was not as expected. Standardized submission data and test results were used. Historical data (2015-2017) composed of the weekly percentage of PCR-positive submissions were used to fit a cyclic robust regression model. The findings were used to forecast the expected weekly percentage of PCR-positive submissions, with a 95% confidence interval (CI), for 2018. During 2018, the proportion of PRRSV-positive submissions crossed 95% CI boundaries at week 2, 14-25, and 48. The relatively higher detection on week 2 and 48 were mostly from submissions containing samples from wean-to-market pigs, and for week 14-25 originated mostly from samples from adult/sow farms. There was a recurring yearly pattern of detection, wherein an increased proportion of PRRSV RNA detection in submissions originating from wean-to-finish farms was followed by increased detection in samples from adult/sow farms. Results from the model described herein confirm the seasonal cyclic pattern of PRRSV detection using test results consolidated from 4 VDLs. Wave crests occurred consistently during winter, and wave troughs occurred consistently during the summer months. Our model was able to correctly identify statistically significant outbreak signals in PRRSV RNA detection at 3 instances during 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638720912406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377621PMC
May 2020

Development of a nested PCR assay for detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in clinical equine specimens and comparison with a qPCR assay.

J Microbiol Methods 2020 05 9;172:105887. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA. Electronic address:

Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is a Gram positive bacterial pathogen commonly associated with strangles in horses, a respiratory disease characterized by abscessation of submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes which can lead to obstruction of the airway. Several real-time PCR (qPCR) assays have been developed for detection of S. equi from horses with many targeting conserved regions of the S. equi cell wall-associated M-protein (SeM), a major virulence factor and immunogen of S. equi. Our objective was to develop a nested PCR (nPCR) targeting SeM and an 18S rRNA internal control gene for detection of S. equi from horses with potential improvement in detection sensitivity compared to a qPCR. Primers and probes from the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (KSVDL) S. equi clinical testing assay were utilized for all qPCR testing. Primers flanking the SeM qPCR target region were selected for an initial end-point PCR step of the nested assay; PCR product from the end-point reaction then served as template for the qPCR reaction step of the nested assay. Sample nucleic acid was also tested directly with qPCR to allow for assay comparison. Nucleic acid from clinical specimens (n = 188) submitted to KSVDL were tested in parallel with each assay. The nPCR and qPCR assays identified 22.9% (43/188) and 13.3% (25/188) of samples positive for S. equi, respectively. None of the samples positive by qPCR were negative by nPCR. The PCR products from all positive samples were submitted for DNA sequencing. Each of the 25 samples positive by both assays had a high nucleotide identity match (>96%) to the SeM gene. Among the samples positive by nPCR but negative by qPCR, 17 of 18 were sequence confirmed for SeM at greater than 96% nucleotide identity. Based on the nPCR Ct (37.8) of the one sequence un-confirmed case, it is likely that the S. equi bacterial load in this sample was below the necessary concentration for successful sequencing. Limit of detection (LOD) for the nPCR was established at a Ct of 37, and based both on the LOD of the qPCR assay (Ct of 37), as determined by standard curve data, and on the highest nPCR Cts (~37) of clinical samples able to result in SeM sequence-confirmation. As demonstrated by sequencing confirmation, the nPCR assay targeting the SeM gene is highly specific to S. equi. The increased sensitivity of the nPCR, compared to the qPCR, may reduce the number of false negative sample results in clinical testing and provide a superior detection method during low bacterial shedding periods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2020.105887DOI Listing
May 2020

Vitamin A deficiency impairs the immune response to intranasal vaccination and RSV infection in neonatal calves.

Sci Rep 2019 10 22;9(1):15157. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most prevalent nutrition-related health problems in the world and is a significant risk factor in the development of severe respiratory infections in infants and young children. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is a primary cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young cattle. The calf model of BRSV infection is useful to understand the immune response to human RSV infection. We have previously developed an amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticle (NP)-based vaccine (i.e., nanovaccine) encapsulating the fusion and attachment proteins from BRSV (BRSV-NP). Calves receiving a single, intranasal dose of the BRSV-NP vaccine are partially protected from BRSV challenge. Here, we evaluated the impact of VAD on the immune response to the BRSV-NP vaccine and subsequent challenge with BRSV. Our results show that VAD calves are unable to respond to the mucosal BRSV-NP vaccine, are afforded no protection from BRSV challenge and have significant abnormalities in the inflammatory response in the infected lung. We further show that acute BRSV infection negatively impacts serum and liver retinol, rendering even well-nourished individuals susceptible to VAD. Our results support the use of the calf model for elucidating the impact of nutritional status on mucosal immunity and respiratory viral infection in infants and underline the importance of VA in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51684-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805856PMC
October 2019

Macroepidemiological aspects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detection by major United States veterinary diagnostic laboratories over time, age group, and specimen.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(10):e0223544. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

This project investigates the macroepidemiological aspects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA detection by veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) for the period 2007 through 2018. Standardized submission data and PRRSV real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test results from porcine samples were retrieved from four VDLs representing 95% of all swine samples tested in NAHLN laboratories in the US. Anonymized data were retrieved and organized at the case level using SAS (SAS® Version 9.4, SAS® Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) with the use of PROC DATA, PROC MERGE, and PROC SQL scripts. The final aggregated and anonymized dataset comprised of 547,873 unique cases was uploaded to Power Business Intelligence-Power BI® (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) to construct dynamic charts. The number of cases tested for PRRSV doubled from 2010 to 2018, with that increase mainly driven by samples typically used for monitoring purposes rather than diagnosis of disease. Apparent seasonal trends for the frequency of PRRSV detection were consistently observed with a higher percentage of positive cases occurring during fall or winter months and lower during summer months, perhaps due to increased testing associated with well-known seasonal occurrence of swine respiratory disease. PRRSV type 2, also known as North American genotype, accounted for 94.76% of all positive cases and was distributed across the US. PRRSV type 1, also known as European genotype, was geographically restricted and accounted for 2.15% of all positive cases. Co-detection of both strains accounted for 3.09% of the positive cases. Both oral fluid and processing fluid samples, had a rapid increase in the number of submissions soon after they were described in 2008 and 2017, respectively, suggesting rapid adoption of these specimens by the US swine industry for PRRSV monitoring in swine populations. As part of this project, a bio-informatics tool defined as Swine Disease Reporting System (SDRS) was developed. This tool has real-time capability to inform the US swine industry on the macroepidemiological aspects of PRRSV detection, and is easily adaptable for other analytes relevant to the swine industry.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223544PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6795434PMC
March 2020

A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of five bovine pinkeye pathogens.

J Microbiol Methods 2019 05 29;160:87-92. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States; Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States. Electronic address:

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as pinkeye, is one of the most common eye diseases in cattle. Several pathogens have been associated with IBK cases, however, Moraxella bovis, Moraxella bovoculi, Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovoculi and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are most frequently observed. A multiplex real-time PCR assay using two reactions was developed for the detection and differentiation of these five pathogens. Detection sensitivities of the multiplex assays were compared to singleplex reactions testing for the same targets. Correlation coefficients (R) of >0.99, and PCR efficiencies between 92 and 106% were demonstrated in all singleplex and multiplex real-time PCR reactions. The limits of detection (LOD) of multiplex assays for Moraxella bovis, Moraxella bovoculi, Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma bovoculi and BHV-1 were 19, 23, 25, 24 and 26 copies per reaction, respectively. No cross amplification was observed for specificity testing of 179 IBK positive clinical samples and 55 non-target clinical samples. Percentage of clinical samples positive for Mycoplasma bovoculi, Moraxella bovoculi, Moraxella bovis, BHV-1 and Mycoplasma bovis were 88.8% (159/179), 75.9% (136/179), 60.3% (108/179), 11.7% (21/179) and 10.0% (18/179), respectively. Moraxella bovis, Moraxella bovoculi and Mycoplasma bovoculi were more prevalent than Mycoplasma bovis and BHV-1 in IBK samples collected from animals in this study population. Our data indicates that the multiplex real-time PCR panel assay is highly sensitive and highly specific for the detection and differentiation of the five major pathogens associated with bovine pinkeye.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2019.03.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7114150PMC
May 2019

Identification and evaluation of antivirals for Rift Valley fever virus.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Mar 29;230:110-116. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address:

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever (RVF) that affects both livestock and humans. There are neither fully licensed RVF vaccines available for human or animal use, nor effective antiviral drugs approved for human use in the U.S. To identify antiviral compounds effective for RVF, we developed and employed a cell-based high-throughput assay using a recombinant RVFV MP-12 strain, which expresses Renilla luciferase in place of the NSs protein, to screen 727 small compounds purchased from the National Institutes of Health. Twenty-three compounds were initially identified using the screening assay. Two compounds, 6-azauridine and mitoxantrone, also inhibited the replication of the parental MP-12 strain encoding the NSs gene, with limited cytotoxic effects. The respective 50% inhibitory concentrations were 29.07 μM and 79.85 μM when tested with the parental MP-12 strain at a multiplicity of infection of 2. The compounds were further evaluated using the STAT-1 KO mouse model. At one hour post intranasal inoculation of MP-12 strain, mice were intranasally treated with each indicated compound twice daily. Mice treated with either placebo or 6-azauridine displayed severe weight loss and reached the threshold for euthanasia with obvious neurologic symptoms. Onset of disease was, however, delayed in mice treated with either ribavirin or mitoxantrone. The results indicated that mitoxantrone can reduce the severity of diseases in RVFV-infected mice. Our studies build the foundation for the initial screening and efficacy studies of RVF antivirals in a BSL-2 environment, avoiding the higher risks of BSL-3 exposure with wild-type virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.01.027DOI Listing
March 2019

Rickettsia rickettsii Whole-Cell Antigens Offer Protection against Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Canine Host.

Infect Immun 2019 02 24;87(2). Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Center of Excellence for Vector-Borne Diseases, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University (CVM-KSU), Manhattan, Kansas, USA

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a potentially fatal tick-borne disease in people and dogs. RMSF is reported in the United States and several countries in North, Central, and South America. The causative agent of this disease, , is transmitted by several species of ticks, including , , and RMSF clinical signs generally include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, lack of appetite, and rash. If untreated, it can quickly progress into a life-threatening illness in people and dogs, with high fatality rates ranging from 30 to 80%. While RMSF has been known for over a century, recent epidemiological data suggest that the numbers of documented cases and the fatality rates remain high in people, particularly during the last two decades in parts of North America. Currently, there are no vaccines available to prevent RMSF in either dogs or people. In this study, we investigated the efficacies of two experimental vaccines, a subunit vaccine containing two recombinant outer membrane proteins as recombinant antigens (RCA) and a whole-cell inactivated antigen vaccine (WCA), in conferring protection against virulent infection challenge in a newly established canine model for RMSF. Dogs vaccinated with WCA were protected from RMSF, whereas those receiving RCA developed disease similar to that of nonvaccinated -infected dogs. WCA also reduced the pathogen loads to nearly undetected levels in the blood, lungs, liver, spleen, and brain and induced bacterial antigen-specific immune responses. This study provides the first evidence of the protective ability of WCA against RMSF in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00628-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346123PMC
February 2019

Pyogranulomatous obliterative laryngotracheitis by Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae) in a free-ranging Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis.

Dis Aquat Organ 2018 Sep;130(2):153-158

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 1800 Denison Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of fungal hyphate infection in a juvenile female Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis found dead off Arguineguin, Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). On necropsy examination, the animal had a large cranial intrathoracic mass and multiple variably-sized nodules throughout the larynx and trachea that obliterated the lumen. Microscopically, the masses were composed of abundant pyogranulomatous inflammation with numerous fungal hyphae. These were pauciseptate (coenocytic) and had non-parallel walls, non-dichotomous irregular to right angle branching, and bulbous dilations. PCR analysis from these inflammatory foci yielded Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae). This fungal pathogen is often ascribed to opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed humans and animals. In the present case, a potential cause for immunosuppression was not identified; PCR analysis for cetacean morbillivirus was negative. Herein, we report the first confirmed case of R. arrhizus infection in a free-living Atlantic cetacean. These findings add to the body of knowledge on fungal disease in cetaceans in general and, in particular, in odontocetes, where respiratory involvement is common.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03268DOI Listing
September 2018

Amount of skin shrinkage affecting tumor versus grossly normal marginal skin of dogs for cutaneous mast cell tumors excised with curative intent.

Am J Vet Res 2018 Jul;79(7):779-786

OBJECTIVE To assess differences in skin shrinkage between grossly visible tumor and grossly normal marginal skin of dogs for cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) excised with curative intent and to determine an equation to estimate postexcisional gross tumor margins from preexcisional measurements and vice versa. SAMPLE 19 cytologically confirmed and surgically excised cutaneous MCTs obtained from dogs. PROCEDURES Tumors were measured in craniocaudal and dorsoventral directions before excision, immediately after excision, and after fixation in formalin. Both grossly visible tumor and surrounding grossly normal skin that comprised the surgical margin were measured at each time point. Percentage of shrinkage was compared among time points and between the tumor and surrounding grossly normal skin. Patient and histopathologic variables were correlated to skin shrinkage. RESULTS Overall shrinkage was 17.70%. The amount of shrinkage within the grossly visible tumor (4.45%) was less than that within the surrounding grossly normal skin (24.42%). Most of the shrinkage occurred immediately after excision. There was no effect of age, sex, completeness of excision, or degree of edema. Accuracy of an equation to estimate postexcisional margins from preexcisional measurements was only 18.4%. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Grossly evident MCTs of dogs shrunk less than did the grossly normal surrounding skin. Although an equation to estimate postexcisional margins from preexcisional measurements could be derived, it likely would need to contain additional variables not included in the study reported here. Until such an equation exists, care must be used when extrapolating surgical margins from histologic margins and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.79.7.779DOI Listing
July 2018

Toward the development of a one-dose classical swine fever subunit vaccine: antigen titration, immunity onset, and duration of immunity.

J Vet Sci 2018 May;19(3):393-405

Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Highly contagious classical swine fever (CSF) remains a major trade and health problem in the pig industry, resulting in large economic losses worldwide. In CSF-endemic countries, attenuated CSF virus (CSFV) vaccines have been routinely used to control the disease. However, eradication of CSFV in a geographical area would require permanent reduction to zero presence of the virus. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a safe, potent, and non-infectious CSF vaccine. We have previously reported on a cost-effective CSF E2 subunit vaccine, KNB-E2, which can protect against CSF symptoms in a single dose containing 75 µg of recombinant CSFV glycoprotein E2. In this study, we report on a series of animal studies undertaken to elucidate further the efficacy of KNB-E2. We found that pigs vaccinated with a single KNB-E2 dose containing 25 µg of recombinant CSFV glycoprotein E2 were protected from clinical symptoms of CSF. In addition, KNB-E2-mediated reduction of CSF symptoms was observed at two weeks post-vaccination and the vaccinated pigs continued to exhibit reduced CSF clinical signs when virus challenged at two months and four months post-vaccination. These results suggest that KNB-E2 effectively reduces CSF clinical signs, indicating the potential of this vaccine for safely minimizing CSF-related losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2018.19.3.393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974521PMC
May 2018

Efficacy of mucosal polyanhydride nanovaccine against respiratory syncytial virus infection in the neonatal calf.

Sci Rep 2018 02 14;8(1):3021. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA, USA.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is closely related to HRSV and a significant cause of morbidity in young cattle. BRSV infection in calves displays many similarities to RSV infection in humans, including similar age dependency and disease pathogenesis. Polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have shown promise as adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles due to their ability to promote enhanced immunogenicity through the route of administration, provide sustained antigen exposure, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity. Here, we developed a novel, mucosal nanovaccine that encapsulates the post-fusion F and G glycoproteins from BRSV into polyanhydride nanoparticles and determined the efficacy of the vaccine against RSV infection using a neonatal calf model. Calves receiving the BRSV-F/G nanovaccine exhibited reduced pathology in the lungs, reduced viral burden, and decreased virus shedding compared to unvaccinated control calves, which correlated with BRSV-specific immune responses in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Our results indicate that the BRSV-F/G nanovaccine is highly immunogenic and, with optimization, has the potential to significantly reduce the disease burden associated with RSV infection in both humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21292-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5813012PMC
February 2018

Receptor tyrosine kinase expression and phosphorylation in canine nasal carcinoma.

Res Vet Sci 2017 Dec 29;115:484-489. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine & Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, 1800 Dennison Ave., Manhattan, KS 66506, United States. Electronic address:

Preliminary studies have supported use of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) in treatment of canine nasal carcinomas, though the mechanisms of its activity are unknown. This study evaluated sixteen canine nasal carcinoma and five normal nasal epithelium samples for expression and phosphorylation of known targets of toceranib [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGR2), platelet derived growth factor alpha (PDGFR-α), platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-β), and stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT)] and epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR1) using immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) phosphorylation panel. Protein for VEGFR2 was expressed in all carcinomas, PDGFR-α was noted in 15/16, whereas PDGFR-β was detected in 3/16 samples, but showed significant stromal staining. Protein expression for c-KIT was present in 4/16 and EGFR1 was noted in 14/16 samples. Normal tissue showed variable protein expression of the RTKs. Messenger RNA for VEGFR2, PDGFR-β, and c-KIT were noted in all samples. Messenger RNA for PDGFR-α and EGFR1 were detected in 15/16 samples. All normal nasal tissue detected messenger RNA. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2, PDGFR-α, PDGFR-β and c-KIT was not observed in any carcinoma or normal nasal sample, but phosphorylation of EGFR1 was noted in 10/16 carcinoma and 3/5 normal samples. The absence of phosphorylated RTK targets of toceranib suggests any clinical effect of toceranib occurs through inhibition of alternative unidentified RTK pathways in canine nasal carcinomas. The observed protein and message expression and phosphorylation of EGFR1 in the nasal carcinoma samples merits further inquiry into EGFR1 as a therapeutic target for this cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2017.07.030DOI Listing
December 2017

The impact of finasteride and dutasteride treatments on proliferation, apoptosis, androgen receptor, 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 in TRAMP mouse prostates.

Heliyon 2017 Jul 24;3(7):e00360. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Department of Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

Background: Previously, we studied the effect of finasteride- or dutasteride-containing diets in male C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB mice. Pre (6 weeks of age) and post (12 weeks of age) groups received finasteride or dutasteride to determine the efficacy of these pharmaceuticals on prostate cancer (PCa) development in male C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB mice. Post-Dutasteride treatment was more effective than Pre-Dutasteride treatment, and dutasteride treatments were more effective than finasteride treatments in decreasing prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) progression and PCa development. Finasteride and Pre-Dutasteride treatments significantly decreased high-grade PIN incidence, but increased poorly differentiated PCa incidence. In this study, molecular changes in prostates of these mice were characterized in an effort to elucidate the discordant response in Pre-Dutasteride and finasteride groups, and determine why Post-Dutasteride treatment was more effective.

Method/principal Findings: Ki-67 (proliferation marker) and androgen receptor (AR) protein, apoptotic DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), 5α-reductase 1 (5αR1) and 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) mRNA were quantified in male TRAMP mice prostate tissues with genitourinary weight < 1 and > 1 gram. Overall, proliferation and AR were decreased and apoptosis was increased in most tumors versus prostate epithelium and hyperplasia. Proliferation and AR were increased notably in hyperplasia versus prostate epithelium and tumor. There were no clear trends or differences in 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 levels between large and small tumors. The discordant response in Pre-Finasteride and Pre-Dutasteride groups may be due to upregulated 5αR1 levels in large versus small tumors. It is not clear what the mechanism is for the different response in the Post-Finasteride group. Post-Dutasteride treatment was more effective than Pre-Dutasteride treatment in decreasing 5αR1 in large tumors. Therefore, this may be why this treatment was more effective in decreasing PIN progression and PCa development.

Conclusion: The effect of finasteride and dutasteride on these biomarkers did not clearly elucidate their mechanism of action, but tumor 5αR1 levels were significantly positively correlated with adjusted prostate severe lesion score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526468PMC
July 2017

5α-reductase 1 mRNA levels are positively correlated with TRAMP mouse prostate most severe lesion scores.

PLoS One 2017 11;12(5):e0175874. Epub 2017 May 11.

Department of Food, Nutrition, Dietetics and Health, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States of America.

Background: The contribution of 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 to prostate cancer development and progression is not clearly understood. TRAMP mice are a common prostate cancer model, in which 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 expression levels, along with prostate lesions scores, have not been investigated at different time points to further understand prostate carcinogenesis.

Method/principal Findings: To this end, 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-week-old male C57BL/6TRAMP x FVB mice prostate most severe and most common lesion scores, 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 in situ hybridization expression, and Ki-67, androgen receptor, and apoptosis immunohistochemistry levels were measured. Levels of these markers were quantified in prostate epithelium, hyperplasia, and tumors sections. Mice developed low- to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia at 8 weeks as the most severe and most common lesions, and moderate- and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia at 12 and 16 weeks as the most severe lesion in all lobes. Moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was observed at 20 weeks in all lobes. Poorly differentiated carcinoma was not observed in any lobe until 12-weeks-old. 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2 were not significantly decreased in tumors compared to prostate epithelium and hyperplasia in all groups, while proliferation, apoptosis, and androgen receptor were either notably or significantly decreased in tumors compared with prostate epithelium and hyperplasia in most or all groups. Prostate 5αR1 levels were positively correlated with adjusted prostate most severe lesion scores.

Conclusion: Downregulation of androgen receptor and 5α-reductase 2, along with upregulation of 5α-reductase 1 in tumors may promote prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0175874PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5426600PMC
September 2017

Experimental acute infection of alpacas with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subgenotype b alters peripheral blood and GALT leukocyte subsets.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Mar 6;29(2):186-192. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (Topliff, Alkheraif, Steffen, Henningson, Kelling) and Department of Statistics (Eskridge), University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen in cattle and alpacas ( Vicugna pacos), causing acute and persistent BVDV infections. We characterized the effect of acute BVDV infection on the immune system of alpacas by determining lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as serum interferon levels. Alpacas were experimentally infected with BVDV-1b (strain CO-06). Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 d postinfection (dpi), and leukocytes of GALT at 9 dpi, and evaluated using flow cytometry. Serum interferon levels were determined daily. Flow cytometric analyses of peripheral blood leukocytes showed a significant decrease in CD4+, CD8+, and αβ T-lymphocytes at 3 dpi. CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased, and activated lymphocytes were significantly decreased in the C3-stomach region in BVDV-infected alpacas. Serum interferon concentrations significantly increased in BVDV-infected alpacas at 3-6 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Our study confirms that BVDV can be a primary acute pathogen in alpacas and that it induces an interferon response and alters leukocyte subset populations. The changes in the proportion of T-lymphocytes during the early stages of BVDV infection may result in transient immunosuppression that may contribute to secondary bacterial and viral infections, similar to cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638717690015DOI Listing
March 2017

Impacts of different expressions of PA-X protein on 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses.

Virology 2017 04 29;504:25-35. Epub 2017 Jan 29.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address:

Although several studies have investigated the functions of influenza PA-X, the impact of different expressions of PA-X protein including full-length, truncated or PA-X deficient forms on virus replication, pathogenicity and host response remains unclear. Herein, we generated two mutated viruses expressing a full-length or deficient PA-X protein based on the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) virus that expresses a truncated PA-X to understand three different expressions of PA-X protein on virus replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses. The results showed that expression of either full-length or truncated PA-X protein enhanced viral replication and pathogenicity as well as reduced host innate immune response in mice by host shutoff activity when compared to the virus expressing the deficient PA-X form. Furthermore, the full-length PA-X expression exhibited a greater effect on virus pathogenicity than the truncated PA-X form. Our results provide novel insights of PA-X on viral replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2017.01.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5651993PMC
April 2017

An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge.

Vet Microbiol 2017 Feb 21;199:47-53. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA.

Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought to investigate the efficacy of an inactivated IDV vaccine. Vaccinated calves seroconverted with hemagglutination inhibition titers 137-169 following two doses. Non-vaccinated calves challenged with a homologous virus exhibited signs of mild respiratory disease from days four to ten post challenge which was significantly different than negative controls at days five and nine post challenge. Peak viral shedding of approximately 5 TCID/mL was measured in nasal and tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids four to six days post challenge. Viral titers were significantly (P<0.05) decreased 1.4 TCID/mL, 3.6 TCID/mL and 5.0 TCID/mL, respectively, in the aforementioned samples collected from vaccinated animals compared to non-vaccinated controls at peak shedding. Viral antigen was detected in the respiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates and trachea by immunohistochemistry from all unvaccinated calves but in significantly fewer vaccinates. Inflammation characterized by neutrophils was observed in the nasal turbinate and trachea but not appreciably in lungs. Together these results support an etiologic role for IDV in BRD and demonstrate that partial protection is afforded by an inactivated vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117347PMC
February 2017

Effects of PB1-F2 on the pathogenicity of H1N1 swine influenza virus in mice and pigs.

J Gen Virol 2017 01;98(1):31-42

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.

Although several studies have exploited the effects of PB1-F2 in swine influenza viruses, its contribution to the pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of PB1-F2 on the pathogenicity of influenza virus using a virulent H1N1 A/swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07) virus, which expresses a full-length PB1-F2, in mice and pigs. Using reverse genetics, we generated the wild-type KS07 (KS07_WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (KS07_K/O) and its N66S variant (KS07_N66S). KS07_K/O showed similar pathogenicity in mice to the KS07_WT, whereas KS07_N66S displayed enhanced virulence when compared to the other two viruses. KS07_WT exhibited more efficient replication in lungs and nasal shedding in infected pigs than the other two viruses. Pigs infected with the KS07_WT had higher pulmonary levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-8 at 3 and 5 days post-infection, as well as lower levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 at 1 day post-infection compared to those infected with the KS07_K/O. These results indicate that PB1-F2 modulates KS07 H1N1 virus replication, pathogenicity and innate immune responses in pigs and the single substitution at position 66 (N/S) in the PB1-F2 plays a critical role in virulence in mice. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the effects of PB1-F2 on the virulence of influenza virus in swine and support PB1-F2 as a virulence factor of influenza A virus in a strain- and host-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5797944PMC
January 2017

Mouse model for the Rift Valley fever virus MP12 strain infection.

Vet Microbiol 2016 Nov 21;195:70-77. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address:

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a Category A pathogen and select agent, is the causative agent of Rift Valley fever. To date, no fully licensed vaccine is available in the U.S. for human or animal use and effective antiviral drugs have not been identified. The RVFV MP12 strain is conditionally licensed for use for veterinary purposes in the U.S. which was excluded from the select agent rule of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The MP12 vaccine strain is commonly used in BSL-2 laboratories that is generally not virulent in mice. To establish a small animal model that can be used in a BSL-2 facility for antiviral drug development, we investigated susceptibility of six mouse strains (129S6/SvEv, STAT-1 KO, 129S1/SvlmJ, C57BL/6J, NZW/LacJ, BALB/c) to the MP12 virus infection via an intranasal inoculation route. Severe weight loss, obvious clinical and neurologic signs, and 50% mortality was observed in the STAT-1 KO mice, whereas the other 5 mouse strains did not display obvious and/or severe disease. Virus replication and histopathological lesions were detected in brain and liver of MP12-infected STAT-1 KO mice that developed the acute-onset hepatitis and delayed-onset encephalitis. In conclusion, the STAT-1 KO mouse strain is susceptible to MP12 virus infection, indicating that it can be used to investigate RVFV antivirals in a BSL-2 environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.009DOI Listing
November 2016

Pigs immunized with a novel E2 subunit vaccine are protected from subgenotype heterologous classical swine fever virus challenge.

BMC Vet Res 2016 Sep 9;12(1):197. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA.

Background: Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera is a highly contagious swine viral disease. CSF endemic countries have to use routine vaccination with modified live virus (MLV) vaccines to prevent and control CSF. However, it is impossible to serologically differentiate MLV vaccinated pigs from those infected with CSF virus (CSFV). The aim of this study is to develop a one-dose E2-subunit vaccine that can provide protection against CSFV challenge. We hypothesize that a vaccine consisting of a suitable adjuvant and recombinant E2 with natural conformation may induce a similar level of protection as the MLV vaccine.

Results: Our experimental vaccine KNB-E2 was formulated with the recombinant E2 protein (Genotype 1.1) expressed by insect cells and an oil-in-water emulsion based adjuvant. 10 pigs (3 weeks old, 5 pigs/group) were immunized intramuscularly with one dose or two doses (3 weeks apart) KNB-E2, and 10 more control pigs were administered normal saline solution only. Two weeks after the second vaccination, all KNB-E2 vaccinated pigs and 5 control pigs were challenged with 5 × 10(5) TCID50 CSFV Honduras/1997 (Genotype 1.3, 1 ml intramuscular, 1 ml intranasal). It was found that while control pigs infected with CSFV stopped growing and developed high fever (>40 °C), high level CSFV load in blood and nasal fluid, and severe leukopenia 3-14 days post challenge, all KNB-E2 vaccinated pigs continued to grow as control pigs without CSFV exposure, did not show any fever, had low or undetectable level of CSFV in blood and nasal fluid. At the time of CSFV challenge, only pigs immunized with KNB-E2 developed high levels of E2-specific antibodies and anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies.

Conclusions: Our studies provide direct evidence that pigs immunized with one dose KNB-E2 can be protected clinically from CSFV challenge. This protection is likely mediated by high levels of E2-specific and anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0823-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016919PMC
September 2016

Construction and characterization of a full-length cDNA infectious clone of emerging porcine Senecavirus A.

Virology 2016 10 25;497:111-124. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States; Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, United States. Electronic address:

A full-length cDNA infectious clone, pKS15-01-Clone, was constructed from an emerging Senecavirus A (SVA; strain KS15-01). To explore the potential use as a viral backbone for expressing marker genes, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged reporter virus (vKS15-01-EGFP) was generated using reverse genetics. Compared to the parental virus, the pKS15-01-Clone derived virus (vKS15-01-Clone) replicated efficiently in vitro and in vivo, and induced similar levels of neutralizing antibody and cytokine responses in infected animals. In contrast, the vKS15-01-EGFP virus showed impaired growth ability and induced lower level of immune response in infected animals. Lesions on the dorsal snout and coronary bands were observed in all pigs infected by parental virus KS15-01, but not in pigs infected with vKS15-01-Clone or vKS15-01-EGFP viruses. These results demonstrated that the infectious clone and EGFP reporter virus could be used as important tools in further elucidating the SVA pathogenesis and development of control measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2016.07.003DOI Listing
October 2016

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing H9 HA protects chickens against heterologous avian influenza H9N2 virus challenge.

Vaccine 2016 05 18;34(23):2537-45. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address:

In order to produce an efficient poultry H9 avian influenza vaccine that provides cross-protection against multiple H9 lineages, two Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain recombinant viruses were generated using reverse genetics. The recombinant NDV-H9Con virus expresses a consensus-H9 hemagglutinin (HA) that is designed based on available H9N2 sequences from Chinese and Middle Eastern isolates. The recombinant NDV-H9Chi virus expresses a chimeric-H9 HA in which the H9 ectodomain of A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 was fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domain of the fusion protein (F) of NDV. Both recombinant viruses expressed the inserted HA stably and grew to high titers. An efficacy study in chickens showed that both recombinant viruses were able to provide protection against challenge with a heterologous H9N2 virus. In contrast to the NDV-H9Chi virus, the NDV-H9Con virus induced a higher hemagglutination inhibition titer against both NDV and H9 viruses in immunized birds, and efficiently inhibited virus shedding through the respiratory route. Moreover, sera collected from birds immunized with either NDV-H9Con or NDV-H9Chi were able to cross-neutralize two different lineages of H9N2 viruses, indicating that NDV-H9Con and NDV-H9Chi are promising vaccine candidates that could provide cross-protection among different H9N2 lineage viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556941PMC
May 2016