Publications by authors named "James Scott Rankin"

2 Publications

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Minimally invasive aortic valve repair using geometric ring annuloplasty.

J Card Surg 2022 Jan 20;37(1):70-75. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Klinikum Nürnberg Cardiovascular Center, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany.

Objectives: As aortic valve repair (AVr) for aortic insufficiency (AI) expands, minimally invasive (Mi) approaches are increasingly being applied. Cardiac surgical techniques can be more difficult through small incisions, and this report analyzes medium-term outcomes for MiAVr facilitated by geometric ring annuloplasty.

Methods: Since 2013, 58 patients were selected for AVr through upper sternotomy third-interspace incisions. The average age was 58.9 ± 15.4 (mean ± SD) years, 71% were male, and preoperative AI grade was 3.6 ± 0.8. Sixty-two percent (36/58) had a proximal aortic replacement for ascending aortic aneurysms (n = 26) and/or remodeling grafts for aortic root aneurysms (n = 10). Annuloplasty rings were placed subannularly (69% trileaflet; 31% bicuspid), and leaflet procedures were performed in 70%. The average ring diameter was 21.6 ± 1.4 mm, and the average aortic clamp time was 113 ± 35 min.

Results: After repair, AI grade fell to an average of 0.5 ± 0.6 (p < .0001), with a mean valve gradient of 12.5 ± 7.1 mmHg. No operative mortalities or major complications occurred. Three patients required reoperations for bleeding, and two had pacemakers. At an average follow-up of 38 months (maximal 88 months), three late deaths and no valve-related complications were observed. Four patients required reoperative aortic valve replacement over follow-up, and Kaplan-Meier survival and freedom from reoperation both exceeded 80% at 88 months. At the last follow-up, the average AI grade was 0.7 ± 0.7, and the mean valve gradient was 12.7 ± 6.3 mmHg.

Conclusions: Geometric ring annuloplasty was safe and seemed to facilitate performing AVr ± proximal aortic replacement through Mi incisions. Hemodynamic improvements were significant, medium-term clinical outcomes were acceptable, and results could improve further with experience.
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January 2022

Risk stratification and prognostic effects of internal thoracic artery grafting during acute myocardial infarction.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2013 Jul 26;146(1):78-84. Epub 2012 Jun 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Baptist Memorial Hospital, Memphis, Tenn, USA.

Objective: Surgeons are occasionally requested to perform coronary artery bypass grafting during acute myocardial infarction. We intended to test the safety of coronary artery bypass grafting and internal thoracic artery grafting early after myocardial infarction using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database.

Methods: The database was queried for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting less than 24 hours after a myocardial infarction from 2002 to 2008. By using multivariable logistic regression and classification trees, risk models were created to stratify this group of patients. The independent prognostic effect of internal thoracic artery grafting was examined using standard risk-adjusted mortality comparisons.

Results: A total of 44,141 patients were identified, with an overall operative mortality of 7.9%. Cardiogenic shock occurred in 21%, percutaneous coronary intervention within 6 hours before surgery was performed in 11%, myocardial infarction within 6 hours before surgery occurred in 37%, preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump was used in 50%, and internal thoracic artery grafting was performed in 79% of the patients. Myocardial infarction in less than 24 hours was associated with higher operative mortality (odds ratio, 3.25) and major morbidity (odds ratio, 2.54). Emergency/salvage status (odds ratio, 6.43), age more than 80 years (odds ratio, 4.07), dialysis (odds ratio, 3.08), and cardiogenic shock (odds ratio, 2.79) were independent mortality predictors. Patients with nonemergence salvage status, absence of cardiogenic shock, creatinine less than 1.5 mg/dL, and age less than 70 years represented 48% of the population and exhibited a lower mortality rate of 2%. Internal thoracic artery grafting was independently associated with a lower risk of mortality (odds ratio, 0.52; P < .0001) and did not seem to compromise outcomes.

Conclusions: Coronary artery bypass grafting less than 24 hours after myocardial infarction carries a higher operative risk but can be performed safely in selected patients. Although confounding variables may exist, internal thoracic artery grafting was associated with improved outcomes. Internal thoracic artery use in this setting is less than ideal, and taking time to harvest internal thoracic artery grafts in patients with acute myocardial infarction might be encouraged.
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July 2013