Publications by authors named "James S Patterson"

8 Publications

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Under pressure: phenotypic divergence and convergence associated with microhabitat adaptations in Triatominae.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 8;14(1):195. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: Triatomine bugs, the vectors of Chagas disease, associate with vertebrate hosts in highly diverse ecotopes. It has been proposed that occupation of new microhabitats may trigger selection for distinct phenotypic variants in these blood-sucking bugs. Although understanding phenotypic variation is key to the study of adaptive evolution and central to phenotype-based taxonomy, the drivers of phenotypic change and diversity in triatomines remain poorly understood.

Methods/results: We combined a detailed phenotypic appraisal (including morphology and morphometrics) with mitochondrial cytb and nuclear ITS2 DNA sequence analyses to study Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations from across the species' range. We found three major, naked-eye phenotypic variants. Southern-Andean bugs primarily from vertebrate-nest microhabitats (Ecuador/Peru) are typical, light-colored, small bugs with short heads/wings. Northern-Andean bugs from wet-forest palms (Ecuador) are dark, large bugs with long heads/wings. Finally, northern-lowland bugs primarily from dry-forest palms (Ecuador) are light-colored and medium-sized. Wing and (size-free) head shapes are similar across Ecuadorian populations, regardless of habitat or phenotype, but distinct in Peruvian bugs. Bayesian phylogenetic and multispecies-coalescent DNA sequence analyses strongly suggest that Ecuadorian and Peruvian populations are two independently evolving lineages, with little within-lineage phylogeographic structuring or differentiation.

Conclusions: We report sharp naked-eye phenotypic divergence of genetically similar Ecuadorian R. ecuadoriensis (nest-dwelling southern-Andean vs palm-dwelling northern bugs; and palm-dwelling Andean vs lowland), and sharp naked-eye phenotypic similarity of typical, yet genetically distinct, southern-Andean bugs primarily from vertebrate-nest (but not palm) microhabitats. This remarkable phenotypic diversity within a single nominal species likely stems from microhabitat adaptations possibly involving predator-driven selection (yielding substrate-matching camouflage coloration) and a shift from palm-crown to vertebrate-nest microhabitats (yielding smaller bodies and shorter and stouter heads). These findings shed new light on the origins of phenotypic diversity in triatomines, warn against excess reliance on phenotype-based triatomine-bug taxonomy, and confirm the Triatominae as an informative model system for the study of phenotypic change under ecological pressure .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04647-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034103PMC
April 2021

Phylogenetic multi-locus codon models and molecular clocks reveal the monophyly of haematophagous reduviid bugs and their evolution at the formation of South America.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2010 Aug 7;56(2):608-21. Epub 2010 May 7.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

We previously constructed a single molecular clock to date insect evolution that remains a cornerstone within entomological dating. The insect clock predicts that triatomine bugs, the vectors of South American trypanosomiasis, originated with the formation of South America. We addressed this hypothesis using the insectivorous reduviid bugs and their phylogenetic relationship with the haematophagous reduviid bugs, as well as their biogeographic distribution. Putative paraphyly or monophyly of Triatominae, by non-haematophagous reduviids, have both previously been hypothesized and identified. We sampled a broad range of predatory reduviids, viz. Ectrichodiinae, Emesinae, Hammacerinae, Harpactorinae, Reduviinae, Salyavatinae, Steniopodainae and Vesciinae, including both New World and Old World representatives and sequenced the nuclear 28S ribosomal gene locus and the mitochondrial loci 5' cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox1 [COI]), cox1 3', cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2 [COII]) and cytochrome oxidase b (cob [cytb]). Robust evidence for the monophyly of Triatominae was observed in 5/5 loci using codon/nucleotide (28S) based maximum likelihood phylogenies, 3/5 loci using codon-based Bayesian phylogenies and in cox2 using amino acid Bayesian phylogenies. Several South American members of the Reduviinae, that are morphologically and phylogenetically a sister group to triatomine bugs, have a modal divergence date with the Triatominae of 109-107 million years ago (MYA). This creates a scenario where the closest (non-haematophagous) ancestor to triatomine bugs evolved immediately prior to the breakup of Gondwanaland whilst the triatomine bugs evolved 95MYA, putatively linking the origin of haematophagous behaviour to the origin of South America and in particular infers a delayed onset to the evolution of haematophagy. The placement of the enigmatic tribe Bolboderini as an ingroup to the Triatominae monophyly, confirms the 95MYA node as the most ancient in the subfamily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.04.038DOI Listing
August 2010

On the genus Panstrongylus Berg 1879: evolution, ecology and epidemiological significance.

Acta Trop 2009 May-Jun;110(2-3):187-99. Epub 2008 Sep 20.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.

The genus Panstrongylus is currently composed of 13 species, several of which are involved in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to humans in South and Central America. Some species exhibit minor morphological differences possibly associated with adaptation to different silvatic ecotopes or domestic environments. We present a distillation of past and recent literature pertaining to the biology of this group. In particular, we summarise the current status of the genus according to systematic and recent phylogenetic studies. In light of recent evidence suggesting polyphyly/paraphyly of the genus we have investigated the possible mechanisms of morphological convergence/divergence. By assessing postembryonic ontogeny we reveal that the distinctive head shape of Panstrongylus can be derived from a Triatoma-like head late in development. A comprehensive phylogenetic study is therefore required to elucidate their relationship with Triatoma spp., and other genera of the tribe Triatomini. We also present a comparative summary of biology, ecology and epidemiological significance for each species in the genus. This reveals that knowledge of many species is fragmentary or lacking. This is mainly due to the fact that, except for few species with synanthropic traits (P. megistus and P. lignarius [formerly P. herreri]), important vectors of Chagas disease in Brazil and Peru, the majority are sylvatic species, associated with a wide variety of habitats and wild animals (many of them reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi). However, trends to invade human dwellings and to establish domestic colonies have been observed in several species in the genus (P. geniculatus, P. rufotuberculatus, P. lutzi, P. chinai), while others are opportunistic species (e.g. P. lignarius in the Amazon basin flying from wild ecotopes to houses on occasion without colonizing). Nevertheless, they can play some role in the transmission of sylvatic T. cruzi to humans. Research on the genus Panstrongylus requires some focus on investigating the natural ecology of these species. This knowledge would add to our understanding of their evolutionary potential and may assist in predicting new epidemiological scenarios, for which new control strategies need to be devised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.09.008DOI Listing
May 2009

Developmental buffering: how many genes?

Evol Dev 2007 Nov-Dec;9(6):525-6

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00193.xDOI Listing
January 2008

A single basis for developmental buffering of Drosophila wing shape.

PLoS One 2006 Dec 20;1:e7. Epub 2006 Dec 20.

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

The nature of developmental buffering processes has been debated extensively, based on both theoretical reasoning and empirical studies. In particular, controversy has focused on the question of whether distinct processes are responsible for canalization, the buffering against environmental or genetic variation, and for developmental stability, the buffering against random variation intrinsic in developmental processes. Here, we address this question for the size and shape of Drosophila melanogaster wings in an experimental design with extensively replicated and fully controlled genotypes. The amounts of variation among individuals and of fluctuating asymmetry differ markedly among genotypes, demonstrating a clear genetic basis for size and shape variability. For wing shape, there is a high correlation between the amounts of variation among individuals and fluctuating asymmetry, which indicates a correspondence between the two types of buffering. Likewise, the multivariate patterns of shape variation among individuals and of fluctuating asymmetry show a close association. For wing size, however, the amounts of individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry are not correlated. There was a significant link between the amounts of variation between wing size and shape, more so for fluctuating asymmetry than for variation among individuals. Overall, these experiments indicate a considerable degree of shared control of individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry, although it appears to differ between traits.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000007PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1762351PMC
December 2006

Origins of Chagas disease: Didelphis species are natural hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi I and armadillos hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi II, including hybrids.

Int J Parasitol 2005 Feb 22;35(2):225-33. Epub 2004 Dec 22.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK.

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has at least two principal intraspecific subdivisions, T. cruzi I (TCI) and T. cruzi II (TCII), the latter containing up to five subgroups (a-e). Whilst it is known that TCI predominates from the Amazon basin northwards and TCII to the South, where the disease is considered to be clinically more severe, the precise clinical and evolutionary significance of these divisions remains enigmatic. Here, we present compelling evidence of an association between TCI and opossums (Didelphis), and TCII and armadillos, on the basis of key new findings from the Paraguayan Chaco region, together with a comprehensive analysis of historical data. We suggest that the distinct arboreal and terrestrial ecologies, respectively, of these mammal hosts provide a persuasive explanation for the extant T. cruzi intraspecific diversity in South America, and for separate origins of Chagas disease in northern South America and in the southern cone countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.10.024DOI Listing
February 2005

Mixed domestic infestation by Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859 and Panstrongylus geniculatus Latreille, 1811, vector incrimination, and seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi among inhabitants in El Guamito, Lara State, Venezuela.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004 Oct;71(4):501-5

Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, BIOMED, Universidad de Carabobo, Núcleo Aragua, Apartado 4873, Maracay, Venezuela.

Mixed infestation of nymphs and adults of Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859 and Panstrongylus geniculatus Latreille, 1811 was detected in 3 (15%) of 20 dwellings in El Guamito, an endemic focus of Chagas disease in Lara State, Venezuela. In one of the houses, both species were positive for Trypanosoma cruzi: 14.3% (R. prolixus) and 20% (P. geniculatus ). The overall infection rate in 143 of 352 R. prolixus was 16.1%. Parasites isolated from R. prolixus were identified as T. cruzi I by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of 36 R. prolixus showed that 58.3% of the R. prolixus had fed on humans. The gut contents of one fifth-instar nymph of P. geniculatus that was positive for T. cruzi also reacted with anti-human serum. A questionnaire was used to gather data on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population. An indirect immunofluorescent test, an indirect hemaglutination test, and an ELISA were used to detect the presence of antibodies against T. cruzi in 84 of 86 inhabitants and in 15.5% of people more than 20 years old. The relative risk (RR) of infection was greater in men than in women (RR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.54-4.80). Of the people more than 15 years old, 36.6% had no formal education. All respondents recognized triatomine bugs, but they did not relate them to Chagas disease transmission. A total of 85.7% of the houses were "ranchos" suitable for the colonization of triatomine bugs. The possible domiciliation of P. geniculatus and the implications of competition with R. prolixus for resources are discussed. Since there is no clear separation of food sources, abiotic factors such as microclimatic variation within houses may be critical to predict the outcome of the process of competition and potential domestication of this generally sylvatic species.
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October 2004