Publications by authors named "James S Floyd"

59 Publications

Letter to the Editor re Beachler, et al, 2021.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.5342DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparative venous thromboembolic safety of oral and transdermal postmenopausal hormone therapies among women Veterans.

Menopause 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland Seattle Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development, Seattle, WA Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA Department of Health Systems Science, Kaiser Permanente Bernard J. Tyson School of Medicine, Pasadena, CA Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Objective: Hormone therapy (HT) is used by menopausal women to treat vasomotor symptoms. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important risk of HT use, and more knowledge on the comparative safety of different estrogenic compounds is useful for women who use HT for these symptoms. The objective was to compare the risk of VTE among users of oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), oral estradiol (E2), and transdermal E2, in a cohort of women veterans.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included all women veterans aged 40 to 89 years, using CEE or E2, without prior VTE, between 2003 and 2011. All incident VTE events were adjudicated. Time-to-event analyses using a time-varying HT exposure evaluated the relative VTE risk between estrogen subtypes, with adjustment for age, race, and body mass index, with stratification for prevalent versus incident use of HT.

Results: Among 51,571 users of HT (74.5% CEE, 12.6% oral, and 12.9% transdermal E2 at cohort entry), with a mean age of 54.0 years, the incidence of VTE was 1.9/1,000 person-years. Compared with CEE use, in the multivariable regression model, there was no difference in the risk of incident VTE associated with oral E2 use (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.64-1.46) or with transdermal E2 use (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.60-1.49). Results were unchanged when restricting to incident users of HT.

Conclusions: Among women veterans, the risk of VTE was similar in users of oral CEE, oral E2, and transdermal E2. These findings do not confirm the previously observed greater safety of transdermal and oral E2 over CEE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001823DOI Listing
July 2021

Longitudinal Measures of Blood Pressure and Subclinical Atrial Arrhythmias: The MESA and the ARIC Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jun 20;10(11):e020260. Epub 2021 May 20.

Cardiovascular Division Department of Medicine University of Minnesota Medical School Minneapolis MN.

Background High blood pressure (BP) is a well-known risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), but a single BP measurement may provide limited information about AF risk in older adults. Methods and Results This study included 1256 MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and 1948 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants who underwent extended ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and who were free of clinically detected cardiovascular disease, including AF. Using BP measurements from 6 examinations (2000-2018 in MESA and 1987-2017 in ARIC study), we calculated individual long-term mean, trend, and detrended visit-to-visit variability in systolic BP and pulse pressure for each participant. Outcomes, assessed at examination 6, included subclinical AF and supraventricular ectopy. Results from each study were combined with inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis. At examination 6, the mean age was 73 years in MESA and 79 years in ARIC study, and 4% had subclinical AF. Higher visit-to-visit detrended variability in systolic BP was associated with a greater prevalence of subclinical AF (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.38) and with more premature atrial contractions/hour (geometric mean ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15). For pulse pressure as well, higher visit-to-visit detrended variability was associated with a greater prevalence of AF (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.00-1.37). In addition, higher long-term mean pulse pressure was associated with a greater prevalence of subclinical AF (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.70). Conclusions Antecedent visit-to-visit variability in systolic BP and pulse pressure, but not current BP, is associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical atrial arrhythmias. Prior longitudinal BP assessment, rather than current BP, may be more helpful in identifying older adults who are at higher risk of atrial arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020260DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification and Validation of Anaphylaxis Using Electronic Health Data in a Population-based Setting.

Epidemiology 2021 05;32(3):439-443

Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction that is difficult to identify accurately with administrative data. We conducted a population-based validation study to assess the accuracy of ICD-10 diagnosis codes for anaphylaxis in outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient settings.

Methods: In an integrated healthcare system in Washington State, we obtained medical records from healthcare encounters with anaphylaxis diagnosis codes (potential events) from October 2015 to December 2018. To capture events missed by anaphylaxis diagnosis codes, we also obtained records on a sample of serious allergic and drug reactions. Two physicians determined whether potential events met established clinical criteria for anaphylaxis (validated events).

Results: Out of 239 potential events with anaphylaxis diagnosis codes, the overall positive predictive value (PPV) for validated events was 64% (95% CI = 58 to 70). The PPV decreased with increasing age. Common precipitants for anaphylaxis were food (39%), medications (35%), and insect bite or sting (12%). The sensitivity of emergency department and inpatient anaphylaxis diagnosis codes for all validated events was 58% (95% CI = 51 to 65), but sensitivity increased to 95% (95% CI = 74 to 99) when outpatient diagnosis codes were included. Using information from all validated events and sampling weights, the incidence rate for anaphylaxis was 3.6 events per 10,000 person-years (95% CI = 3.1 to 4.0).

Conclusions: In this population-based setting, ICD-10 diagnosis codes for anaphylaxis from emergency department and inpatient settings had moderate PPV and sensitivity for validated events. These findings have implications for epidemiologic studies that seek to estimate risks of anaphylaxis using electronic health data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001330DOI Listing
May 2021

Associations of Left Atrial Function and Structure With Supraventricular Ectopy: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 02 4;10(4):e018093. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology Johns Hopkins University Baltimore MD.

Background High levels of supraventricular ectopy are associated with greater risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke, and death. Little information is available about differences by race/ethnicity in the extent of supraventricular ectopy, or about whether high levels of supraventricular ectopy are associated with impaired left atrial (LA) function and LA enlargement. Methods and Results In the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), 1148 participants (47% men; mean age, 67 years) had cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 2010 to 2012, followed by 14-day ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring in 2016 to 2018. We analyzed participant characteristics and cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of LA function and structure in relation to average count of premature atrial contractions (PACs) per hour and average number of runs per day of supraventricular tachycardia. In adjusted regression analyses, older age, male sex, White race, elevated NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and a history of clinically detected atrial fibrillation were associated with more PACs/hour. Chinese and Hispanic participants had on average fewer PACs/hour than White participants (Chinese participants, 31% less [95% CI, 8%-49%]; Hispanic participants, 38% less [95% CI, 19%-52%]). Greater LA total emptying fraction was associated with fewer PACs/hour (per SD, 16% fewer PACs/hour [95% CI, 7%-25% fewer PACs/hour]). Larger LA minimum volume was associated with more PACs/hour (per SD, 7% more PACs/hour [95% CI, 2%-13% more PACs/hour]). Associations of LA volumes with runs of supraventricular tachycardia/day were similar in direction but were weaker. Conclusions Impaired LA function and LA enlargement were associated with more PACs/hour on extended ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Measurement of supraventricular ectopy may provide information about the extent of atrial myopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955336PMC
February 2021

Inherited causes of clonal haematopoiesis in 97,691 whole genomes.

Nature 2020 10 14;586(7831):763-768. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer and coronary heart disease-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP). Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2819-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944936PMC
October 2020

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and COVID-19 Infection or Hospitalization: A Cohort Study.

Am J Hypertens 2021 04;34(4):339-347

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection or affect disease severity. Prior studies have not examined risks by medication dose.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included people aged ≥18 years enrolled in a US integrated healthcare system for at least 4 months as of 2/29/2020. Current ACEI and ARB use was identified from pharmacy data, and the estimated daily dose was calculated and standardized across medications. COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations were identified through 6/14/2020 from laboratory and hospitalization data. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for race/ethnicity, obesity, and other covariates.

Results: Among 322,044 individuals, 826 developed COVID-19 infection. Among people using ACEI/ARBs, 204/56,105 developed COVID-19 (3.6 per 1,000 individuals) compared with 622/265,939 without ACEI/ARB use (2.3 per 1,000), yielding an adjusted OR of 0.91 (95% CI 0.74-1.12). For use of <1 defined daily dose (DDD) vs. nonuse, the adjusted OR for infection was 0.92 (95% CI 0.66-1.28); for 1 to <2 DDDs, 0.89 (95% CI 0.66-1.19); and for ≥2 DDDs, 0.92 (95% CI 0.72-1.18). The OR was similar for ACEIs and ARBs and in subgroups by age and sex. 26% of people with COVID-19 infection were hospitalized; the adjusted OR for hospitalization in relation to ACEI/ARB use was 0.98 (95% CI 0.63-1.54), and there was no association with dose.

Conclusions: These findings support current recommendations that individuals on these medications continue their use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665332PMC
April 2021

Mitochondrial DNA copy number can influence mortality and cardiovascular disease via methylation of nuclear DNA CpGs.

Genome Med 2020 09 28;12(1):84. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

McKusick-Nathans Department of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has been associated with a variety of aging-related diseases, including all-cause mortality. However, the mechanism by which mtDNA-CN influences disease is not currently understood. One such mechanism may be through regulation of nuclear gene expression via the modification of nuclear DNA (nDNA) methylation.

Methods: To investigate this hypothesis, we assessed the relationship between mtDNA-CN and nDNA methylation in 2507 African American (AA) and European American (EA) participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. To validate our findings, we assayed an additional 2528 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (N = 533) and Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (N = 1995). We further assessed the effect of experimental modification of mtDNA-CN through knockout of TFAM, a regulator of mtDNA replication, via CRISPR-Cas9.

Results: Thirty-four independent CpGs were associated with mtDNA-CN at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10). Meta-analysis across all cohorts identified six mtDNA-CN-associated CpGs at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10). Additionally, over half of these CpGs were associated with phenotypes known to be associated with mtDNA-CN, including coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Experimental modification of mtDNA-CN demonstrated that modulation of mtDNA-CN results in changes in nDNA methylation and gene expression of specific CpGs and nearby transcripts. Strikingly, the "neuroactive ligand receptor interaction" KEGG pathway was found to be highly overrepresented in the ARIC cohort (P = 5.24 × 10), as well as the TFAM knockout methylation (P = 4.41 × 10) and expression (P = 4.30 × 10) studies.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that changes in mtDNA-CN influence nDNA methylation at specific loci and result in differential expression of specific genes that may impact human health and disease via altered cell signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-020-00778-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523322PMC
September 2020

The Polygenic and Monogenic Basis of Blood Traits and Diseases.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1214-1231.e11

Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Science, National Institute on Aging/NIH, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Blood cells play essential roles in human health, underpinning physiological processes such as immunity, oxygen transport, and clotting, which when perturbed cause a significant global health burden. Here we integrate data from UK Biobank and a large-scale international collaborative effort, including data for 563,085 European ancestry participants, and discover 5,106 new genetic variants independently associated with 29 blood cell phenotypes covering a range of variation impacting hematopoiesis. We holistically characterize the genetic architecture of hematopoiesis, assess the relevance of the omnigenic model to blood cell phenotypes, delineate relevant hematopoietic cell states influenced by regulatory genetic variants and gene networks, identify novel splice-altering variants mediating the associations, and assess the polygenic prediction potential for blood traits and clinical disorders at the interface of complex and Mendelian genetics. These results show the power of large-scale blood cell trait GWAS to interrogate clinically meaningful variants across a wide allelic spectrum of human variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482360PMC
September 2020

Trans-ethnic and Ancestry-Specific Blood-Cell Genetics in 746,667 Individuals from 5 Global Populations.

Cell 2020 09;182(5):1198-1213.e14

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA; Department of Medicine, Division on Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.06.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480402PMC
September 2020

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and COVID-19 infection or hospitalization: a cohort study.

medRxiv 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA.

There are plausible mechanisms by which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may increase the risk of COVID-19 infection or affect disease severity. To examine the association between these medications and COVID-19 infection or hospitalization, we conducted a retrospective cohort study within a US integrated healthcare system. Among people aged ≥18 years enrolled in the health plan for at least 4 months as of 2/29/2020, current ACEI and ARB use was identified from pharmacy data, and the estimated daily dose was calculated and standardized across medications. COVID-19 infections were identified through 6/14/2020 from laboratory and hospitalization data. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Among 322,044 individuals, 720 developed COVID-19 infection. Among people using ACEI/ARBs, 183/56,105 developed COVID-19 (3.3 per 1000 individuals) compared with 537/265,939 without ACEI/ARB use (2.0 per 1000), yielding an adjusted OR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.75-1.16). For use of < 1 defined daily dose vs. nonuse, the adjusted OR for infection was 0.89 (95% CI 0.62-1.26); for 1 to < 2 defined daily doses, 0.97 (95% CI 0.71-1.31); and for ≥2 defined daily doses, 0.94 (95% CI 0.72-1.23). The OR was similar for ACEIs and ARBs and in subgroups by age and sex. 29% of people with COVID-19 infection were hospitalized; the adjusted OR for hospitalization in relation to ACEI/ARB use was 0.92 (95% CI 0.54-1.57), and there was no association with dose. These findings support current recommendations that individuals on these medications continue their use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.06.20120386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359535PMC
July 2020

Opioid, gabapentinoid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication use and the risks of atrial fibrillation and supraventricular ectopy in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2020 09 17;29(9):1175-1182. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Purpose: Opioids, gabapentinoids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may have adverse cardiovascular effects. We evaluated whether these medications were associated with incident clinically detected atrial fibrillation (AF) or monitor-detected supraventricular ectopy (SVE), including premature atrial contractions (PACs) and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

Methods: We used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort study that enrolled 6814 Americans without clinically detected cardiovascular disease in 2000 to 2002. At the 2016 to 2018 examination, 1557 individuals received ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring. Longitudinal analyses investigated time-varying medication exposures at the first five exams (through 2011) in relation to incident clinically detected AF through 2015 using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Cross-sectional analyses investigated medication exposures at 2016 to 2018 examination and the risk of monitor-detected SVE using linear regression models.

Results: The longitudinal cohort included 6652 participants. During 12.4 years of mean follow-up, 982 participants (14.7%) experienced incident clinically detected AF. Use of opioids, gabapentinoids, and NSAIDs were not associated with incident AF. The cross-sectional analysis included 1435 participants with ECG monitoring. Gabapentinoid use was associated with an 84% greater average frequency of PACs/hour (95% CI, 25%-171%) and a 44% greater average number of runs of SVT/day (95% CI, 3%-100%). No associations were found with use of opioids or NSAIDs in cross-sectional analyses.

Conclusions: In this study, gabapentinoid use was associated with SVE. Given the rapid increase in gabapentinoid use, additional studies are needed to clarify whether these medications cause cardiovascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.5036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933496PMC
September 2020

Methods to identify dementia in the electronic health record: Comparing cognitive test scores with dementia algorithms.

Healthc (Amst) 2020 Jun 22;8(2):100430. Epub 2020 May 22.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, 1730 Minor Ave, Seattle, WA, 98101, USA; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, 1959 North East Pacific Street, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies often use diagnosis codes to identify dementia outcomes. It remains unknown to what extent cognitive screening test results add value in identifying dementia cases in big data studies leveraging electronic health record (EHR) data. We examined test scores from EHR data and compared results with dementia algorithms.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients 60+ years of age from Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA) during 2013-2018 and the Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) during 2012-2015. Results from the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) cognitive screening exams, were classified as showing dementia or not. Multiple dementia algorithms were created using combinations of diagnosis codes, pharmacy records, and specialty care visits. Correlations between test scores and algorithms were assessed.

Results: 3,690 of 112,917 KPWA patients and 2,981 of 102,981 VHA patients had cognitive test results in the EHR. In KPWA, dementia prevalence ranged from 6.4%-8.1% depending on the algorithm used and in the VHA, 8.9%-12.1%. The algorithm which best agreed with test scores required ≥2 dementia diagnosis codes in 12 months; at KPWA, 14.8% of people meeting this algorithm had an MMSE score, of whom 65% had a score indicating dementia. Within VHA, those figures were 6.2% and 77% respectively.

Conclusions: Although cognitive test results were rarely available, agreement was good with algorithms requiring ≥2 dementia diagnosis codes, supporting the accuracy of this algorithm.

Implications: These scores may add value in identifying dementia cases for EHR-based research studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hjdsi.2020.100430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363308PMC
June 2020

Risk of incident dementia following metformin initiation compared with noninitiation or delay of antidiabetic medication therapy.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2020 06 3;29(6):623-634. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Purpose: Emerging evidence suggests metformin compared with sulfonylurea is associated with an 8% to 10% lower risk for dementia. Guidelines recommend metformin as initial diabetes treatment, but there is still the question of treatment timing. Thus, the risk of dementia associated with initiating metformin compared with not initiating or delaying treatment was examined.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study (1996 to 2015) was conducted with electronic health records from Veteran Health Affairs (VHA; n = 112 845) and Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPW; n = 14 333) healthcare systems. Patients were aged ≥50 years, had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) between 6.5 and <9.5 mg/dL, and did not have dementia or fills for antidiabetic medications before cohort entry. Initiators started metformin monotherapy and noninitiators used no antidiabetic medications in the 6 months after the first qualifying HbA1c. The primary outcome was incident dementia. Propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) controlled for confounding in Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: During a median follow-up of 6.2 years in VHA and 6.8 years in KPW, there were 7547 new dementia cases in VHA and 1090 in KPW. After IPTW, there was no association between initiation of metformin (vs no initial treatment) and incident dementia in VHA (HR = 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1.13) or KPW (HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.51-1.28). Results did not differ by age, baseline HbA1c, or race.

Conclusions: Results do not support initiating metformin earlier to prevent cognitive decline and, thus, may dampen enthusiasm for metformin as a potential antidementia drug. Randomized clinical trials could help clarify the relationship between metformin and cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.5014DOI Listing
June 2020

Differences by Race/Ethnicity in the Prevalence of Clinically Detected and Monitor-Detected Atrial Fibrillation: MESA.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 01 14;13(1):e007698. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Epidemiology (S.R.H., T.R.A., J.S.F., B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle.

Background: African Americans are consistently found to have a lower prevalence of clinically detected atrial fibrillation (AF) than whites, despite a higher prevalence of major AF risk factors and higher risk of ischemic stroke. Long-term ambulatory ECG monitors provide the opportunity for unbiased AF detection. We determined differences by race/ethnicity in the prevalence of clinically detected AF and in the proportion with monitor-detected AF.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a community-based cohort study that enrolled 6814 Americans free of clinically recognized cardiovascular disease in 2000 to 2002. At the 2016 to 2018 examination, 1556 individuals participated in an ancillary study involving ambulatory ECG monitoring and had follow-up for clinically detected AF since cohort entry.

Results: Among 1556 participants, 41% were white, 25% African American, 21% Hispanic, and 14% Chinese; 51% were women; and the mean age was 74 years. The prevalence of clinically detected AF after 14.4 years' follow-up was 11.3% in whites, 6.6% in African Americans, 7.8% in Hispanics, and 9.9% in Chinese and was significantly lower in African Americans than in whites, in both unadjusted and risk factor-adjusted analyses (adjusted rate difference, -6.6% [95% CI, -10.1% to -3.1%]; <0.001). By contrast, in the same individuals, the proportion with monitor-detected AF using a 14-day ambulatory ECG monitor was similar in the 4 race/ethnic groups: 7.1%, 6.4%, 6.9%, and 5.2%, respectively (compared with whites, all >0.5).

Conclusions: The prevalence of clinically detected AF was substantially lower in African American than in white participants, without or with adjustment for AF risk factors. However, unbiased AF detection by ambulatory monitoring in the same individuals revealed little difference in the proportion with AF by race/ethnicity. These findings provide support for the hypothesis of differential detection by race/ethnicity in the clinical recognition of AF, which may have important implications for stroke prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.119.007698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204495PMC
January 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study of Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension in the CHARGE Consortium: The CHARGE Pharmacogenetics Working Group.

Am J Hypertens 2019 11;32(12):1146-1153

Robertson Center for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Background: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described.

Methods: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA = 931, nAA = 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14,210, nAA = 2,480) and had systolic BP/diastolic BP < 140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5,266, nAA = 1,817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg), while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL.

Results: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P = 1.1 × 10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P = 1.5 × 10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278, odds ratio = 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.8)). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls.

Conclusion: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpz150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856621PMC
November 2019

Blood Leukocyte DNA Methylation Predicts Risk of Future Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease.

Circulation 2019 08 19;140(8):645-657. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle (J.A.B., J.S.F., K.L.W.).

Background: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts.

Methods: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts.

Results: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts.

Conclusion: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.039357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812683PMC
August 2019

Combined Effect of Income and Medication Adherence on Mortality in Newly Treated Hypertension: Nationwide Study of 16 Million Person-Years.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 08 17;8(16):e013148. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine Yonsei University College of Medicine Seoul Korea.

Background Low socioeconomic status and poor medication adherence are known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality among patients with hypertension, but their combined effects have not been studied. We therefore evaluated the joint association of household income and medication adherence with death and cardiovascular disease in patients newly treated for hypertension. Methods and Results This was a nationwide cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance database. We included 1 651 564 individuals, aged 30 to 80 years, with newly treated hypertension and no prior cardiovascular disease and followed them for 10 years. Main exposures were household income in quintiles and adherence to antihypertensive medication, estimated by medication possession ratio: good (≥0.8), moderate (0.5 to <0.8), or poor (<0.5). The primary outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Higher mortality risk was observed in patients with low income (adjusted hazard ratio=1.50, 99% CI=1.46-1.53; lowest versus highest quintile) and poor medication adherence (adjusted hazard ratio=1.66, 99% CI=1.63-1.68; poor versus good adherence). When compared with the highest-income and good-adherence group, adjusted hazard ratio (99% CI) of death was 1.56 (1.52-1.61) for highest-income poor-adherers, 1.46 (1.41-1.51) for lowest-income good-adherers, and 2.46 (2.38-2.54) for lowest-income poor-adherers (P for interaction <0.001). Conclusions Low socioeconomic status and poor adherence to antihypertensive medication are associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular disease risks, but patients with low income are subject to larger excess risks by nonadherence. This highlights the potential importance of promoting medication adherence for risk reduction, especially in low-income patients with hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.013148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759906PMC
August 2019

Cardiac Biomarkers and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Chronic Kidney Disease: The CRIC Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 08 5;8(15):e012200. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Division of Nephrology Department of Medicine University of Washington Seattle WA.

Background We tested associations of cardiac biomarkers of myocardial stretch, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis with the risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in a prospective study of chronic kidney disease patients. Methods and Results The study sample was 3053 participants with chronic kidney disease in the multicenter CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study who were not identified as having AF at baseline. Cardiac biomarkers, measured at baseline, were NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T, galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15, and soluble ST-2. Incident AF ("AF event") was defined as a hospitalization for AF. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 279 (9%) participants developed a new AF event. In adjusted models, higher baseline log-transformed NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) was associated with incident AF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD higher concentration: 2.11; 95% CI, 1.75, 2.55), as was log-high-sensitivity troponin T (HR 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20, 1.68). These associations showed a dose-response relationship in categorical analyses. Although log-soluble ST-2 was associated with AF risk in continuous models (HR per SD higher concentration 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.58), this association was not consistent in categorical analyses. Log-galectin-3 (HR 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91, 1.22) and log-growth differentiation factor-15 (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96, 1.40) were not significantly associated with incident AF. Conclusions We found strong associations between higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and high-sensitivity troponin T concentrations, and the risk of incident AF in a large cohort of participants with chronic kidney disease. Increased atrial myocardial stretch and myocardial cell injury may be implicated in the high burden of AF in patients with chronic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761652PMC
August 2019

Metformin and Sulfonylurea Use and Risk of Incident Dementia.

Mayo Clin Proc 2019 08;94(8):1444-1456

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle.

Objective: To compare incident dementia risk among patients who initiated treatment with metformin or sulfonylurea in Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) patients with replication in Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPW) patients to determine whether first-choice antidiabetic medications are associated with reduced risk of dementia.

Patients And Methods: Cohorts contained 75,187 VHA patients and 10,866 KPW patients, 50 years and older, who initiated monotherapy with metformin or sulfonylurea. Patients were free of dementia diagnoses and any diabetes treatment for 2 years before cohort entry. Variables were extracted from electronic health data from VHA (1999-2015) and KPW (1996-2015), which included diagnosis codes, pharmacy data, laboratory values, and demographic characteristics. Propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting controlled for confounding.

Results: Veterans Health Affairs patients were 60.8±6.8 years of age on average, and KPW patients were 63.1±9.5 years of age. In the VHA sample, 72,769 (96.8%) were male; and in the KPW sample, 5480 (50.4%). After adjusting for confounding, metformin initiation was associated with a significantly (P=.02) lower risk of dementia in VHA (hazard ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.9-1.0), with a similar point estimate in KPW (hazard ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.1). Metformin was not associated with dementia risk in patients 75 years and older.

Conclusion: Existing epidemiological studies of metformin and incident dementia have been inconsistent. Using a similar study design in 2 patient populations that differed in clinical and demographic characteristics, our results provide robust evidence that metformin use is associated with a modestly lower risk of incident dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029783PMC
August 2019

Association Between Metformin Initiation and Incident Dementia Among African American and White Veterans Health Administration Patients.

Ann Fam Med 2019 07;17(4):352-362

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Purpose: African American patients are more likely to experience cognitive decline after type 2 diabetes mellitus onset than white patients. Metformin use has been associated with a lower risk of dementia compared with sulfonylureas. Evidence for whether this association differs by race is sparse.

Methods: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical record data were obtained for 73,761 African American and white patients aged ≥50 years who used the VHA from fiscal years 2000 to 2015. Patients were free of dementia and diabetes medications during fiscal years 2000 and 2001 and subsequently initiated metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy. For race and age subgroups, Cox proportional hazards models using propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding were computed to measure the association between metformin vs sulfonylurea initiation and incident dementia.

Results: After controlling for confounding, among patients aged ≥50 years, metformin vs sulfonylurea use was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia in African American patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.6-0.89) but not white patients (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.9-1.03). The strongest magnitude of association between metformin and dementia was observed among African American patients aged 50 to 64 years (HR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.45-0.81). Among those aged 65 to 74 years, metformin was significantly associated with lower risk of dementia in both races. Metformin was not associated with dementia in patients aged ≥75 years.

Conclusions: Metformin vs sulfonylurea initiation was associated with a substantially lower risk of dementia among younger African American patients. These results may point to a novel approach for reducing the risk of dementia in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.2415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827650PMC
July 2019

Pharmacogenomics of statin-related myopathy: Meta-analysis of rare variants from whole-exome sequencing.

PLoS One 2019 26;14(6):e0218115. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Clinical Lipidology and Rare Lipid Disorders Unit, Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal Community Gene Medicine Center, Lipid Clinic Chicoutimi Hospital and ECOGENE-21 Clinical and Translational Research Center, Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada.

Aims: Statin-related myopathy (SRM), which includes rhabdomyolysis, is an uncommon but important adverse drug reaction because the number of people prescribed statins world-wide is large. Previous association studies of common genetic variants have had limited success in identifying a genetic basis for this adverse drug reaction. We conducted a multi-site whole-exome sequencing study to investigate whether rare coding variants confer an increased risk of SRM.

Methods And Results: SRM 3-5 cases (N = 505) and statin treatment-tolerant controls (N = 2047) were recruited from multiple sites in North America and Europe. SRM 3-5 was defined as symptoms consistent with muscle injury and an elevated creatine phosphokinase level >4 times upper limit of normal without another likely cause of muscle injury. Whole-exome sequencing and variant calling was coordinated from two analysis centres, and results of single-variant and gene-based burden tests were meta-analysed. No genome-wide significant associations were identified. Given the large number of cases, we had 80% power to identify a variant with minor allele frequency of 0.01 that increases the risk of SRM 6-fold at genome-wide significance.

Conclusions: In this large whole-exome sequencing study of severe statin-related muscle injury conducted to date, we did not find evidence that rare coding variants are responsible for this adverse drug reaction. Larger sample sizes would be required to identify rare variants with small effects, but it is unclear whether such findings would be clinically actionable.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218115PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6594672PMC
February 2020

Genomewide Association Study of Statin-Induced Myopathy in Patients Recruited Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 12 31;106(6):1353-1361. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Wolfson Centre for Personalised Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Statins can be associated with myopathy. We have undertaken a genomewide association study (GWAS) to discover and validate genetic risk factors for statin-induced myopathy in a "real-world" setting. One hundred thirty-five patients with statin myopathy recruited via the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress Exome version 1.0 Bead Chip and compared with the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (n = 2,501). Nominally statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) signals in the GWAS (P < 5 × 10 ) were further evaluated in several independent cohorts (comprising 332 cases and 449 drug-tolerant controls). Only one (rs4149056/c.521C>T in the SLCO1B1 gene) SNP was genomewide significant in the severe myopathy (creatine kinase > 10 × upper limit of normal or rhabdomyolysis) group (P = 2.55 × 10 ; odds ratio 5.15; 95% confidence interval 3.13-8.45). The association with SLCO1B1 was present for several statins and replicated in the independent validation cohorts. The data highlight the role of SLCO1B1 c.521C>T SNP as a replicable genetic risk factor for statin myopathy. No other novel genetic risk factors with a similar effect size were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896237PMC
December 2019

Exome sequencing of 20,791 cases of type 2 diabetes and 24,440 controls.

Nature 2019 06 22;570(7759):71-76. Epub 2019 May 22.

Division of Genome Research, Center for Genome Science, National Institute of Health, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea.

Protein-coding genetic variants that strongly affect disease risk can yield relevant clues to disease pathogenesis. Here we report exome-sequencing analyses of 20,791 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 24,440 non-diabetic control participants from 5 ancestries. We identify gene-level associations of rare variants (with minor allele frequencies of less than 0.5%) in 4 genes at exome-wide significance, including a series of more than 30 SLC30A8 alleles that conveys protection against T2D, and in 12 gene sets, including those corresponding to T2D drug targets (P = 6.1 × 10) and candidate genes from knockout mice (P = 5.2 × 10). Within our study, the strongest T2D gene-level signals for rare variants explain at most 25% of the heritability of the strongest common single-variant signals, and the gene-level effect sizes of the rare variants that we observed in established T2D drug targets will require 75,000-185,000 sequenced cases to achieve exome-wide significance. We propose a method to interpret these modest rare-variant associations and to incorporate these associations into future target or gene prioritization efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1231-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699738PMC
June 2019

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids.

Nat Genet 2019 04 29;51(4):636-648. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0378-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467258PMC
April 2019

Yield and consistency of arrhythmia detection with patch electrocardiographic monitoring: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

J Electrocardiol 2018 Nov - Dec;51(6):997-1002. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington; 1959 NE Pacific Ave, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patch electrocardiographic (ECG) monitors permit extended noninvasive ambulatory monitoring. To guide use of these devices, information is needed about their performance. We sought to determine in a large general population sample the acceptability of patch ECG monitors, the yield of arrhythmia detection, and the consistency of findings in participants monitored twice.

Methods: In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 1122 participants completed one or two monitoring episodes using the Zio Patch XT, a single-channel ECG patch monitor capable of recording for 14 days. Recordings were analyzed for atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter, atrioventricular block, pauses, and supraventricular and ventricular ectopy.

Results: The mean(SD) age at the time of monitoring was 75(8) years, 52% were men, and 15% had a prior history of clinically-recognized AF/flutter. The median monitoring duration was 13.8 days. Among 804 participants with no prior clinical history of AF/flutter and at least 12 days of monitoring on a single device, AF/flutter was detected in 32 (4.0%); in 38% of these, AF/flutter was first detected during days 3 through 12 of monitoring. In participants monitored twice, findings from the two devices showed excellent agreement for supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats per hour, but only fair agreement for high-grade atrioventricular block and pauses of >3 s duration.

Conclusions: In a general population of older individuals, new diagnoses of AF/flutter were made in 4.0% of participants without a prior history. A single monitoring episode accurately estimated rates of supraventricular and ventricular ectopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2018.07.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278608PMC
October 2019

Risk of colon cancer recurrence in relation to diabetes.

Cancer Causes Control 2018 Nov 22;29(11):1093-1103. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: To describe the association between diabetes and colon cancer recurrence.

Methods: We conducted a cohort study at two integrated health care delivery systems in the United States. Using tumor registry data, we identified patients aged ≥ 18 years when diagnosed with stage I-IIIA adenocarcinomas of the colon during 1995-2014. Pre-existing diabetes was ascertained via diagnosis codes. Medical records were reviewed for eligibility and to abstract recurrence and covariate information. Recurrence was ascertained beginning 90 days after the end of colon cancer treatment (i.e., cohort entry). Recurrence of any cancer or a new primary cancer at any site was a secondary outcome. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between diabetes at cohort entry and study outcomes.

Results: Among the 1,923 eligible patients, 393 (16.7%) had diabetes at cohort entry. Diabetes was not associated with recurrence (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.56-1.33) or with any subsequent cancer (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.85-1.40). When the definition of recurrence included second primary colorectal cancer, risk was non-significantly higher in patients with diabetes than without diabetes.

Conclusions: The risk of colon cancer recurrence appears to be similar in patients with and without diabetes at diagnosis.

Impact: Future studies should evaluate the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer outcomes, especially second primary colon cancers, in larger populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-018-1083-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230488PMC
November 2018

Generalization and fine mapping of red blood cell trait genetic associations to multi-ethnic populations: The PAGE Study.

Am J Hematol 2018 Jun 15. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC.

Red blood cell (RBC) traits provide insight into a wide range of physiological states and exhibit moderate to high heritability, making them excellent candidates for genetic studies to inform underlying biologic mechanisms. Previous RBC trait genome-wide association studies were performed primarily in European- or Asian-ancestry populations, missing opportunities to inform understanding of RBC genetic architecture in diverse populations and reduce intervals surrounding putative functional SNPs through fine-mapping. Here, we report the first fine-mapping of six correlated (Pearson's r range: |0.04 - 0.92|) RBC traits in up to 19,036 African Americans and 19,562 Hispanic/Latinos participants of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of race/ethnic- and study-specific estimates for approximately 11,000 SNPs flanking 13 previously identified association signals as well as 150,000 additional array-wide SNPs was performed using inverse-variance meta-analysis after adjusting for study and clinical covariates. Approximately half of previously reported index SNP-RBC trait associations generalized to the trans-ethnic study population (p<1.7x10 ); previously unreported independent association signals within the ABO region reinforce the potential for multiple functional variants affecting the same locus. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping did not reveal additional signals at the HFE locus independent of the known functional variants. Finally, we identified a potential novel association in the Hispanic/Latino study population at the HECTD4/RPL6 locus for RBC count (p=1.9x10 ). The identification of a previously unknown association, generalization of a large proportion of known association signals, and refinement of known association signals all exemplify the benefits of genetic studies in diverse populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300146PMC
June 2018
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