Publications by authors named "James Pratley"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Allelopathic interference of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes to annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

J Plant Res 2017 Jul 22;130(4):647-658. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

South Australian Research and Development Institute, Waite Campus, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia.

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes at varying densities were investigated for allelopathic impact using annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) as the target species in a laboratory bioassay. Three densities (15, 30, and 50 seedlings/beaker) and 40 alfalfa genotypes were evaluated by the equal compartment agar method (ECAM). Alfalfa genotypes displayed a range of allelopathic interference in ryegrass seedlings, reducing root length from 5 to 65%. The growth of ryegrass decreased in response to increasing density of alfalfa seedlings. At the lowest density, Q75 and Titan9 were the least allelopathic genotypes. An overall inhibition index was calculated to rank each alfalfa genotype. Reduction in seed germination of annual ryegrass occurred in the presence of several alfalfa genotypes including Force 10, Haymaster7 and SARDI Five. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis using Quadruple Time of Flight (Q-TOF), was conducted to compare six alfalfa genotypes. Variation in chemical compounds was found between alfalfa root extracts and exudates and also between genotypes. Further individual compound assessments and quantitative study at greater chemical concentrations are needed to clarify the allelopathic activity. Considerable genetic variation exists among alfalfa genotypes for allelopathic activity creating the opportunity for its use in weed suppression through selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-017-0921-9DOI Listing
July 2017

Variation in Alkaloid Production from Genetically Diverse Lolium Accessions Infected with Epichloë Species.

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Dec 23;63(48):10355-65. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (An alliance between NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University , Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2650, Australia.

Widespread infection of Epichloë occultans in annual ryegrass in Australia suggests that infection provides its weedy host, Lolium rigidum, some ecological advantage. Initial studies determined the distribution and profiles of known Epichloë alkaloids (epoxy-janthitrems, ergovaline, lolines, lolitrem B, and peramine) in plant extracts using a combination of GC-FID and HPLC techniques utilizing a single accession of Australian L. rigidum. However, the lolines N-acetylnorloline (NANL) and N-formylloline (NFL) were the only alkaloids detected and were highly concentrated in the immature inflorescences of mature plants. Additional glasshouse studies subjected a wide range of Australian L. rigidum haplotypes and international annual Lolium accessions to a suite of analyses to determine alkaloid levels and profiles. Again, NFL and NANL were the key lolines produced, with NFL consistently predominating. Considerable variation in alkaloid production was found both within and between biotypes and accessions evaluated under identical conditions, at the same maturation stage and on the same tissue type. The pyrrolopyrazine alkaloid peramine was also present in 8 out of 17 Australian biotypes of L. rigidum and 7 out of 33 international accessions infected with Epichloë spp.; the highest peramine concentrations were observed in seed extracts from L. rigidum collected from Australia. This study represents the first report of alkaloids from a geographically diverse collection of annual ryegrass germplasm infected with Epichloë spp. when grown under identical controlled conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03089DOI Listing
December 2015

Metabolomics differentiation of canola genotypes: toward an understanding of canola allelochemicals.

Front Plant Sci 2014 9;5:765. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia ; Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.

Allelopathy is one crop attribute that could be incorporated in an integrated weed management system as a supplement to synthetic herbicides. However, the underlying principles of crop allelopathy and secondary metabolite production are still poorly understood including in canola. In this study, an allelopathic bioassay and a metabolomic analysis were conducted to compare three non-allelopathic and three allelopathic canola genotypes. Results from the laboratory bioassay showed that there were significant differences among canola genotypes in their ability to inhibit root and shoot growth of the receiver annual ryegrass; impacts ranged from 14% (cv. Atr-409) to 76% (cv. Pak85388-502) and 0% (cv. Atr-409) to 45% (cv. Pak85388-502) inhibition respectively. The root length of canola also differed significantly between genotypes, there being a non-significant negative interaction (r = -0.71; y = 0.303x + 21.33) between the root length of donor canola and of receiver annual ryegrass. Variation in chemical composition was detected between organs (root extracts, shoot extracts) and root exudates and also between canola genotypes. Root extracts contained more secondary metabolites than shoot extracts while fewer compounds were recorded in the root exudates. Individual compound assessments identified a total of 14 secondary metabolites which were identified from the six tested genotypes. However, only Pak85388-502 and Av-opal exuded sinapyl alcohol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5,6,7,8-pentahydroxy flavones in agar growth medium, suggesting that the synergistic effect of these compounds playing a role for canola allelopathy against annual ryegrass in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4288380PMC
January 2015

Lavender as a source of novel plant compounds for the development of a natural herbicide.

J Chem Ecol 2009 Sep 30;35(9):1129-36. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Industry and Investment NSW and Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.

In a previous study, lavender (Lavandula spp.) was found to be highly phytotoxic towards annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum, ARG), a major weed of winter wheat crops in Australia. This research aimed to further explore this relationship and determine the chemical(s) responsible for the observed effect. In bioassay, it was determined that the stem and leaf extract of L. x intermedia cv. Grosso ranked highest and had the potential to reduce significantly the root growth of several plant species. An extract concentration of 10% almost completely inhibited ARG root growth. When the extract was tested for stability, there was no loss in phytotoxicity after the 256 day trial. Via bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques, it was determined that the sub-fraction consisting of coumarin and 7-methoxycoumarin was most phytotoxic towards ARG. Chemoassays of 18 structural analogues of coumarin showed that coumarin itself was the most phytotoxic and largely responsible for the observed phytotoxicity of the extract. Soil trials were conducted using pure coumarin and the lavender extract, and in both instances, shoot length and weight were significantly reduced by post-emergence application at all concentrations evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-009-9689-2DOI Listing
September 2009

A risk calculator for glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum (Gaud.).

Pest Manag Sci 2008 Apr;64(4):402-8

EH Graham Centre, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Background: Glyphosate resistance has been confirmed in 58 populations of Lolium rigidum (Gaud.), a major weed of crops in southern Australia. Extensive use of glyphosate in conjunction with minimal soil disturbance has been identified as high risk for resistance to that herbicide. Land managers need a simple method for rapid assessment of the risk of resistance occurring as a result of past and proposed future management practices. Modelled on risk assessment nomographs, a simple calculator for indicating the risk of evolved glyphosate resistance in L. rigidum is described.

Results: The calculator uses the generations since first use and the frequency of use of glyphosate in combination with historical cultivation levels as critical factors for determining the risk of glyphosate resistance evolution. Based on the management history of a field, a land manager can graphically determine a glyphosate resistance risk for that field.

Conclusion: The calculator enables the farmer or the advisor to assess the risk of a weed's population becoming resistant and modify practices accordingly to manage for sustainable glyphosate use. The risk calculator could be modified for other herbicides and different weed species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.1511DOI Listing
April 2008

Evaluation of putative allelochemicals in rice root exudates for their role in the suppression of arrowhead root growth.

J Chem Ecol 2004 Aug;30(8):1663-78

Farrer Centre, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga NSW, Australia 2678.

In previous studies, 15 putative allelopathic compounds detected in rice root exudates were quantified by GC/MS/MS. In this study, multiple regression analysis on these compounds determined that five selected phenolics, namely caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids, from rice exudates were best correlated with the observed allelopathic effect on arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) root growth. Despite this positive association, determination of the phenolic acid dose-response curve established that the amount quantified in the exudates was much lower than the required threshold concentration for arrowhead inhibition. A similar dose-response curve resulted from a combination of all 15 quantified compounds. Significant differences between the amounts of trans-ferulic acid, abietic acid, and an indole also existed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice cultivars. The potential roles of these three compounds in rice allelopathy were examined by chemoassay. Overall, neither the addition of trans-ferulic acid nor 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid to the phenolic mix significantly contributed to phytotoxicity, although at higher concentrations, trans-ferulic acid appeared to act antagonistically to the phytotoxic effects of the phenolic mix. The addition of abietic acid also decreased the inhibitory effect of the phenolic mix. These studies indicate that the compounds quantified are not directly responsible for the observed allelopathic response. It is possible that the amount of phenolic acids may be indirectly related to the chemicals finally responsible for the observed allelopathic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:joec.0000042075.96379.71DOI Listing
August 2004

Identification and quantitation of compounds in a series of allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice root exudates.

J Chem Ecol 2004 Aug;30(8):1647-62

Farrer Centre, Charles Sturt University Locked Bag 588 Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia 2678.

An investigation of the chemical basis for rice allelopathy to the rice weed arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) was undertaken using GC/MS and GC/MS/MS techniques. Twenty-five compounds were isolated and identified from the root exudates of both allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice varieties. Phenolics, phenylalkanoic acids, and indoles were among the chemical classes identified. Two indoles previously unreported in rice were detected in the exudates, 5-hydroxy-2-indolecarboxylic acid and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. Several other compounds identified in this study have not previously been reported in rice root exudates, namely mercaptoacetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 4-vinylphenol. The levels of 15 compounds present in the exudates were quantified using GC/MS/MS. Six of the seven most abundant compounds were phenolic acids. Significant differences exist between the allelopathic and non-allelopathic cultivars in their production of three of these six compounds. Greater amounts of trans-ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and caffeic acid were detected in the exudates of allelopathic cultivars. The seventh compound, abietic acid, was significantly higher in the non-allelopathic cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:joec.0000042074.96036.14DOI Listing
August 2004

Phytotoxic effects of wheat extracts on a herbicide-resistant biotype of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

J Agric Food Chem 2003 Jul;51(16):4610-6

Farrer Centre for Conservation Farming, Charles Sturt University, PO Box 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Thirty-nine wheat accessions were used to evaluate their extract phytotoxicity against annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.). Aqueous extracts of wheat shoot residues significantly inhibited the germination and root growth of a biotype of annual ryegrass resistant to herbicides of acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors (group A), acetolactate synthase inhibitors (B), photosystem II inhibitors (C), and tubulin formation inhibitors (D). The germination of the herbicide resistant (HR) biotype was inhibited by 3-100%, depending upon the wheat accession. The phytotoxic effects on ryegrass root growth ranged from 12% stimulation to 100% inhibition, compared to a control. The germination and root growth of a herbicide-susceptible (HS) biotype of annual ryegrass were also inhibited by the wheat extracts, with germination inhibited by 4-100%, and root growth by 19-100%. Bioassays with two known wheat allelochemicals showed that p-coumaric acid and propionic acid significantly inhibited the growth of both HR and HS biotypes of annual ryegrass. The two compounds completely inhibited the root growth of HR ryegrass at concentrations greater than 5.0 mM. In comparison with p-coumaric acid, propionic acid was more inhibitory to seed germination, shoot, and root growth of both ryegrass biotypes. The root growth of the HR biotype was more sensitive when exposed to wheat extracts, to p-coumaric acid, and to propionic acid. The results suggest that residues of certain wheat cultivars with strong allelopathic potential could provide a nonherbicidal alternative for the management of herbicide-resistant weed species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf026010wDOI Listing
July 2003

Biochemical basis for wheat seedling allelopathy on the suppression of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

J Agric Food Chem 2002 Jul;50(16):4567-71

Farrer Centre for Conservation Farming, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

The chemical basis for wheat seedling allelopathy on the growth of annual ryegrass was investigated by the identification and quantification of multiple allelochemicals from wheat seedlings. Results indicated that 58 wheat accessions differed significantly in seedling allelopathy and inhibited the root growth of ryegrass from 10 to 91%, depending on accession. Analysis of allelochemicals by GC/MS/MS indicated that allelopathy was significantly correlated with the levels of measured allelochemicals in the shoots and roots of young wheat seedlings. Ryegrass root growth was also negatively correlated with the levels of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, and trans-ferulic acids in root exudates. Wheat allelopathic potential was negatively correlated with the levels of the eight known allelochemicals quantified in the shoots, roots, and water-agar medium, with multiple regression coefficients (r) of -0.61, -0.71, and -0.71, respectively. In comparison with weakly allelopathic accessions, strongly allelopathic accessions produced significantly higher amounts of allelochemicals in the shoots and roots of the wheat seedlings and also exuded larger quantities of allelochemicals into the growth medium. Wheat accessions with strong seedling allelopathy might be useful for management of weeds during the establishment stage, thereby reducing the need for commercial herbicides in early-season application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf025508vDOI Listing
July 2002