Publications by authors named "James P Wirth"

42 Publications

Complementary Feeding Indicators in Relation to Micronutrient Status of Ghanaian Children Aged 6-23 Months: Results from a National Survey.

Life (Basel) 2021 Sep 15;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 15.

GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.

Background: Optimal complementary feeding is critical for adequate growth and development in infants and young children. The associations between complementary feeding and growth have been studied well, but less is known about the relationship between complementary feeding and micronutrient status.

Methods: Using data from a national cross-sectional survey conducted in Ghana in 2017, we examined how multiple WHO-recommended complementary feeding indicators relate to anemia and the micronutrient status of children aged 6-23 months.

Results: In total, 42%, 38%, and 14% of the children met the criteria for minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), and minimum acceptable diet (MAD), respectively. In addition, 71% and 52% of the children consumed iron-rich foods and vitamin A-rich foods, respectively. The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency (ID), iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was 46%, 45%, 27%, and 10%, respectively. Inverse associations between MMF and socio-economic status were found, and MMF was associated with an increased risk of ID (55%; < 0.013) and IDA (38%; < 0.002).

Conclusion: The pathways connecting complementary feeding and micronutrient status are complex. Findings related to MMF should be further investigated to ensure that complementary feeding programs account for the potential practice of frequent feeding with nutrient-poor foods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11090969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468967PMC
September 2021

Risk factors of anaemia and iron deficiency in Somali children and women: Findings from the 2019 Somalia Micronutrient Survey.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 Aug 17:e13254. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

GroundWork, Fläsch, Switzerland.

There are limited data on the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) in Somalia. To address this data gap, Somalia's 2019 micronutrient survey assessed the prevalence of anaemia and ID in children (6-59 months) and non-pregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). The survey also collected data on vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, malaria and other potential risk factors for anaemia and ID. Multivariable Poisson regressions models were used to identify the risk factors for anaemia and ID in children and women. Among children, the prevalence of anaemia and ID were 43.4% and 47.2%, respectively. Approximately 36% and 6% of anaemia were attributable to iron and vitamin A deficiencies, respectively, whereas household possession of soap was associated with approximately 11% fewer cases of anaemia. ID in children was associated with vitamin A deficiency and stunting, whereas inflammation was associated with iron sufficiency. Among women, 40.3% were anaemic, and 49.7% were iron deficient. In women, ID and number of births were significantly associated with anaemia in multivariate models, and approximately 42% of anaemia in women was attributable to ID. Increased parity was associated with ID, and incubation and early convalescent inflammation was associated with ID, whereas late convalescent inflammation was associated with iron sufficiency. ID is the main risk factor of anaemia in both women and children and contributed to a substantial portion of the anaemia cases. To tackle both anaemia and ID in Somalia, food assistance and micronutrient-specific programmes (e.g. micronutrient powders and iron supplements) should be enhanced.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13254DOI Listing
August 2021

Inflammation Adjustments to Serum Retinol and Retinol-Binding Protein Improve Specificity but Reduce Sensitivity when Estimating Vitamin A Deficiency Compared with the Modified Relative Dose-Response Test in Ghanaian Children.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 Aug 15;5(8):nzab098. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Serum retinol and retinol-binding protein (RBP) concentrations are commonly used biomarkers of vitamin A deficiency (VAD); however, evidence indicates that they are not always accurate, especially in populations with high exposure to inflammation.

Objective: The aim was to assess sensitivity and specificity of serum retinol and RBP concentrations to predict VAD, with and without adjustment for inflammation (using categorical and regression-adjusted approaches), using the modified relative dose-response (MRDR) as the reference standard for liver reserves.

Methods: This secondary analysis of diagnostic accuracy used inflammation and RBP data and analyzed serum retinol and MRDR from a subsample of women of reproductive age ( = 178) and preschool children ( = 166) in the cross-sectional 2017 Ghana Micronutrient Survey.

Results: Inflammation (elevated C-reactive protein and/or α-acid glycoprotein) was present in 41% of children and 16% of women. Among children, estimates of VAD prevalence were as follows: 7% (MRDR), 40% (serum retinol), 29% (categorical-adjusted serum retinol), 24% (RBP), 13% (categorical-adjusted RBP), and 7% (regression-adjusted RBP). Sensitivity (95% CI) ranged from 22.2% (2.81%, 60.0%; both adjusted RBPs) to 80.0% (44.4%, 97.5%; serum retinol), whereas specificity ranged from 63.3% (54.7%, 71.3%; serum retinol) to 93.5% (88.0%, 97.0%; regression-adjusted RBP). Among women, VAD prevalence ranged from 1% (RBP) to 4% (all others); sensitivity was 0% and specificity was >96% for all indicators.

Conclusions: Serum retinol and RBP had varying accuracy in estimating VAD, especially in children; adjustment for inflammation increased accuracy by increasing specificity at the expense of sensitivity. Effects of inflammation adjustment in the context of high inflammation and VAD prevalence need to be further explored. Especially in populations with high inflammation, the MRDR test should accompany serum retinol or RBP measurements in a subsample of subjects in population-based surveys. This trial was registered with the Open Science Framework registry (doi: 10.17605/OSF.IO/J7BP9).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzab098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8352745PMC
August 2021

Prevalence and co-existence of cardiometabolic risk factors and associations with nutrition-related and socioeconomic indicators in a national sample of Gambian women.

Sci Rep 2021 06 8;11(1):12057. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

GroundWork, 7306, Fläsch, Switzerland.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are on the rise in Sub-Saharan Africa, and a large proportion of the adult population is thought to suffer from at least one cardiometabolic risk factor. This study assessed cardiometabolic risk factors and the contribution of nutrition-related indicators in Gambian women. The prevalence and co-existence of diabetes (elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) or prediabetes (HbA1c ≥ 5.7% to < 6.5%), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg), obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0) and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) > 3 mg/L or alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) > 1 g/L) and the contribution of nutrition related and socioeconomic indicators were measured in non-pregnant women 15-49 years of age in the Gambia using data from a nationally representative cross-sectional stratified survey. Nationally, 54.5% (95% CI: 47.4, 61.4) of 1407 women had elevated HbA1c. Of these, 14.9% were diabetic and 85.1% were prediabetic. Moreover, 20.8% (95% CI 17.8, 20.0) of 1685 women had hypertension, 11.1% (95% CI 9.0, 13.7) of 1651 were obese and 17.2% (95% CI 5.1, 19.6) of 1401 had inflammation. At least one of the aforementioned cardiometabolic risk factor was present in 68.3% (95% CI 63.0, 73.1) of women. Obesity increased the risk of hypertension (aRR 1.84; 95% CI 1.40, 2.41), diabetes (aRR 1.91; 95% CI 1.29, 2.84), elevated HbA1c (aRR 1.31; 95% CI 1.14, 1.51) and inflammation (aRR 3.47; 95% CI 2.61, 4.61). Inflammation increased the risk of hypertension (aRR 1.42; 95% CI 1.14, 1.78). Aging increased the risk of hypertension, obesity and inflammation. Further, inadequate sanitation increased the risk for diabetes (aRR 1.65; 95% CI 1.17, 2.34) and iron deficiency increased the risk of elevated HbA1c (aRR 1.21; 95% CI 1.09, 1.33). The high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and their co-existence in Gambian women is concerning. Although controlling obesity seems to be key, multifaceted strategies to tackle the risk factors separately are warranted to reduce the prevalence or minimize the risk of CVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91592-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187481PMC
June 2021

Associations between Zinc and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Preschool Children and Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of Representative Survey Data from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) Project.

J Nutr 2021 05;151(5):1277-1285

Alimentation, Nutrition, Sante (E6), Qualisud, Université Montpellier, Université Avignon, CIRAD, Institut Agro, IRD, Université de la Reunion, Montpellier, France.

Background: Anemia is a worldwide concern. Nutritional deficiencies and inflammation are considered main contributors, but zinc deficiency has only recently been associated with anemia.

Objectives: In this study we assessed associations between zinc status and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and anemia in preschool children 6-59 mo old (PSC) and nonpregnant women of reproductive age 15-49 y old (WRA) in population-based nutrition surveys.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from 13 (PSC) and 12 (WRA) countries within the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were used. Multivariable linear models were constructed that included zinc status (plasma/serum zinc concentrations), Hb concentrations and anemia, iron status, age, sex, and inflammation (C-reactive protein and α-1-acid glycoprotein). Zinc was adjusted for inflammation in PSC according to the BRINDA algorithm.

Results: Data were available for 18,658 PSC and 22,633 WRA. Prevalence of anemia ranged from 7.5% to 73.7% and from 11.5% to 94.7% in PSC and WRA, respectively. Prevalence of zinc deficiency ranged from 9.2% to 78.4% in PSC and from 9.8% to 84.7% in WRA, with prevalence of zinc deficiency >20% in all countries except Azerbaijan (PSC), Ecuador (PSC), and the United Kingdom (WRA). Multivariable linear regression models showed that zinc concentrations were independently and positively associated with Hb concentrations in 7 of 13 countries for PSC and 5 of 12 countries for WRA. In the same models, ferritin concentration was also significantly associated with Hb among PSC and WRA in 9 and 10 countries, respectively. Zinc deficiency was significantly associated with anemia in PSC and WRA in 5 and 4 countries respectively.

Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was prevalent in most countries and associations between zinc and Hb in roughly half of the countries examined suggesting that strategies to combat zinc deficiency may help reduce anemia prevalence. More research on mechanisms by which zinc deficiency is associated with anemia and the reasons for the heterogeneity among countries is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454198PMC
May 2021

Malaria is a cause of iron deficiency in African children.

Nat Med 2021 04 22;27(4):653-658. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Malaria and iron deficiency (ID) are common and interrelated public health problems in African children. Observational data suggest that interrupting malaria transmission reduces the prevalence of ID. To test the hypothesis that malaria might cause ID, we used sickle cell trait (HbAS, rs334 ), a genetic variant that confers specific protection against malaria, as an instrumental variable in Mendelian randomization analyses. HbAS was associated with a 30% reduction in ID among children living in malaria-endemic countries in Africa (n = 7,453), but not among individuals living in malaria-free areas (n = 3,818). Genetically predicted malaria risk was associated with an odds ratio of 2.65 for ID per unit increase in the log incidence rate of malaria. This suggests that an intervention that halves the risk of malaria episodes would reduce the prevalence of ID in African children by 49%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01238-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610676PMC
April 2021

Risk factors for anaemia among Ghanaian women and children vary by population group and climate zone.

Matern Child Nutr 2021 04 18;17(2):e13076. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

GroundWork, Fläsch, Switzerland.

Anaemia has serious effects on human health and has multifactorial aetiologies. This study aimed to determine putative risk factors for anaemia in children 6-59 months and 15- to 49-year-old non-pregnant women living in Ghana. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey were analysed for associations between anaemia and various anaemia risk factors. National and stratum-specific multivariable regressions were constructed separately for children and women to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) for anaemia of variables found to be statistically significantly associated with anaemia in bivariate analysis. Nationally, the aPR for anaemia was greater in children with iron deficiency (ID; aPR 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.88, 2.59), malaria parasitaemia (aPR 1.96; 95% CI: 1.65, 2.32), inflammation (aPR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.46), vitamin A deficiency (VAD; aPR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.60) and stunting (aPR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.46). In women, ID (aPR 4.33; 95% CI: 3.42, 5.49), VAD (aPR 1.61; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.09) and inflammation (aPR 1.59; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.11) were associated with anaemia, whereas overweight and obese women had lower prevalence of anaemia (aPR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.97). ID was associated with child anaemia in the Northern and Middle belts, but not in the Southern Belt; conversely, inflammation was associated with anaemia in both children and women in the Southern and Middle belts, but not in the Northern Belt. Anaemia control programmes should be region specific and aim at the prevention of ID, malaria and other drivers of inflammation as they are the main predictors of anaemia in Ghanaian children and women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.13076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988882PMC
April 2021

Assessing the Coverage of Biofortified Foods: Development and Testing of Methods and Indicators in Musanze, Rwanda.

Curr Dev Nutr 2020 Aug 18;4(8):nzaa107. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Biofortification of staple crops has the potential to increase nutrient intakes and improve health outcomes. Despite program data on the number of farming households reached with and growing biofortified crops, information on the coverage of biofortified foods in the general population is often lacking. Such information is needed to ascertain potential for impact and identify bottlenecks to parts of the impact pathway.

Objectives: We aimed to develop and test methods and indicators for assessing household coverage of biofortified foods.

Methods: To assess biofortification programs, 5 indicators of population-wide household coverage were developed, building on approaches previously used to assess large-scale food fortification programs. These were ) consumption of the food; ) awareness of the biofortified food; ) availability of the biofortified food; ) consumption of the biofortified food (ever); and ) consumption of the biofortified food (current). To ensure that the indicators are applicable to different settings they were tested in a cross-sectional household-based cluster survey in rural and peri-urban areas in Musanze District, Rwanda where planting materials for iron-biofortified beans (IBs) and orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSPs) were delivered.

Results: Among the 242 households surveyed, consumption of beans and sweet potatoes was 99.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Awareness of IBs or OFSPs was 65.7% and 48.8%, and availability was 23.6% and 10.7%, respectively. Overall, 15.3% and 10.7% of households reported ever consuming IBs and OFSPs, and 10.4% and 2.1% of households were currently consuming these foods, respectively. The major bottlenecks to coverage of biofortified foods were awareness and availability.

Conclusions: These methods and indicators fill a gap in the availability of tools to assess coverage of biofortified foods, and the results of the survey highlight their utility for identifying bottlenecks. Further testing is warranted to confirm the generalizability of the coverage indicators and inform their operationalization when deployed in different settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzaa107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382634PMC
August 2020

National Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies, Anaemia, Genetic Blood Disorders and Over- and Undernutrition in Omani Women of Reproductive Age and Preschool Children.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2020 May 28;20(2):e151-e164. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Nutrition & Health, GroundWork LLC, Zurich, Switzerland.

A national cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of anaemia, micronutrient deficiencies, haemoglobin disorders and over- and undernutrition in children and women of reproductive age in Oman. Wasting and stunting were found in 9.3% and 11.4% of children aged 0-59 months, respectively, while 4.2% were overweight or obese. In addition, 23.8% were anaemic and 10.2%, 9.5% and 10.6% had iron, vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies, respectively. Sickle cell and β-thalassaemia genetic traits were present in 5.3% and 4.2% of children and 4.7% and 2.8% of women, respectively. Overall, 9.1% of Omani women were underweight and 59.2% were overweight or obese. The prevalence of anaemia was 27.8%, while iron, folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiencies affected 24.8%, 11.6%, 8.9% and 16.2%, respectively. Anaemia among both children and women and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women are the most concerning nutritional problems in Oman.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18295/squmj.2020.20.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328830PMC
May 2020

Risk Factors for Anemia and Micronutrient Deficiencies among Women of Reproductive Age-The Impact of the Wheat Flour Fortification Program in Uzbekistan.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 7;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 7.

GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.

Food fortification can be effective in reducing the prevalence of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. This study assessed risk factors for-and the impact of the wheat flour program in Uzbekistan on-anemia, and iron and folate deficiency (FD) in non-pregnant women (NPW) of reproductive age. National data were analyzed for risk factors using multivariable regression. Additional iron intake from fortified flour was not associated with iron deficiency (ID) and did not result in a significantly different prevalence of anemia regardless of the levels, whereas women with additional folic acid intake had a lower relative risk (RR) of FD (RR: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.53, 0.85]). RR for anemia was greater in women with ID (RR: 4.7; 95% CI: 3.5, 6.5) and vitamin A insufficiency (VAI; RR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 1.9). VAI (RR: 1.4 [95% CI: 1.3, 1.6]) and breastfeeding (RR: 1.1 [95% CI: 0.99, 1.2]) were associated with increased risk of ID, while being underweight reduced the risk (RR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.58, 0.96]). Breastfeeding (RR: 1.2 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]) and inflammation (RR: 1.2 [95% CI: 1.0, 1.3]) increased risk of FD. FD results indicate that the fortification program had potential for impact, but requires higher coverage of adequately fortified wheat flour and a more bioavailable iron fortificant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146397PMC
March 2020

Household Coverage with Adequately Iodized Salt and Iodine Status of Nonpregnant and Pregnant Women in Uzbekistan.

Thyroid 2020 06 26;30(6):898-907. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

GroundWork, Fläsch, Switzerland.

Globally, iodine deficiency has been drastically reduced since the introduction of salt iodization programs; nonetheless, many populations remain at-risk for iodine deficiency. This study aimed to assess the iodine status among women of reproductive age in Uzbekistan and to identify factors associated with iodine deficiency, including the availability of adequately iodized salt at the household level. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted to produce region-specific estimates of the household coverage with adequately iodized salt and iodine status among women for each of the 14 regions in Uzbekistan. Other information, such as socioeconomic status, lactation and pregnancy, residence, age, and consumption of iodine supplements, was also collected. Overall, 36% of 3413 households had adequately iodized salt (iodine concentration >15 ppm [parts per million (mg I/kg salt)]), 20% had inadequately iodized salt (5-14 ppm), and 44% had salt without detectable iodine (<5 ppm). Adequate iodization was found in 33.2% of the 2626 salt samples taken from retail packages labeled as "iodized," 36.5% of the 96 samples taken from retail packages without mention of iodization, and 50.5% of the 674 samples without the original packaging ( < 0.001). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 140.9 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI 132.4-150.7]) in nonpregnant nonlactating women indicated adequate iodine status, while for nonpregnant lactating and pregnant women, the median UIC of 112.9 μg/L [CI 99.3-128.4] and 117.3 μg/L [CI 101.8-139.9], respectively, indicated borderline adequacy. Significant differences in UIC ( < 0.001) were found between nonpregnant nonlactating women living in households with adequately iodized salt (UIC 208.9 μg/L), inadequately iodized salt (UIC 139.1 μg/L), and noniodized salt (UIC 89.9 μg/L). Coverage with adequately iodized salt is low in Uzbekistan, and women in households with poorly iodized salt have substantially worse iodine status; claims on packaging about salt iodization do not reflect salt iodine content. This highlights the importance and effectiveness of salt iodization and the need to strengthen this program in Uzbekistan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2019.0788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307690PMC
June 2020

Anemia, micronutrient deficiencies, malaria, hemoglobinopathies and malnutrition in young children and non-pregnant women in Ghana: Findings from a national survey.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(1):e0228258. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

GroundWork, Fläsch, Switzerland.

Nationally representative data on the micronutrient status of Ghanaian women and children are very scarce. We aimed to document the current national prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, anemia, malaria, inflammation, α-thalassemia, sickle cell disease and trait, and under- and over-nutrition in Ghana. In 2017, a two-stage cross-sectional design was applied to enroll pre-school children (6-59 months) and non-pregnant women (15-49 years) from three strata in Ghana: Northern, Middle and Southern Belt. Household and individual questionnaire data were collected along with blood samples. In total, 2123 households completed the household interviews, 1165 children and 973 women provided blood samples. Nationally, 35.6% (95%CI: 31.7,39.6) of children had anemia, 21.5% (18.4,25.0) had iron deficiency, 12.2% (10.1,14.7) had iron deficiency anemia, and 20.8% (18.1,23.9) had vitamin A deficiency; 20.3%(15.2,26.6) tested positive for malaria, 13.9% (11.1,17.3) for sickle trait plus disease, and 30.7% (27.5,34.2) for α-thalassemia. Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies were more prevalent in rural areas, poor households and in the Northern Belt. Stunting and wasting affected 21.4% (18.0,25.2) and 7.0% (5.1,9.5) of children, respectively. Stunting was more common in rural areas and in poor households. Among non-pregnant women, 21.7% (18.7,25.1) were anemic, 13.7% (11.2,16.6) iron deficient, 8.9% (6.7,11.7) had iron deficiency anemia, and 1.5% (0.8,2.9) were vitamin A deficient, 53.8% (47.6,60.0) were folate deficient, and 6.9% (4.8,9.8) were vitamin B12 deficient. Malaria parasitemia in women [8.4% (5.7,12.2)] was lower than in children, but the prevalence of sickle cell disease or trait and α-thalassemia were similar. Overweight [24.7% (21.0,28.8)] and obesity [14.3% (11.5,17.7)] were more common in wealthier, older, and urban women. Our findings demonstrate that anemia and several micronutrient deficiencies are highly present in Ghana calling for the strengthening of Ghana's food fortification program while overweight and obesity in women are constantly increasing and need to be addressed urgently through governmental policies and programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228258PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991996PMC
May 2020

Micronutrient Deficiencies, Nutritional Status and the Determinants of Anemia in Children 0-59 Months of Age and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in The Gambia.

Nutrients 2019 Sep 23;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 23.

GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.

Data on micronutrient deficiency prevalence, nutrition status, and risk factors of anemia in The Gambia is scanty. To fill this data gap, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1354 children (0-59 months), 1703 non-pregnant women (NPW; 15-49 years), and 158 pregnant women (PW). The survey assessed the prevalence of under and overnutrition, anemia, iron deficiency (ID), iron deficiency anemia (IDA), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Multivariate analysis was used to assess risk factors of anemia. Among children, prevalence of anemia, ID, IDA, and VAD was 50.4%, 59.0%, 38.2%, and 18.3%, respectively. Nearly 40% of anemia was attributable to ID. Prevalence of stunting, underweight, wasting, and small head circumference was 15.7%, 10.6%, 5.8%, and 7.4%, respectively. Among NPW, prevalence of anemia, ID, IDA and VAD was 50.9%, 41.4%, 28.0% and 1.8%, respectively. Anemia was significantly associated with ID and vitamin A insufficiency. Median UIC in NPW and PW was 143.1 µg/L and 113.5 ug/L, respectively. Overall, 18.3% of NPW were overweight, 11.1% obese, and 15.4% underweight. Anemia is mainly caused by ID and poses a severe public health problem. To tackle both anemia and ID, programs such as fortification or supplementation should be intensified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11102275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835426PMC
September 2019

A qualitative study to understand how Ebola Virus Disease affected nutrition in Sierra Leone-A food value-chain framework for improving future response strategies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 09 10;13(9):e0007645. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

GroundWork, Hintergasse, Fläsch, Switzerland.

Background: This study sought understand how the 2014-2016 EVD Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak impacted the nutrition sector in Sierra Leone and use findings for improving nutrition responses during future outbreaks of this magnitude.

Methodology: This qualitative study was iterative and emergent. In-depth interviews (n = 42) were conducted over two phases by purposively sampling both key informants (n = 21; government stakeholders, management staff from United Nations (UN) agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO)), as well as community informants (n = 21; EVD survivors, health workers, community leaders) until data saturation. Multiple analysts collaborated in a team-based coding approach to identify key themes using Dedoose software. Findings are presented as both quotations and tables/figures.

Results: The EVD outbreak effects and the related response strategies, especially movement restriction policies including 21-day quarantines, contributed to disruptions across the food value-chain in Sierra Leone. System-wide impacts were similar to those typically seen in large-scale disasters such as earthquakes. Participants described an array of direct and indirect effects on agricultural production and food storage and processing, as well as on distribution, transport, trade, and retailing. Secondary data were triangulated by interviews which described the aggregate negative effect of this outbreak on key pillars of food security, infant and young child feeding practices, and nutrition. During the humanitarian response, nutrition-specific interventions, including food assistance, were highly accepted, although sharing was reported. Despite EVD impacts across the entire food value-chain, nutrition-sensitive interventions were not central to the initial response as EVD containment and survival took priority. Culturally-appropriate social and behavior change communications were a critical response component for improving health, nutrition, and hygiene-related behaviors through community engagement.

Conclusions: Infectious diseases such as EVD have far-reaching effects that impact health and nutrition through interrelated pathways. In Sierra Leone, the entire food value-chain was broken to the extent that the system-wide damage was on par with that typically resulting from large natural disasters. A food value-chain approach, at minimum, offers a foundational framework from which to position nutrition preparedness and response efforts for outbreaks in similar resource constrained settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736239PMC
September 2019

Consensus building around nutrition lessons from the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea and Sierra Leone.

Health Policy Plan 2019 Mar;34(2):83-91

GroundWork, Hintergass 1, Fläsch, Switzerland.

There are important lessons learned from the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. However, there has not been a systematic documentation of nutrition lessons specifically. Therefore, this study sought to generate multiple stakeholder perspectives for understanding the nutrition challenges faced during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, as well as for consensus building around improved response strategies. Participatory workshops with 17 and 19 participants in Guinea and Sierra Leone, respectively, were conducted in February 2017. Workshops followed the Nominal Group Technique, which is a methodological approach for idea generation and consensus building among diverse participants. Those findings were triangulated with qualitative interview data from participants representing government, United Nations bodies, civil society, non-governmental organizations and local communities in both Guinea (n = 27) and Sierra Leone (n = 42). (1) Reduced health system access and utilization, Poor caretaking and infant and young child feeding practices, Implementation challenges during nutrition response, Household food insecurity and Changing breastfeeding practices were five nutrition challenges identified in both Guinea and Sierra Leone. (2) Between settings, 14 distinct and 11 shared organizational factors emerged as facilitators to this response. In Sierra Leone, participants identified the Use of Standard Operating Procedures and Psychosocial counselling, whereas in Guinea, Hygiene assistance was distinctly important. Political will, Increased funding, Food assistance and to a lesser extent, Enhanced coordination, were deemed 'most important' response factors. (3) The top nutrition lessons learned were diverse, reflecting those of nutrition policy, programme implementation, community activity and household behaviours. Disease outbreaks pose widespread nutrition challenges to populations in resource-constrained settings where global health security is not a guarantee. These findings should be considered for emergency nutrition preparedness and inform evidence-based priority setting in the post-Ebola virus context of Guinea and Sierra Leone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czy108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481283PMC
March 2019

Growth Status, Inflammation, and Enteropathy in Young Children in Northern Tanzania.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 01;100(1):192-201

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Dakar, Senegal.

Recent evidence suggests that enteropathy of the gut due to environmental conditions (i.e., environmental enteropathy [EE]) in young children is negatively associated with linear growth. Using a case-control study design, we examined the potential determinants of stunting in stunted and non-stunted children 22-28 months of age. Potential determinants included inflammation biomarkers C-reactive protein, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and endotoxin-core antibody (EndoCAb) measured in serum samples; enteropathy markers alpha-1-antitrypsin, neopterin, myeloperoxidase (MPO) measured in stools samples; and demographic, health, feeding, and household characteristics. We also explored the determinants of EE by testing associations of composite EE scores and individual biomarkers with potential risk factors. Fifty-two percent of children ( = 310) were found to be stunted, and mean height-for-age scores (HAZ) were -1.22 (standard deviation [SD] ± 0.56) among non-stunted (control) children and -2.82 (SD ± 0.61) among stunted (case) children. Child HAZ was significantly ( < 0.05) and inversely associated with AGP, and child stunting was significantly positively associated ( < 0.05) with low dietary diversity, severe household hunger, and absence of soap in the household. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and EndoCAb concentrations were also significantly higher ( < 0.05) among children in households with no soap. Our study documented a seemingly localized cultural practice of young children (25%) being fed their dirty bathwater, which was associated with significantly higher concentrations of MPO ( < 0.05). Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein showed the most consistent associations with child growth and hygiene practices, but fecal EE biomarkers were not associated with child growth. The lack of retrospective data in our study may explain the null findings related to fecal EE biomarkers and child growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335920PMC
January 2019

Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age.

Nutrients 2018 Oct 11;10(10). Epub 2018 Oct 11.

GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.

Data on the nutritional situation and prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Azerbaijan are scarce, and knowledge about anemia risk factors is needed for national and regional policymakers. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, over- and undernutrition, and to disentangle determinants of anemia in children and women in Azerbaijan. The survey generated estimates of micronutrient deficiency and growth indicators for children aged 0⁻59 months of age (6⁻59 months for blood biomarkers) and non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age. Questionnaire data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were collected to assess the prevalence of under- and over-nutrition, anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia, in both groups. In children only, vitamin A deficiency and zinc deficiency were also assessed. In women only, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and vitamin A insufficiency were assessed. In total, 3926 household interviews were successfully completed with a response rate of 80.6%. In the 1455 children, infant and young child feeding practices were relatively poor overall; the prevalence of wasting and stunting were 3.1% and 18.0%, respectively; and 14.1% of children were overweight or obese. The prevalence of anemia was 24.2% in 6⁻59 months old children, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 15.0% in this age group, and the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 6.5%. Vitamin A deficiency was found in 8.0% of children, and zinc deficiency was found in 10.7%. Data from 3089 non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age showed that while undernutrition was scarce, 53% were overweight or obese, with increasing prevalence with increasing age. Anemia affected 38.2% of the women, iron deficiency 34.1% and iron deficiency anemia 23.8%. Vitamin A insufficiency was found in 10.5% of women. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency were somewhat more common, with prevalence rates of 35.0% and 19.7%, respectively. The main risk factors for anemia in children were recent lower respiratory infection, inflammation and iron deficiency. In women, the main risk factors for anemia were iron deficiency and vitamin A insufficiency. Anemia is a public health problem in Azerbaijani children and women, and additional efforts are needed to reduce anemia in both groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10101483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213945PMC
October 2018

Implications of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea: Qualitative findings to inform future health and nutrition-related responses.

PLoS One 2018 23;13(8):e0202468. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Conakry, Guinea.

Introduction: Due to the close relationship between EVD and nutrition, the humanitarian community implemented various nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions to stem the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. Little, however, is known about stakeholder and community members' perspectives toward this response in Guinea. Therefore, we aimed to firstly understand how EVD may have influenced the nutrition situation; and secondly to assess the perceived acceptability and effectiveness of the nutrition response.

Materials And Methods: Using 27 in-depth interviews conducted in April-May 2016, this descriptive, qualitative study had three iterative phases in an emergent design. Phase 1 explored the perceptions of 11 high-level policy and management staff. Phase 2 assessed the views of 16 community members, survivors, and front-line workers. Phase 3 compared the qualitative findings to relevant nutrition indicators from secondary data for final interpretations. A systematic, team-based coding approach using Dedoose software identified key themes during textual analysis.

Results: Overall, several plausible pathways through an interrelated network of bio-social factors help describe EVD impacts on the nutrition situation of Guinea. At a basic level, complex social dimensions of health, response unpreparedness, and market disruptions were perceived to be major determinants affecting the nutrition situation, especially among IYC. At an underlying level, household food security was negatively impacted, along with weakened care-seeking practices, IYC feeding practices, and coping strategies. Consequently, treatment coverage for childhood illnesses and IYC diets were negatively impacted during the outbreak. In hindsight, most participants had positive perceptions toward the overall EVD response, but described salient considerations for improving upon this nutrition response during future outbreaks.

Discussion: This study highlighted the complex web of inter-related factors through which EVD was perceived to impact the nutrition situation in Guinea. Considering the multi-level social and behavioral dimensions of health and nutrition is critical for effectively responding to infectious disease outbreaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202468PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107191PMC
February 2019

Comparison of a New Multiplex Immunoassay for Measurement of Ferritin, Soluble Transferrin Receptor, Retinol-Binding Protein, C-Reactive Protein and α¹-Acid-glycoprotein Concentrations against a Widely-Used s-ELISA Method.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2018 Feb 2;8(1). Epub 2018 Feb 2.

GroundWork, Fläsch 7306, Switzerland.

Recently, a multiplex ELISA (Quansys Biosciences) was developed that measures ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol-binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), α¹-acid glycoprotein (AGP), thyroglobulin, and histidine-rich protein 2. Our primary aim was to conduct a method-comparison study to compare five biomarkers (ferritin, sTfR, RBP, CRP, and AGP) measured with the Quansys assay and a widely-used s-ELISA (VitMin Lab, Willstaett, Germany) with use of serum samples from 180 women and children from Burkina Faso, Cambodia, and Malaysia. Bias and concordance were used to describe the agreement in values measured by the two methods. We observed poor overall agreement between the methods, both with regard to biomarker concentrations and deficiency prevalence estimates. Several measurements were outside of the limit of detection with use of the Quansys ELISA (total = 42 for ferritin, = 2 for sTfR, = 0 for AGP, = 5 for CRP, = 22 for RBP), limiting our ability to interpret assay findings. Although the Quansys ELISA has great potential to simplify laboratory analysis of key nutritional and inflammation biomarkers, there are some weaknesses in the procedures. Overall, we found poor comparability of results between methods. Besides addressing procedural issues, additional validation of the Quansys against a gold standard method is warranted for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8010013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871996PMC
February 2018

Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

Food Nutr Bull 2018 03 30;39(1):39-53. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

1 GroundWork, Fläsch, Switzerland.

Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0379572117743004DOI Listing
March 2018

Association between sickle cell and β-thalassemia genes and hemoglobin concentration and anemia in children and non-pregnant women in Sierra Leone: ancillary analysis of data from Sierra Leone's 2013 National Micronutrient Survey.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Jan 17;11(1):43. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Helen Keller International, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Objective: By measuring the associations between the presence of sickle cell and β-thalassemia genes, we assessed the extent to which these hemoglobinopathies contribute to the high prevalence of anemia observed in preschool-aged children and women of reproductive age in Sierra Leone.

Results: The prevalence of anemia was statistically significantly higher in children with homozygous sickle cell genes (HbSS) than in children with normal hemoglobin genes (HbAA or HbAC), but there was no difference in anemia prevalence in those with heterozygous sickle cell trait (HbAS or HbSC) compared with those with normal hemoglobin genes. In women, there was no difference in anemia prevalence by sickle cell status. In both children and women, there was no difference in the anemia prevalence for individuals with or without the β-thalassemia gene. For both sickle cell and β-thalassemia, there was no significant difference in hemoglobin concentrations by sickle cell or β-thalassemia status. Anemia prevalence was higher in children and women with homozygous sickle cell (HbSS). However, as the prevalence of HbSS children (5.4%) and women (1.6%) was quite small, it is unlikely that these hemoglobinopathies substantially contributed to the high anemia prevalence found in the 2013 national micronutrient survey.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3143-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773034PMC
January 2018

Predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):416S-427S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland.

Anemia in women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) remains a public health problem globally, and reducing anemia in women by 50% by 2025 is a goal of the World Health Assembly. We assessed the associations between anemia and multiple proximal risk factors (e.g., iron and vitamin A deficiencies, inflammation, malaria, and body mass index) and distal risk factors (e.g., education status, household sanitation and hygiene, and urban or rural residence) in nonpregnant WRA. Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 10 surveys ( = 27,018) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and pooled by the infection burden and risk in the country. We examined the severity of anemia and measured the bivariate associations between anemia and factors at the country level and by infection burden, which we classified with the use of the national prevalences of malaria, HIV, schistosomiasis, sanitation, and water-quality indicators. Pooled multivariate logistic regression models were constructed for each infection-burden category to identify independent determinants of anemia (hemoglobin concertation <120 g/L). Anemia prevalence was ∼40% in countries with a high infection burden and 12% and 7% in countries with moderate and low infection burdens, respectively. Iron deficiency was consistently associated with anemia in multivariate models, but the proportion of anemic women who were iron deficient was considerably lower in the high-infection group (35%) than in the moderate- and low-infection groups (65% and 71%, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, inflammation, vitamin A insufficiency, socioeconomic status, and age were also significantly associated with anemia, but malaria and vitamin B-12 and folate deficiencies were not. The contribution of iron deficiency to anemia varies according to a country's infection burden. Anemia-reduction programs for WRA can be improved by considering the underlying infection burden of the population and by assessing the overlap of micronutrient deficiencies and anemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.143073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490645PMC
July 2017

Predictors of anemia in preschool children: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):402S-415S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA;

A lack of information on the etiology of anemia has hampered the design and monitoring of anemia-control efforts. We aimed to evaluate predictors of anemia in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) by country and infection-burden category. Cross-sectional data from 16 surveys ( = 29,293) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed separately and pooled by category of infection burden. We assessed relations between anemia (hemoglobin concentration <110 g/L) and severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration <70 g/L) and individual-level (age, anthropometric measures, micronutrient deficiencies, malaria, and inflammation) and household-level predictors; we also examined the proportion of anemia with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as an inflammation-adjusted ferritin concentration <12 μg/L). Countries were grouped into 4 categories on the basis of risk and burden of infectious disease, and a pooled multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted for each group. Iron deficiency, malaria, breastfeeding, stunting, underweight, inflammation, low socioeconomic status, and poor sanitation were each associated with anemia in >50% of surveys. Associations between breastfeeding and anemia were attenuated by controlling for child age, which was negatively associated with anemia. The most consistent predictors of severe anemia were malaria, poor sanitation, and underweight. In multivariable pooled models, child age, iron deficiency, and stunting independently predicted anemia and severe anemia. Inflammation was generally associated with anemia in the high- and very high-infection groups but not in the low- and medium-infection groups. In PSC with anemia, 50%, 30%, 55%, and 58% of children had concomitant iron deficiency in low-, medium-, high-, and very high-infection categories, respectively. Although causal inference is limited by cross-sectional survey data, results suggest anemia-control programs should address both iron deficiency and infections. The relative importance of factors that are associated with anemia varies by setting, and thus, country-specific data are needed to guide programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.142323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490650PMC
July 2017

Adjusting retinol-binding protein concentrations for inflammation: Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project.

Am J Clin Nutr 2017 Jul 14;106(Suppl 1):390S-401S. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Independent Public Health Nutrition Consultant, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The accurate estimation of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is important in planning and implementing interventions. Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is often used in population surveys to measure vitamin A status, but its interpretation is challenging in settings where inflammation is common because RBP concentrations decrease during the acute-phase response. We aimed to assess the relation between RBP concentrations and inflammation and malaria in preschool children (PSC) (age range: 6-59 mo) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (age range: 15-49 y) and to investigate adjustment algorithms to account for these effects. Cross-sectional data from 8 surveys for PSC ( = 8803) and 4 surveys for WRA ( = 4191) from the Biomarkers Reflecting Inflammation and Nutritional Determinants of Anemia (BRINDA) project were analyzed individually and combined with the use of a meta-analysis. Several approaches were explored to adjust RBP concentrations in PSC in inflammation and malaria settings as follows: ) the exclusion of subjects with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations >5 mg/L or α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations >1 g/L, ) the application of arithmetic correction factors, and ) the use of a regression correction approach. The impact of adjustment on the estimated prevalence of VAD (defined as <0.7 μmol/L) was examined in PSC. The relation between estimated VAD and CRP and AGP deciles followed a linear pattern in PSC. In women, the correlations between RBP and CRP and AGP were too weak to justify adjustments for inflammation. Depending on the approach used to adjust for inflammation (CRP+AGP), the estimated prevalence of VAD decreased by a median of 11-18 percentage points in PSC compared with unadjusted values. There was no added effect of adjusting for malaria on the estimated VAD after adjusting for CRP and AGP. The use of regression correction (derived from internal data), which accounts for the severity of inflammation, to estimate the prevalence of VAD in PSC in regions with inflammation and malaria is supported by the analysis of the BRINDA data. These findings contribute to the evidence on adjusting for inflammation when estimating VAD with the use of RBP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.142166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490644PMC
July 2017

Vitamin A Supplementation Programs and Country-Level Evidence of Vitamin A Deficiency.

Nutrients 2017 Feb 24;9(3). Epub 2017 Feb 24.

GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland.

Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) programs targeted at children aged 6-59 months are implemented in many countries. By improving immune function, vitamin A (VA) reduces mortality associated with measles, diarrhea, and other illnesses. There is currently a debate regarding the relevance of VAS, but amidst the debate, researchers acknowledge that the majority of nationally-representative data on VA status is outdated. To address this data gap and contribute to the debate, we examined data from 82 countries implementing VAS programs, identified other VA programs, and assessed the recentness of national VA deficiency (VAD) data. We found that two-thirds of the countries explored either have no VAD data or data that were >10 years old (i.e., measured before 2006), which included twenty countries with VAS coverage ≥70%. Fifty-one VAS programs were implemented in parallel with at least one other VA intervention, and of these, 27 countries either had no VAD data or data collected in 2005 or earlier. To fill these gaps in VAD data, countries implementing VAS and other VA interventions should measure VA status in children at least every 10 years. At the same time, the coverage of VA interventions can also be measured. We identified three countries that have scaled down VAS, but given the lack of VA deficiency data, this would be a premature undertaking in most countries without appropriate status assessment. While the global debate about VAS is important, more attention should be directed towards individual countries where programmatic decisions are made.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9030190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5372853PMC
February 2017

The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys.

Nutrients 2016 Nov 2;8(11). Epub 2016 Nov 2.

GroundWork, Fläsch 7306, Switzerland.

Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8110693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133080PMC
November 2016

High Coverage and Utilization of Fortified Take-Home Rations among Children 6-35 Months of Age Provided through the Integrated Child Development Services Program: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Telangana, India.

PLoS One 2016 3;11(10):e0160814. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) in the State of Telangana, India, freely provides a fortified complementary food product, Bal Amrutham, as a take-home ration to children 6-35 months of age. In order to understand the potential for impact of any intervention, it is essential to assess coverage and utilization of the program and to address the barriers to its coverage and utilization. A two-stage, stratified cross-sectional cluster survey was conducted to estimate the coverage and utilization of Bal Amrutham and to identify their barriers and drivers. In randomly selected catchment areas of ICDS centers, children under 36 months of age were randomly selected. A questionnaire, constructed from different validated and standard modules and designed to collect coverage data on nutrition programs, was administered to caregivers. A total of 1,077 children were enrolled in the survey. The coverage of the fortified take-home ration was found to be high among the target population. Nearly all caregivers (93.7%) had heard of Bal Amrutham and 86.8% had already received the product for the target child. Among the children surveyed, 57.2% consumed the product regularly. The ICDS program's services were not found to be a barrier to product coverage. In fact, the ICDS program was found to be widely available, accessible, accepted, and utilized by the population in both urban and rural catchment areas, as well as among poor and non-poor households. However, two barriers to optimal coverage were found: the irregular supply of the product to the beneficiaries and the intra-household sharing of the product. Although sharing was common, the product was estimated to provide the target children with significant proportions of the daily requirements of macro- and micronutrients. Bal Amrutham is widely available, accepted, and consumed among the target population in the catchment areas of ICDS centers. The coverage of the product could be further increased by improving the supply chain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160814PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5047467PMC
June 2017

Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(7):e0158554. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

GroundWork, Fläsch, Switzerland.

Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158554PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4957802PMC
July 2017
-->