Publications by authors named "James N Francis"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Measurement of Allergen-Specific Inhibitory Antibody Activity.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;2020:33-43

Immune Targeting Systems (ITS) Ltd., London, UK.

Specific allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an effective treatment for IgE-mediated allergic diseases and involves T- and B-cell-mediated events. IgE receptors on the surface of antigen-presenting cells facilitate the presentation of allergens in the presence of specific IgE antibody resulting in T-cell activation. Interference with these IgE-dependent mechanisms by "blocking" IgG antibodies suppresses pro-inflammatory Th2 cell responses and manifests as a reduction in allergic responses in vivo.In vitro assays used to measure the inhibition of binding of allergen-IgE complexes have previously utilized proliferation of antigen-specific T-cell clones as an assay readout. Here we describe two simplified assays to measure allergen binding without the complexity of generating T-cell clones. The IgE-facilitated allergen binding assay (IgE-FAB) utilizes flow cytometry to measure the binding of allergen-IgE complexes to EBV-transformed B cells. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent-facilitated antigen binding (ELIFAB) assay uses standard ELISA-based techniques to measure allergen-IgE binding to plate-bound CD23, the low-affinity IgE receptor expressed on B cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9591-2_3DOI Listing
March 2020

Nasal IgA Provides Protection against Human Influenza Challenge in Volunteers with Low Serum Influenza Antibody Titre.

Front Microbiol 2017 17;8:900. Epub 2017 May 17.

Mucosal Infection and Immunity, Section of Virology, Imperial College LondonLondon, United Kingdom.

In spite of there being a number of vaccines, influenza remains a significant global cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding more about natural and vaccine induced immune protection against influenza infection would help to develop better vaccines. Virus specific IgG is a known correlate of protection, but other factors may help to reduce viral load or disease severity, for example IgA. In the current study we measured influenza specific responses in a controlled human infection model using influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) as the challenge agent. Volunteers were pre-selected with low haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titres in order to ensure a higher proportion of infection; this allowed us to explore the role of other immune correlates. In spite of HAI being uniformly low, there were variable levels of H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection. There was also a range of disease severity in volunteers allowing us to compare whether differences in systemic and local H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection affected disease outcome. H1N1 specific IgG level before challenge did not correlate with protection, probably due to the pre-screening for individuals with low HAI. However, the length of time infectious virus was recovered from the nose was reduced in patients with higher pre-existing H1N1 influenza specific nasal IgA or serum IgA. Therefore, IgA contributes to protection against influenza and should be targeted in vaccines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5434144PMC
May 2017

Characterisation of a wild-type influenza (A/H1N1) virus strain as an experimental challenge agent in humans.

Virol J 2015 Feb 3;12:13. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Immune Targeting Systems Ltd, London BioScience Innovation Centre, 2 Royal College Street, London, NW1 0NH, UK.

Background: Human challenge models using respiratory viruses such as influenza are increasingly utilised in the development of novel vaccines and anti-viral modalities and can provide preliminary evidence of protection before evaluation in field trials. We describe the results of a clinical study characterising an A/H1N1 influenza challenge virus in humans.

Methods: The challenge agent, influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1), was manufactured under cGMP conditions and characterised in accordance with regulatory guidelines. A dose-ascending open-label clinical study was conducted in 29 healthy young adults screened sero-negative to the challenge strain. Subjects were intranasally inoculated with three increasing doses of virus and physician-reported signs, subjected-reported symptoms, viral shedding and immunological responses were monitored.

Results: A dose-dependent increase in clinical signs and symptoms was observed with 75% of subjects developing laboratory-confirmed illness at the highest inoculum (3.5 × 10(6) TCID50). At the highest dose, physician or subject-reported signs of infection were classified as mild (all subjects), moderate (50%) and severe (16%) with peak symptoms recorded four days after infection. Clinical signs were correlated with nasal mucus weight (P < .001) and subject-reported symptoms (P < .001). Geometric mean peak viral shedding was log10 5.16 TCID50 and occurred three days after inoculation with a median duration of five days. The safety profile was such that physiological responses to viral infection were mainly restricted to the upper airways but were not of such severity to be of clinical concern.

Conclusions: A highly characterised wild-type Influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus manufactured for clinical use was shown to induce a good infectivity profile in human volunteers. This clinical challenge model can be used for evaluating potential efficacy of vaccines and anti-viral therapeutics.

Trial Registration: NCT02014870.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-015-0240-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4322439PMC
February 2015

Increasing cellular immunogenicity to peptide-based vaccine candidates using a fluorocarbon antigen delivery system.

Vaccine 2015 Feb 6;33(8):1071-6. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Immune Targeting Systems, 2 Royal College Street, London, NW1 0NH, UK.

Traditionally, synthetic peptide vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. Here we describe a novel method of peptide modification using a fluorocarbon chain which can substantially increase peptide-specific cellular immune responses in the absence of adjuvant. We demonstrate that fluorocarbon-modified peptides (fluoropeptides) derived from HIV, influenza and hepatitis C virus can significantly increase interferon gamma ELISpot responses against cytotoxic and T-helper epitopes compared to unmodified peptides or lipopeptides in mice. Increases in both T-helper1 and T-helper2 cytokines are observed. Fluoropeptides show enhanced ability of the antigen to persist at the site of administration and persistence is associated with a prolonged and elevated immune response. Additionally we demonstrate that fluoropeptides have increased proteolytic resistance thereby potentially supporting their increased half-life in vivo. Fluorocarbon-modification of peptides provides a valuable tool for increasing cellular immunogenicity of vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer without requirement for traditional adjuvants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.061DOI Listing
February 2015

A novel peptide-based pan-influenza A vaccine: a double blind, randomised clinical trial of immunogenicity and safety.

Vaccine 2015 Jan 10;33(2):396-402. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Immune Targeting Systems Ltd., London, NW1 0NH, UK.

Background: FP-01.1 is a novel synthetic influenza A vaccine consisting of six fluorocarbon-modified 35-mer peptides that encapsulate multiple CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitopes and is designed to induce an immune response across a broad population.

Methods: FP-01.1 was evaluated for safety and immunogenicity in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase I clinical study in healthy adult volunteers (n=49). IFNγ ELISpot assays and multicolour flow cytometry were used to characterise the immune response.

Results: FP-01.1 was safe and well tolerated at all doses tested with a similar adverse event profile in actively vaccinated subjects compared with controls. Maximum immunogenicity was in the 150 μg/peptide dose group where a robust response (243 spots/million PBMC) was demonstrated in 75% subjects compared with 0% in placebo controls. All six peptides were immunogenic. FP-01.1 induced dual CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and vaccine-specific T cells cross-recognise divergent influenza strains.

Conclusions: This first-in-human study showed that FP-01.1 has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile and generated robust anti-viral T cell responses in a high proportion of subjects tested. The results support the further clinical testing of FP-01.1 prior to clinical, proof-of-concept, live viral challenge studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.06.006DOI Listing
January 2015

Cell-free detection of allergen-IgE cross-linking with immobilized phase CD23: inhibition by blocking antibody responses after immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013 Oct 1;132(4):1003-5.e1-4. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, London, United Kingdom.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2013.05.025DOI Listing
October 2013

Long-term tolerance after allergen immunotherapy is accompanied by selective persistence of blocking antibodies.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011 Feb;127(2):509-516.e1-5

Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, part of the Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, UK.

Background: Grass pollen immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis is a disease-modifying treatment that results in long-term clinical tolerance lasting years after treatment discontinuation. Active treatment is associated with generation of inhibitory grass pollen-specific IgG antibodies capable of blocking allergen-IgE interactions.

Objectives: We sought to investigate the involvement of IgG-associated inhibitory antibodies with long-term clinical tolerance after discontinuation of grass pollen immunotherapy.

Methods: We conducted a 4-year study in which patients who had moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis underwent a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled discontinuation of subcutaneous grass pollen immunotherapy. All subjects received grass pollen immunotherapy injections for 2 years (n = 13), followed by a further 2 years of either active (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) injections. Clinical outcomes included seasonal symptoms and use of rescue medication. Serum specimens were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 years for quantification of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. Sera were also tested for IgG-dependent inhibitory bioactivity against IgE-allergen binding in cellular assays by using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to detect binding of IgE-grass pollen allergen complexes to B cells.

Results: Clinical improvement was maintained after 2 years of discontinuation. Although immunotherapy-induced grass pollen-specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels decreased to near-preimmunotherapy levels during discontinuation, inhibitory bioactivity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies was maintained unchanged.

Conclusion: Grass pollen immunotherapy induces a subpopulation of allergen-specific IgG antibodies with potent inhibitory activity against IgE that persists after treatment discontinuation and that could account for long-term clinical tolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2010.12.1080DOI Listing
February 2011

The facilitated antigen binding (FAB) assay--a protocol to measure allergen-specific inhibitory antibody activity.

Authors:
James N Francis

Methods Mol Med 2008 ;138:255-61

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, South Kensington, London.

Specific allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment for IgE-mediated allergic disease and involves T- and B-cell mediated events. IgE receptors on the surface of antigen-presenting cells facilitate the presentation of allergens in the presence of specific IgE antibody resulting in T-cell activation. Interference with these IgE-dependent mechanisms by 'blocking' IgG antibodies may downregulate T-cell responses and manifest as a reduction in allergic responses in vivo. The vigor of proliferative responses by T-cell clones is representative of the binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells. Therefore, a simplified assay can be employed that measures the binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells instead of a more complex assay involving proliferative assays using antigen-specific T-cell clones. Allergen-IgE complexes can be easily detected by flow cytometry and this simplified technique is called the IgE-facilitated allergen binding (IgE-FAB) assay which is described in this chapter.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-366-0_21DOI Listing
August 2008

Grass pollen immunotherapy: IL-10 induction and suppression of late responses precedes IgG4 inhibitory antibody activity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008 May 18;121(5):1120-1125.e2. Epub 2008 Apr 18.

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Grass pollen immunotherapy is an effective treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis that provides the opportunity to study the induction and maintenance of allergen-specific immune tolerance.

Objectives: We investigated the relationship between clinical responsiveness, regulatory cytokine production, and antibody responses to allergen during 1 year of immunotherapy.

Methods: Eighteen subjects with severe seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomized double-blind to receive active or placebo injections of an alum-adsorbed grass pollen vaccine (Alutard SQ). Subjects underwent repeated testing of early- and late-phase skin responses to intradermal allergen, and cellular responses to grass pollen allergen were tested. Sera were tested for allergen-specific IgG4, IgA, and inhibitory activity in biologic assays of IgE responses.

Results: Grass pollen immunotherapy was effective in reducing overall symptom scores (P < .05) and conjunctival reactivity (P < .05). In the active group significant IL-10 production occurred early at low allergen doses and at a similar time as inhibition of late skin responses at 2 to 4 weeks. Serum allergen-specific IgG4, IgA, and inhibitory antibody activity for basophil histamine release and IgE-facilitated allergen binding to B cells occurred later, at 6 to 12 weeks, at higher allergen doses and preceded inhibition of early skin responses.

Conclusion: IL-10 responses occur early but at immunotherapy doses that are not clinically effective. Later induction of inhibitory antibodies, including IgG4 and IgA, might be required for efficacy through modulation of IgE-mediated events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2008.01.072DOI Listing
May 2008

Combination treatment with omalizumab and rush immunotherapy for ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis: Inhibition of IgE-facilitated allergen binding.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007 Sep 12;120(3):688-95. Epub 2007 Jul 12.

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.

Background: The combination of anti-IgE (omalizumab) therapy with ragweed injection immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinitis results in a significant reduction in systemic side effects and enhanced efficacy compared with immunotherapy alone. One proposed mechanism of immunotherapy is to induce regulatory antibodies that inhibit facilitated antigen presentation.

Objectives: We sought to determine whether the combination protocol has a cumulative effect on inhibition of facilitated antigen presentation both during and after discontinuation of treatment.

Methods: Ragweed allergen immunotherapy with and without omalizumab therapy was tested in a 4-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Flow cytometry was used to detect serum inhibitory activity for IgE-facilitated CD23-dependent allergen binding to B cells as a surrogate marker for facilitated antigen presentation. Serum ragweed-specific IgG4 was measured by means of ELISA.

Results: Immunotherapy alone resulted in partial inhibition of allergen-IgE binding after 5 to 19 weeks of treatment compared with baseline (P < .01). Complete inhibition of allergen-specific IgE binding was observed in both treatment groups receiving omalizumab (P < .001). Allergen-specific IgG4 levels were only increased after immunotherapy (P < .05), both in the presence and absence of anti-IgE treatment. Combined treatment resulted in the induction of long-lasting inhibitory antibody function for up to 42 weeks compared with either treatment alone.

Conclusion: Ragweed immunotherapy induced serum regulatory antibodies that partially blocked binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells. Additional treatment with anti-IgE, by directly blocking IgE binding to CD23, completely inhibited allergen-IgE binding.

Clinical Implications: The combination of ragweed immunotherapy and anti-IgE resulted in prolonged inhibition of allergen-IgE binding compared with either treatment alone, events that might contribute to enhanced efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2007.05.034DOI Listing
September 2007

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces an allergen-specific IgA2 antibody response associated with mucosal TGF-beta expression.

J Immunol 2007 Apr;178(7):4658-66

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London, U.K.

Allergen immunotherapy (IT) has long-term efficacy in IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis and asthma. IT has been shown to modify lymphocyte responses to allergen, inducing IL-10 production and IgG Abs. In contrast, a putative role for IgA and local TGF-beta-producing cells remains to be determined. In 44 patients with seasonal rhinitis/asthma, serum IgA1, IgA2, and polymeric (J chain-containing) Abs to the major allergen Phl p 5 were determined by ELISA before and after a 2-year double-blind trial of grass pollen (Phleum pratense) injection IT. Nasal TGF-beta expression was assessed by in situ hybridization. Sera from five IT patients were fractionated for functional analysis of the effects of IgA and IgG Abs on IL-10 production by blood monocytes and allergen-IgE binding to B cells. Serum Phl p 5-specific IgA2 Abs increased after a 2-year treatment (approximately 8-fold increase, p = 0.002) in contrast to IgA1. Increases in polymeric Abs to Phl p 5 (approximately 2-fold increase, p = 0.02) and in nasal TGF-beta mRNA (p = 0.05) were also observed, and TGF-beta mRNA correlated with serum Phl p 5 IgA2 (r = 0.61, p = 0.009). Post-IT IgA fractions triggered IL-10 secretion by monocytes while not inhibiting allergen-IgE binding to B cells as observed with IgG fractions. This study shows for the first time that the IgA response to IT is selective for IgA2, correlates with increased local TGF-beta expression, and induces monocyte IL-10 expression, suggesting that IgA Abs could thereby contribute to the tolerance developed in IT-treated allergic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.7.4658DOI Listing
April 2007

Successful sublingual immunotherapy with birch pollen has limited effects on concomitant food allergy to apple and the immune response to the Bet v 1 homolog Mal d 1.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007 Apr 3;119(4):937-43. Epub 2007 Jan 3.

Department of Dermatology, Division of Immunology, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Background: Cross-reactivity between the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, and the apple protein, Mal d 1, frequently causes food allergy.

Objective: To investigate the effects of successful sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with birch pollen extract on apple allergy and the immune response to Bet v 1 and Mal d 1.

Methods: Before and after 1 year of SLIT, Bet v 1-sensitized patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple underwent nasal challenges with birch pollen and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges with apple. Bet v 1-specific and Mal d 1-specific serum antibody levels and proliferation in PBMCs and allergen-specific T-cell lines (TCLs) were determined. Bet v 1-specific TCLs were mapped for T-cell epitopes.

Results: In 9 patients with improved nasal provocation scores to birch pollen, apple-induced oral allergy syndrome was not significantly reduced. Bet v 1-specific IgE and IgG(4) levels significantly increased. Bet v 1-specific T-cell responses to all epitopes and those cross-reactive with Mal d 1 significantly decreased. However, neither Mal d 1-specific IgE and IgG(4) levels nor Mal d 1-induced T-cell proliferation changed significantly. In contrast, Mal d 1-specific TCLs showed increased responses to Mal d 1 after 1 year of SLIT.

Conclusion: This longitudinal study indicates that pollen SLIT does not efficiently alter the immune response to pollen-related food allergens, which may explain why pollen-associated food allergy is frequently not ameliorated by pollen immunotherapy even if respiratory symptoms significantly improve.

Clinical Implications: SLIT with birch pollen may have no clinical effect on associated apple allergy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2006.11.010DOI Listing
April 2007

The IgE-facilitated allergen binding (FAB) assay: validation of a novel flow-cytometric based method for the detection of inhibitory antibody responses.

J Immunol Methods 2006 Dec 5;317(1-2):71-9. Epub 2006 Oct 5.

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London, SW3 6LY, UK.

The IgE-facilitated allergen binding (IgE-FAB) assay represents an in vitro model of facilitated allergen presentation. Allergen-IgE complexes are incubated with an EBV-transformed B cell line and complexes bound to CD23 on the surface of cells are detected by flow cytometry. The addition of serum from patients who have received allergen-specific immunotherapy has been shown previously to inhibit allergen-IgE complex binding to CD23 on B cells. In this study, we describe the characterisation and analytical validation of the grass pollen-specific IgE-FAB assay according to guidelines from the International Conference on Harmonisation. We established the intra- and inter-assay variability of IgE-FAB and have defined the detection limits of this assay. We have also demonstrated assay linearity and robustness. Using the results from a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of grass pollen immunotherapy (n=33), we have defined the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the IgE-FAB assay using ROC curve analysis. In conclusion, the IgE-FAB assay is reproducible, robust, sensitive and a specific method suitable as a tool for monitoring inhibitory antibody function from patients receiving allergen immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2006.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1934503PMC
December 2006

IgE-facilitated antigen presentation: role in allergy and the influence of allergen immunotherapy.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2006 May;26(2):333-47, viii-ix

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College, National Heart and Lung Institute, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK.

IgE-facilitated allergen presentation (FAP) is an important pathogenic mechanism in allergic disease and represents a potential therapeutic target. Allergen immunotherapy is a highly effective therapy, particularly in patients with seasonal pollinosis who fail to respond to usual pharmacotherapy. Allergen immunotherapy induces "blocking" IgG antibodies that are detectable in serum and have been shown to inhibit IgE-FAP in vitro. This review summarizes the main components involved in IgE-FAP and the potential value of a validated functional assay of serum inhibitory antibodies for IgE-FAP for monitoring the clinical response to immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2006.02.004DOI Listing
May 2006

Peptide-based vaccination: where do we stand?

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2005 Dec;5(6):537-43

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents the only causative approach towards allergy treatment. Specific immunotherapy can, however, include allergic reactions and occasionally life-threatening anaphylaxis. Peptides have been evaluated as a potential therapeutic approach in atopic allergic disease because they have the potential to inhibit T-cell function but not induce anaphylaxis.

Recent Findings: Data from early clinical trials of peptide vaccination revealed that therapy was associated with a modest improvement in allergic disease, and was accompanied by a high frequency of adverse reactions. More recent studies have demonstrated improved clinical outcomes, improved safety, and have defined the mechanisms of adverse events observed in earlier studies. Mechanisms of peptide vaccination include the hyporesponsiveness of allergen-specific responses and the induction of regulatory T cells and cytokines. Novel peptide design has allowed the generation of fragments that contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes, lack B cell epitopes, and can induce protective IgG responses in both mice and humans. Other approaches have focused on hypoallergenic B-cell epitopes that induce inhibitory IgG antibodies. Peptides that specifically induce regulatory cytokine production would also enhance peptide vaccines. Several recent studies have described immunodominant epitopes from major allergens that may form candidate peptides for use in peptide vaccination.

Summary: The manipulation of peptide epitopes may provide a strategy for the rational design of peptide allergy vaccines further improving safety and efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.all.0000191234.97760.88DOI Listing
December 2005

Adjuvants for allergen immunotherapy: experimental results and clinical perspectives.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2004 Dec;4(6):543-8

Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London SW3 6LY, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Inclusion of adjuvants in immunotherapy vaccines are important to enhance immune responses to allergens. This article will cover the recent advances in adjuvant formulations described in published articles primarily over the past 2 years.

Recent Findings: Traditionally, allergen immunotherapy preparations utilize aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant. These have generally proved efficacious and have a good safety profile. However, recent advances in the understanding of immunological mechanisms underlying immunotherapy and in the design of new adjuvants may allow a more rational approach to adjuvant use. One approach is to use adjuvants such as immunostimulatory sequences or monophosphoryl lipid A, which can deviate allergy-associated Th2 immune responses towards a Th1 phenotype. Both of these adjuvants have been used in pilot controlled clinical trials which have demonstrated clinical efficacy and the induction of protective IgG antibodies. Other approaches to improve immunotherapy vaccines include microencapsulation of allergen to allow delivery of the allergen directly to the gut in order to induce immunological tolerance and vaccination with heat-killed mycobacteria.

Summary: There is great interest in newly designed adjuvants to improve the efficacy and safety of allergen immunotherapy. A better understanding of immunological mechanisms and further clinical trials utilizing new adjuvants are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00130832-200412000-00012DOI Listing
December 2004

Mechanisms of immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004 Jun;113(6):1025-34; quiz 1035

Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College School of Medicine, Doverhouse Street, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom.

Specific allergen injection immunotherapy is highly effective in IgE-mediated diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and venom anaphylaxis. Immunotherapy inhibits both early and late responses to allergen exposure. Immunotherapy is accompanied by increases in allergen-specific IgG, particularly the IgG4 isotype, which blocks not only IgE-dependent histamine release from basophils but also IgE-mediated antigen presentation to T cells. Immunotherapy acts on T cells to modify peripheral and mucosal T(H)2 responses to allergen in favor of T(H)1 responses. Recent studies have identified increased IL-10 production in peripheral blood and mucosal surfaces after immunotherapy. IL-10 has numerous potential antiallergic properties, including suppression of mast cell, eosinophil, and T-cell responses, as well as acting on B cells to favor heavy chain class switching to IgG4. These IL-10-producing cells might be so-called regulatory T cells and appear to be identified by the CD4(+)CD25(+) phenotype. Studies in mice suggest that dendritic cells play a vital role in induction of regulatory T cells. Novel approaches to immunotherapy currently being explored include the use of adjuvants, such as monophosphoryl lipid A or nucleotide immunostimulatory sequences derived from bacteria that potentiate T(H)1 responses. Alternative strategies include the use of allergen-derived peptides or modified recombinant allergen vaccines that act on T cells while minimizing the IgE-dependent mast cell activation that is dependent on the native allergen conformation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2004.03.024DOI Listing
June 2004

Grass pollen immunotherapy induces mucosal and peripheral IL-10 responses and blocking IgG activity.

J Immunol 2004 Mar;172(5):3252-9

Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom.

T regulatory cells and IL-10 have been implicated in the mechanism of immunotherapy in patients with systemic anaphylaxis following bee stings. We studied the role of IL-10 in the induction of clinical, cellular, and humoral tolerance during immunotherapy for local mucosal allergy in subjects with seasonal pollinosis. Local and systemic IL-10 responses and serum Ab concentrations were measured before/after a double-blind trial of grass pollen (Phleum pratense, Phl P) immunotherapy. We observed local increases in IL-10 mRNA-positive cells in the nasal mucosa after 2 years of immunotherapy, but only during the pollen season. IL-10 protein-positive cells were also increased and correlated with IL-10 mRNA(+) cells. These changes were not observed in placebo-treated subjects or in healthy controls. Fifteen and 35% of IL-10 mRNA signals were colocalized to CD3(+) T cells and CD68(+) macrophages, respectively, whereas only 1-2% of total CD3(+) cells and 4% of macrophages expressed IL-10. Following immunotherapy, peripheral T cells cultured in the presence of grass pollen extract also produced IL-10. Immunotherapy resulted in blunting of seasonal increases in serum allergen Phl p 5-specific IgE, 60- to 80-fold increases in Phl p 5-specific IgG, and 100-fold increases in Phl p 5-specific IgG4. Post-immunotherapy serum exhibited inhibitory activity, which coeluted with IgG4, and blocked IgE-facilitated binding of allergen-IgE complexes to B cells. Both the increases in IgG and the IgG "blocking" activity correlated with the patients' overall assessment of improvement. Thus, grass pollen immunotherapy may induce allergen-specific, IL-10-dependent "protective" IgG4 responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.3252DOI Listing
March 2004

CXCR1+CD4+ T cells in human allergic disease.

J Immunol 2004 Jan;172(1):268-73

Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, United Kingdom.

Chemokine receptors play an important role in the migration of leukocytes to sites of allergic inflammation in humans. In this study, we have identified increased expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR1 on CD4+ T lymphocytes derived from patients with atopic disease compared with normal donors. Enhanced expression of CXCR1 by atopic donors was identified on freshly isolated peripheral blood cells and on expanded cell populations derived from nasal mucosal biopsies and from the periphery. Identification of CXCR1 expression on CD4 cells in the nasal mucosa was confirmed by double immunofluorescence. In addition, expression of CXCR1 was dramatically decreased in patients undergoing successful treatment of allergic rhinitis by specific immunotherapy. CXCR1 provided a functional receptor capable of regulating T cells in the context of allergic disease, since expression of CXC chemokine ligand 8 was up-regulated at the site of allergic inflammation and freshly isolated CXCR1+CD4+ cells from atopic donors showed an enhanced functional response to this ligand. CXCR1 expression on CD4+ T cells was increased in vitro in response to the pro-Th2 cytokine IL-4. Phenotypic analysis reveals that IFN-gamma expression was lower in the CXCR1+CD4+ cells. The identification of CXCR1 as a marker of allergic rhinitis reveals a possible target for therapeutic intervention in atopic disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.1.268DOI Listing
January 2004

Induction of IL-10+CD4+CD25+ T cells by grass pollen immunotherapy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003 Jun;111(6):1255-61

Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK.

Background: Immunotherapy involves the modulation of allergen-specific T-cell responses, either T(H)2-to-T(H)1 immune deviation or, in bee venom-treated patients, induction of IL-10 production by CD4+CD25+ T cells. IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have emerged as potential mediators of immune tolerance in numerous murine models of immunopathology.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of IL-10 production and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the response to grass pollen immunotherapy.

Methods: PBMCs were isolated from patients after 1 year of grass pollen immunotherapy and from matched untreated atopic and healthy control subjects. After 6 days of in vitro stimulation with Phleum pratense, production of IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, and IFN-gamma and proliferation and numbers of CD4+CD25+ T cells were measured. T cells were then stimulated for a further 5 hours with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin and assessed for intracellular IL-10 by means of flow cytometry.

Results: Patients undergoing immunotherapy produced significantly more IL-10 than atopic control subjects (patients undergoing immunotherapy, 116 +/- 21 pg/mL [n = 11]; atopic patients, 30 +/- 5 pg/mL [n = 11]; P <.001), and the number of CD4+CD25+ cells identified after allergen stimulation was also greater in the immunotherapy group. The numbers of CD4+CD25+ T cells correlated positively with activation as measured by proliferation in both of the control groups but not in the immunotherapy group. Moreover, only T cells from patients undergoing immunotherapy were positive for intracellular IL-10, and these were almost exclusively CD4+CD25+ cells.

Conclusion: Grass pollen immunotherapy results in a population of circulating T cells that express the IL-10(+) CD4+CD25+ phenotype in response to allergen restimulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mai.2003.1570DOI Listing
June 2003

CCR4 in human allergen-induced late responses in the skin and lung.

Eur J Immunol 2002 Jul;32(7):1933-8

Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, GB.

We studied the regulation of CCR4 expression in peripheral blood and in human models of cutaneous and pulmonary allergen challenge. CCR4 expression was detectable on freshly isolated CD4+ lymphocytes and in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines derived from blood of atopic donors. Numbers of CCR4+ cells were up-regulated in T cell lines expanded in the presence of IL-4. CCR4 mRNA was absent at baseline in normal subjects in lung and skin, but present at baseline in the lung of some atopics. Baseline expression of CCR4 mRNA and protein was higher in lung vs. skin, but allergen-induced increases in CCR4 mRNA+ cells were observed in both organs. CCR4 protein+ cells were present at higher levels after allergen challenge in atopics compared to normal subjects. CCR4 may be important in the recruitment of T lymphocytes at sites of allergic inflammation, in a non-organ-specific manner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200207)32:7<1933::AID-IMMU1933>3.0.CO;2-RDOI Listing
July 2002
-->