Publications by authors named "James N Connelly"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The internal structure and geodynamics of Mars inferred from a 4.2-Gyr zircon record.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 16;117(49):30973-30979. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Globe Institute, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark;

Combining U-Pb ages with Lu-Hf data in zircon provides insights into the magmatic history of rocky planets. The Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034/7533 meteorites are samples of the southern highlands of Mars containing zircon with ages as old as 4476.3 ± 0.9 Ma, interpreted to reflect reworking of the primordial Martian crust by impacts. We extracted a statistically significant zircon population ( = 57) from NWA 7533 that defines a temporal record spanning 4.2 Gyr. Ancient zircons record ages from 4485.5 ± 2.2 Ma to 4331.0 ± 1.4 Ma, defining a bimodal distribution with groupings at 4474 ± 10 Ma and 4442 ± 17 Ma. We interpret these to represent intense bombardment episodes at the planet's surface, possibly triggered by the early migration of gas giant planets. The unradiogenic initial Hf-isotope composition of these zircons establishes that Mars's igneous activity prior to ∼4.3 Ga was limited to impact-related reworking of a chemically enriched, primordial crust. A group of younger detrital zircons record ages from 1548.0 ± 8.8 Ma to 299.5 ± 0.6 Ma. The only plausible sources for these grains are the temporally associated Elysium and Tharsis volcanic provinces that are the expressions of deep-seated mantle plumes. The chondritic-like Hf-isotope compositions of these zircons require the existence of a primitive and convecting mantle reservoir, indicating that Mars has been in a stagnant-lid tectonic regime for most of its history. Our results imply that zircon is ubiquitous on the Martian surface, providing a faithful record of the planet's magmatic history.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2016326117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733809PMC
December 2020

Isotopic evidence for anthropogenic lead exposure on a 17th/18th century Barbadian plantation.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 03 16;171(3):529-538. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Section for Evolutionary Genomics, The GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: To identify and characterize anthropogenic lead sources on a 17th/18th century Barbadian plantation and to test if lead isotope analyses can be used to identify the geographic origins of first-generation African captives.

Materials And Methods: We carried out lead (Pb) isotope analyses on dental enamel samples from 24 individuals from the Newton Plantation Cemetery in Barbados, which had previously been analyzed for strontium (Sr) and oxygen (O) isotope composition (Schroeder et al., American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2009, 139:547-557) and Pb concentrations (Schroeder et al., American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2013, 150:203-209.

Results: We are able to identify British Pb sources, and more specifically Bristol/Mendips Pb, as the most likely source of anthropogenic Pb on the plantation, highlighting the impact of the British Atlantic economy on the lives of enslaved peoples in Barbados during the period of plantation slavery. Furthermore, we find that there is only one clear outlier among seven individuals who had previously been identified as African-born based on their enamel Sr isotope composition (Schroeder et al., American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2009, 139:547-557). All other individuals present a very homogenous Pb isotope composition, which overlaps with that of British Pb sources.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that while Pb isotope analyses can help identify and further characterize the sources of anthropogenic Pb in plantation settings, they might not be suited for identifying the origins of African-born individuals in diasporic contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028029PMC
March 2020

Atmosphere-ocean oxygen and productivity dynamics during early animal radiations.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 09 9;116(39):19352-19361. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The proliferation of large, motile animals 540 to 520 Ma has been linked to both rising and declining O levels on Earth. To explore this conundrum, we reconstruct the global extent of seafloor oxygenation at approximately submillion-year resolution based on uranium isotope compositions of 187 marine carbonates samples from China, Siberia, and Morocco, and simulate O levels in the atmosphere and surface oceans using a mass balance model constrained by carbon, sulfur, and strontium isotopes in the same sedimentary successions. Our results point to a dynamically viable and highly variable state of atmosphere-ocean oxygenation with 2 massive expansions of seafloor anoxia in the aftermath of a prolonged interval of declining atmospheric pO levels. Although animals began diversifying beforehand, there were relatively few new appearances during these dramatic fluctuations in seafloor oxygenation. When O levels again rose, it occurred in concert with predicted high rates of photosynthetic production, both of which may have fueled more energy to predators and their armored prey in the evolving marine ecosystem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1901178116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6765300PMC
September 2019

Volatile element evolution of chondrules through time.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 08 6;115(34):8547-8552. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 7154, 75238 Paris Cedex 05, France.

Chondrites and their main components, chondrules, are our guides into the evolution of the Solar System. Investigating the history of chondrules, including their volatile element history and the prevailing conditions of their formation, has implications not only for the understanding of chondrule formation and evolution but for that of larger bodies such as the terrestrial planets. Here we have determined the bulk chemical composition-rare earth, refractory, main group, and volatile element contents-of a suite of chondrules previously dated using the Pb-Pb system. The volatile element contents of chondrules increase with time from ∼1 My after Solar System formation, likely the result of mixing with a volatile-enriched component during chondrule recycling. Variations in the Mn/Na ratios signify changes in redox conditions over time, suggestive of decoupled oxygen and volatile element fugacities, and indicating a decrease in oxygen fugacity and a relative increase in the fugacities of in-fluxing volatiles with time. Within the context of terrestrial planet formation via pebble accretion, these observations corroborate the early formation of Mars under relatively oxidizing conditions and the protracted growth of Earth under more reducing conditions, and further suggest that water and volatile elements in the inner Solar System may not have arrived pairwise.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807263115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112700PMC
August 2018

Evidence for extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization and crust formation on Mars.

Nature 2018 06 27;558(7711):586-589. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Centre for Star and Planet Formation and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The formation of a primordial crust is a critical step in the evolution of terrestrial planets but the timing of this process is poorly understood. The mineral zircon is a powerful tool for constraining crust formation because it can be accurately dated with the uranium-to-lead (U-Pb) isotopic decay system and is resistant to subsequent alteration. Moreover, given the high concentration of hafnium in zircon, the lutetium-to-hafnium (Lu-Hf) isotopic decay system can be used to determine the nature and formation timescale of its source reservoir. Ancient igneous zircons with crystallization ages of around 4,430 million years (Myr) have been reported in Martian meteorites that are believed to represent regolith breccias from the southern highlands of Mars. These zircons are present in evolved lithologies interpreted to reflect re-melted primary Martian crust , thereby potentially providing insight into early crustal evolution on Mars. Here, we report concomitant high-precision U-Pb ages and Hf-isotope compositions of ancient zircons from the NWA 7034 Martian regolith breccia. Seven zircons with mostly concordant U-Pb ages define Pb/Pb dates ranging from 4,476.3 ± 0.9 Myr ago to 4,429.7 ± 1.0 Myr ago, including the oldest directly dated material from Mars. All zircons record unradiogenic initial Hf-isotope compositions inherited from an enriched, andesitic-like crust extracted from a primitive mantle no later than 4,547 Myr ago. Thus, a primordial crust existed on Mars by this time and survived for around 100 Myr before it was reworked, possibly by impacts, to produce magmas from which the zircons crystallized. Given that formation of a stable primordial crust is the end product of planetary differentiation, our data require that the accretion, core formation and magma ocean crystallization on Mars were completed less than 20 Myr after the formation of the Solar System. These timescales support models that suggest extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization leading to a gravitationally unstable stratified mantle, which subsequently overturns, resulting in decompression melting of rising cumulates and production of a primordial basaltic to andesitic crust.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0222-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6107064PMC
June 2018

Early formation of planetary building blocks inferred from Pb isotopic ages of chondrules.

Sci Adv 2017 08 9;3(8):e1700407. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The most abundant components of primitive meteorites (chondrites) are millimeter-sized glassy spherical chondrules formed by transient melting events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Using Pb-Pb dates of 22 individual chondrules, we show that primary production of chondrules in the early solar system was restricted to the first million years after the formation of the Sun and that these existing chondrules were recycled for the remaining lifetime of the protoplanetary disk. This finding is consistent with a primary chondrule formation episode during the early high-mass accretion phase of the protoplanetary disk that transitions into a longer period of chondrule reworking. An abundance of chondrules at early times provides the precursor material required to drive the efficient and rapid formation of planetary objects via chondrule accretion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5550225PMC
August 2017

Pb-Pb dating of individual chondrules from the CB chondrite Gujba: Assessment of the impact plume formation model.

Meteorit Planet Sci 2015 Jul;50(7):1197-1216

Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.

The CB chondrites are metal-rich meteorites with characteristics that sharply distinguish them from other chondrite groups. Their unusual chemical and petrologic features and a young formation age of bulk chondrules dated from the CB chondrite Gujba are interpreted to reflect a single-stage impact origin. Here, we report high-precision internal isochrons for four individual chondrules of the Gujba chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrites and evaluate the concordancy of relevant short-lived radionuclide chronometers. All four chondrules define a brief formation interval with a weighted mean age of 4562.49 ± 0.21 Myr, consistent with its origin from the vapor-melt impact plume generated by colliding planetesimals. Formation in a debris disk mostly devoid of nebular gas and dust sets an upper limit for the solar protoplanetary disk lifetime at 4.8 ± 0.3 Myr. Finally, given the well-behaved Pb-Pb systematics of all four chondrules, a precise formation age and the concordancy of the Mn-Cr, Hf-W, and I-Xe short-lived radionuclide relative chronometers, we propose that Gujba may serve as a suitable time anchor for these systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/maps.12461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4946626PMC
July 2015

Early accretion of protoplanets inferred from a reduced inner solar system Al inventory.

Earth Planet Sci Lett 2015 Jun;420:45-54

Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350, Denmark.

The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10-1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide Al (Al→Mg; = 0.73 Ma), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its subsequent cooling history. Currently, precise knowledge about the initial Al abundance [(Al/Al)] exists only for the oldest known solids, calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) - the so-called canonical value. We have determined the Al/Al of three angrite meteorites, D'Orbigny, Sahara 99555 and NWA 1670, at their time of crystallization, which corresponds to (3.98 ± 0.15)×10, (3.64 ± 0.18)×10, and (5.92 ± 0.59)×10, respectively. Combined with a newly determined absolute U-corrected Pb-Pb age for NWA 1670 of 4564.39 ± 0.24 Ma and published U-corrected Pb-Pb ages for the other two angrites, this allows us to calculate an initial (Al/Al) of [Formula: see text] for the angrite parent body (APB) precursor material at the time of CAI formation, a value four times lower than the accepted canonical value of 5.25 × 10. Based on their similar Cr/Cr ratios, most inner solar system materials likely accreted from material containing a similar Al/Al ratio as the APB precursor at the time of CAI formation. To satisfy the abundant evidence for widespread planetesimal differentiation, the subcanonical Al budget requires that differentiated planetesimals, and hence protoplanets, accreted rapidly within 0.25 ± 0.15 Ma of the formation of canonical CAIs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2015.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4946628PMC
June 2015

Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 Feb 4;113(7):1731-6. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark; The Nordic Center for Earth Evolution at the Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark;

The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon-oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1523449113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763753PMC
February 2016

Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Mar 9;112(12):E1406-13. Epub 2015 Mar 9.

Institute of Biology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, University of Southern Denmark, 5230 Odense M, Denmark;

Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1502239112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378410PMC
March 2015

Uranium isotopes distinguish two geochemically distinct stages during the later Cambrian SPICE event.

Earth Planet Sci Lett 2014 Sep;401:313-326

Centre for Star and Planet Formation (StarPlan) and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Anoxic marine zones were common in early Paleozoic oceans (542-400 Ma), and present a potential link to atmospheric pO via feedbacks linking global marine phosphorous recycling, primary production and organic carbon burial. Uranium () isotopes in carbonate rocks track the extent of ocean anoxia, whereas carbon () and sulfur () isotopes track the burial of organic carbon and pyrite sulfur (primary long-term sources of atmospheric oxygen). In combination, these proxies therefore reveal the comparative dynamics of ocean anoxia and oxygen liberation to the atmosphere over million-year time scales. Here we report high-precision uranium isotopic data in marine carbonates deposited during the Late Cambrian 'SPICE' event, at ca. 499 Ma, documenting a well-defined -0.18‰ negative U excursion that occurs at the onset of the SPICE event's positive C and S excursions, but peaks (and tails off) before them. Dynamic modelling shows that the different response of the U reservoir cannot be attributed solely to differences in residence times or reservoir sizes - suggesting that two chemically distinct ocean states occurred within the SPICE event. The first ocean stage involved a global expansion of euxinic waters, triggering the spike in U burial, and peaking in conjunction with a well-known trilobite extinction event. During the second stage widespread euxinia waned, causing U removal to tail off, but enhanced organic carbon and pyrite burial continued, coinciding with evidence for severe sulfate depletion in the oceans (Gill et al., 2011). We discuss scenarios for how an interval of elevated pyrite and organic carbon burial could have been sustained without widespread euxinia in the water column (both non-sulfidic anoxia and/or a more oxygenated ocean state are possibilities). Either way, the SPICE event encompasses two different stages of elevated organic carbon and pyrite burial maintained by high nutrient fluxes to the ocean, and potentially sustained by internal marine geochemical feedbacks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326682PMC
September 2014

182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 May 13;110(22):8819-23. Epub 2013 May 13.

Centre for Star and Planet Formation and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1300383110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3670341PMC
May 2013

The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk.

Science 2012 Nov;338(6107):651-5

Centre for Star and Planet Formation and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs and chondrules from primitive meteorites. CAIs define a brief formation interval corresponding to an age of 4567.30 ± 0.16 million years (My), whereas chondrule ages range from 4567.32 ± 0.42 to 4564.71 ± 0.30 My. These data refute the long-held view of an age gap between CAIs and chondrules and, instead, indicate that chondrule formation started contemporaneously with CAIs and lasted ~3 My. This time scale is similar to disk lifetimes inferred from astronomical observations, suggesting that the formation of CAIs and chondrules reflects a process intrinsically linked to the secular evolution of accretionary disks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1226919DOI Listing
November 2012

Chronological evidence that the Moon is either young or did not have a global magma ocean.

Nature 2011 Aug 17;477(7362):70-2. Epub 2011 Aug 17.

Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue L-231, Livermore, California 94550, USA.

Chemical evolution of planetary bodies, ranging from asteroids to the large rocky planets, is thought to begin with differentiation through solidification of magma oceans many hundreds of kilometres in depth. The Earth's Moon is the archetypical example of this type of differentiation. Evidence for a lunar magma ocean is derived largely from the widespread distribution, compositional and mineralogical characteristics, and ancient ages inferred for the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite of lunar crustal rocks. The FANs are considered to be primary lunar flotation-cumulate crust that crystallized in the latter stages of magma ocean solidification. According to this theory, FANs represent the oldest lunar crustal rock type. Attempts to date this rock suite have yielded ambiguous results, however, because individual isochron measurements are typically incompatible with the geochemical make-up of the samples, and have not been confirmed by additional isotopic systems. By making improvements to the standard isotopic techniques, we report here the age of crystallization of FAN 60025 using the (207)Pb-(206)Pb, (147)Sm-(143)Nd and (146)Sm-(142)Nd isotopic systems to be 4,360 ± 3 million years. This extraordinarily young age requires that either the Moon solidified significantly later than most previous estimates or the long-held assumption that FANs are flotation cumulates of a primordial magma ocean is incorrect. If the latter is correct, then much of the lunar crust may have been produced by non-magma-ocean processes, such as serial magmatism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10328DOI Listing
August 2011

Evidence for a late supernova injection of 60Fe into the protoplanetary disk.

Science 2007 May;316(5828):1178-81

Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350, Denmark.

High-precision 60Fe-60Ni isotope data show that most meteorites originating from differentiated planetesimals that accreted within 1 million years of the solar system's formation have 60Ni/58Ni ratios that are approximately 25 parts per million lower than samples from Earth, Mars, and chondrite parent bodies. This difference indicates that the oldest solar system planetesimals formed in the absence of 60Fe. Evidence for live 60Fe in younger objects suggests that 60Fe was injected into the protoplanetary disk approximately 1 million years after solar system formation, when 26Al was already homogeneously distributed. Decoupling the first appearance of 26Al and 60Fe constrains the environment where the Sun's formation could have taken place, indicating that it occurred in a dense stellar cluster in association with numerous massive stars.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1141040DOI Listing
May 2007