Publications by authors named "James M Trappe"

43 Publications

The new truffle genus and a new species of from semiarid grasslands of Hungary.

Mycologia 2020 Jul-Aug;112(4):808-818. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University , Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c, Budapest 1117, Hungary.

Truffles with distinct morphological and anatomical features were collected during a study of hypogeous fungi of semiarid sandy grasslands of the Great Hungarian Plain in Hungary, representing the westernmost localities of the Eurasian steppe belt. None of the ascomata were collected near ectomycorrhizal plant species, and none were identified as ectomycorrhizal during previous surveys in the collection area. We studied morphoanatomical characteristics of these truffles with light and scanning electron microscopy and investigated their phylogenetic positions based on analyses of different nuclear loci. The truffles were found to represent two novel lineages that grouped with the clade of the Pezizaceae. One formed a distinct lineage, for which we propose a new genus with a new species characterized by diverse spore ornamentation varying even within one ascus. The truffles in the other lineage clustered with the rarely collected American truffle and share with it similar spore ornamentation and habitat features. However, our material differs from by geographic origin, the quick and strong coloration of the ascomata to dark gray at cut surface or bruised area, varying spore number in asci, and smaller spore size; thus, we describe it as a new species, .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1768760DOI Listing
July 2020

Description and distribution of sp. nov. and in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt.

MycoKeys 2018 11(41):17-27. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Instituto Tecnológico de Ciudad Victoria. Av. Portes Gil 1301 Poniente, 87010 Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México.

The genus is a lineage of diverse ectomycorrhizal, hypogeous, sequestrate ascomycete fungi that are native to temperate forests in the Northern Hemisphere. Recently, many new species of have been described in North America and Asia, based on morphological characteristics and molecular data. Here we describe and illustrate a new species, , based upon phylogenetic analysis and morphological description. We also present a new record for in México. These two species are distributed in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt in the states of México, Michoacán, Guanajuato, Querétaro and Tlaxcala at altitudes between 2,000 and 3,200 meters. These species are associated with () and forests ().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.41.28130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194138PMC
October 2018

sp. nov., a truffle species from Mexico belonging to the Maculatum clade (Tuberaceae, Pezizales).

MycoKeys 2018 28(30):61-72. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 3200 Jefferson Way, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331, USA.

A new species of truffle, , is described from central Mexico. can be distinguished from other related species synoptically by a combination of morphological features including ascospore size, pellis cells with irregular thickness, cystidia, ascoma colour and associated host ( an endemic species from central Mexico); sequence variation on the ITS rDNA also distinguishes from related species. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA demonstrates that belongs to the Maculatum clade and is unique from other similar small, white-cream coloured species distributed in north-eastern Mexico such as and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.30.22887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904530PMC
February 2018

Multigene phylogeny of , an early diverging lineage of fungi associated with plants.

IMA Fungus 2017 Dec 3;8(2):245-257. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Department of Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

is a lineage of early diverging fungi within . Many species in this order produce small sporophores ("sporocarps") containing a large number of zygospores, and many species form symbioses with plants. However, due to limited collections, subtle morphological differentiation, difficulties in growing these organisms , and idiosyncrasies in their rDNA that make PCR amplification difficult, the systematics and character evolution of these fungi have been challenging to resolve. To overcome these challenges we generated a multigene phylogeny of using sporophores collected over the past three decades from four continents. Our results show that harbour significant undescribed diversity and form two deeply divergent and well-supported phylogenetic clades, which we delimit as the families and fam. nov. The family consists of the genus , and many diverse lineages known only from environmental DNA sequences of plant-endosymbiotic fungi. Within there are two clades. One corresponds to and includes the type species, . Species of are characterized by above- and below-ground sporophores, a hollow and infolded sporophore form, a loose zygosporangial hyphal mantle, homogeneous gametangia, and an enigmatic trophic mode with no evidence of ectomycorrhizal association for most species. For the other clade we introduce a new generic name, gen. nov. Members of that genus ( and species complexes, and an undescribed species) are characterized by hypogeous sporophores with a solid gleba, a well-developed zygosporangial hyphal mantle, heterogeneous gametangia, and an ectomycorrhizal trophic mode. Future studies on and will be important for understanding fungal innovations including evolution of macroscopic sporophores and symbioses with plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2017.08.02.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5729711PMC
December 2017

A molecular and morphological re-examination of the generic limits of truffles in the tarzetta-geopyxis lineage - Densocarpa, Hydnocystis, and Paurocotylis.

Fungal Biol 2017 03 13;121(3):264-284. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, 1445 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA; Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Truffle species within the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage share smooth, globose, hyaline spores, but differ in the amount of convolution of hymenia in ascomata. The relationships among truffle species in this lineage have historically been confused. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA from recently collected members of the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage from Asia, Austral Asia, North America, and South America prompted a reinvestigation of species and generic limits in the truffle genera Hydnocystis, Paurocotylis, and Stephensia. Our analyses support emendations of Hydnocystis and Paurocotylis, abandonment of Stephensia and the resurrection of the genus Densocarpa. Nomenclatural changes include the transfer of Stephensia bombycina to Hydnocystis, the transfer of Hydnocystis singeri and Stephensia bynumii to Paurocotylis, the reinstatement of Densocarpa for Stephensia shanori and transfer of Stephensia crocea to Densocarpa. This is the first detection of the genus Paurocotylis in the Americas. We describe three new species, Hydnocystis transitoria from North America, Paurocotylis patagonica from South America, and Paurocotylis watlingii from Australia. Our work highlights the unexplored diversity, morphological plasticity, and remaining taxonomic problems among truffles in the /tarzetta-geopyxis lineage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2016.12.004DOI Listing
March 2017

Phylogenetic overview of the genus Genea (Pezizales, Ascomycota) with an emphasis on European taxa.

Mycologia 2016 Mar-Apr;108(2):441-56. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

We constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Genea, with new molecular data from samples collected in several countries in temperate and Mediterranean Europe, as well as North America. Type specimens and authentic material of most species were examined to support identifications. The molecular identity of the most common species in Genea was compared with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), D1-D2 domains of 28S nuc rDNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α ene (TEF1) profiles of 10 recently proposed taxa, G. brunneocarpa, G. compressa, G. dentata, G. fageticola, G. lobulata, G. oxygala, G. pinicola, G. pseudobalsleyi, G. pseudoverrucosa and G. tuberculata, supporting their status as distinct species. Genea mexicana and G. thaxteri on the one hand and G. sphaerica and G. lespiaultii on the other are closely related. Multiple lineages were recorded for G. verrucosa and G. fragrans, but we found no morphological traits to discriminate among them, so we tentatively interpreted them as cryptic species. A key to species of the genus Genea is provided to facilitate identification. We provide macroscopic images of fresh specimens and of representative spores of most species. Finally, we conducted a molecular analysis of the divergence time for Genea and discuss the implications of our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/15-199DOI Listing
June 2016

Australasian Sequestrate Fungi 19: Hysterangium colossum sp. nov.

IMA Fungus 2015 Jun 26;6(1):115-7. Epub 2015 May 26.

Department of Environmental Studies, Warren Wilson College, P.O. Box 9000, Asheville, North Carolina 28815-9000, USA.

Hysterangium colossum sp. nov., with extraordinarily large basidiomata for the genus, is described from dry Eucalyptus woodlands in the Australian Capital Territory and southeastern New South Wales. It typically grows in confluent clusters and has a thick peridium often invaginated into the gleba.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2015.06.01.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500075PMC
June 2015

Analyses of Sporocarps, Morphotyped Ectomycorrhizae, Environmental ITS and LSU Sequences Identify Common Genera that Occur at a Periglacial Site.

J Fungi (Basel) 2015 May 25;1(1):76-93. Epub 2015 May 25.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Lahti, FIN15140, Finland.

Periglacial substrates exposed by retreating glaciers represent extreme and sensitive environments defined by a variety of abiotic stressors that challenge organismal establishment and survival. The simple communities often residing at these sites enable their analyses in depth. We utilized existing data and mined published sporocarp, morphotyped ectomycorrhizae (ECM), as well as environmental sequence data of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of the ribosomal RNA gene to identify taxa that occur at a glacier forefront in the North Cascades Mountains in Washington State in the USA. The discrete data types consistently identified several common and widely distributed genera, perhaps best exemplified by and . Although we expected low diversity and richness, our environmental sequence data included 37 ITS and 26 LSU operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that likely form ECM. While environmental surveys of metabarcode markers detected large numbers of targeted ECM taxa, both the fruiting body and the morphotype datasets included genera that were undetected in either of the metabarcode datasets. These included hypogeous () and epigeous () taxa, some of which may produce large sporocarps but may possess small and/or spatially patchy genets. We highlight the importance of combining various data types to provide a comprehensive view of a fungal community, even in an environment assumed to host communities of low species richness and diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof1010076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5770010PMC
May 2015

Sequestrate fungi from Patagonian Nothofagus forests: Cystangium (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota).

Mycologia 2015 Jan-Feb;107(1):90-103. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 5000 Cordoba, Argentina.

Six species of Cystangium, a genus of sequestrate taxa related to Russula, were collected in Patagonia (Argentina and Chile) during autumn 2001. Two species, C. depauperatum Singer & A.H. Sm. and C. nothofagi (E. Horak) Trappe, Castellano & T. Lebel, were already known from this region, while four new species, C. domingueziae, C. gamundiae, C. grandihyphatum and C. longisterigmatum, are described, illustrated and a key to the species is provided. In addition, sequences of the ITS (rDNA) region were obtained to explore the phylogenetic relationships of our South American Cystangium species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/13-302DOI Listing
March 2015

Morchella australiana sp. nov., an apparent Australian endemic from New South Wales and Victoria.

Mycologia 2014 Jan-Feb;106(1):113-8

Warren Wilson College, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 9000, Asheville, North Carolina 28815-9000.

An abundant fruiting of a black morel was encountered in temperate northwestern New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during a mycological survey in Sep 2010. The site was west of the Great Dividing Range in a young, dry sclerophyll forest dominated by Eucalyptus and Callitris north of Coonabarabran in an area known as the Pilliga Scrub. Although the Pilliga Scrub is characterized by frequent and often large, intense wildfires, the site showed no sign of recent fire, which suggests this species is not a postfire morel. Caps of the Morchella elata-like morel were brown with blackish ridges supported by a pubescent stipe that became brown at maturity. Because no morel has been described as native to Australia, the collections were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses to assess its identity. Results of these analyses indicated that our collection, together with collections from NSW and Victoria, represented a novel, genealogically exclusive lineage, which is described and illustrated here as Morchella australiana T. F. Elliott, Bougher, O'Donnell & Trappe, sp. nov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/13-065DOI Listing
April 2014

Australasian sequestrate fungi 18: Solioccasus polychromus gen. & sp. nov., a richly colored, tropical to subtropical, hypogeous fungus.

Mycologia 2013 Jul-Aug;105(4):888-95. Epub 2013 May 24.

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Solioccasus polychromus gen. & sp. nov., the most brightly colored hypogeous fungus known, is described from Papua New Guinea and tropical northern Australia south into subtropical forests along the Queensland coast and coastal mountains to near Brisbane. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular data places it as a sister genus to Bothia in the Boletineae, a clade of predominantly ectomycorrhizal boletes. Ectomycorrhizal trees, such as members of the Myrtaceae (Eucalyptus, Corymbia, Lophostemon, Melaleuca spp.) and Allocasuarina littoralis, were present usually in mixture or in some cases dominant, so we infer some or all of them to be among the ectomycorrhizal hosts of S. polychromus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-046DOI Listing
September 2013

The enigmatic truffle Fevansia aurantiaca is an ectomycorrhizal member of the Albatrellus lineage.

Mycorrhiza 2013 Nov 11;23(8):663-8. Epub 2013 May 11.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA,

Fevansia aurantiaca is an orange-colored truffle that has been collected infrequently in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. This sequestrate, hypogeous fungus was originally thought to be related to the genera Rhizopogon or Alpova in the Boletales, but the large, inflated cells in the trama and the very pale spore mass easily segregated it from these genera. To date, no molecular phylogenetic studies have determined its closest relatives. F. aurantiaca was originally discovered in leaf litter beneath Pinaceae, leading Trappe and Castellano (Mycotaxon 75:153-179, 2000) to suggest that it is an ectomycorrhizal symbiont of various members of the Pinaceae. However, without direct ecological or phylogenetic data, it is impossible to confirm the trophic mode of this truffle species. In this study, we combined phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and 28S ribosomal DNA with data on microscopic morphology to determine that F. aurantiaca is a member of the Albatrellus ectomycorrhizal lineage (Albatrellaceae, Russulales).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-013-0502-2DOI Listing
November 2013

Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

PLoS One 2013 2;8(1):e52765. Epub 2013 Jan 2.

Deparment of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle evolution and biodiversity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0052765PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3534693PMC
August 2013

New North American truffles (Tuber spp.) and their ectomycorrhizal associations.

Mycologia 2013 Jan-Feb;105(1):194-209. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

Instituto Tecnológico de Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, México.

Recent surveys of belowground fungal biodiversity in México and USA have revealed many undescribed truffle species, including many in the genus Tuber. Here we describe seven new species: Tuber beyerlei, T. castilloi, T. guevarai, T. lauryi, T. mexiusanum, T. miquihuanense and T. walkeri. Phylogenetic analyses place these species within the Maculatum group, an understudied clade of small truffles with little apparent economic value. These species are among the more taxonomically challenge-ing in the genus. We collected Tuber castilloi, T. mexiusanum and T. guevarai as fruit bodies and ectomycorrhizae on Quercus spp. in forests of eastern México. Tuber mexiusanum has a particularly broad geographic range, being collected in eastern USA under Populus deltoides and in Minnesota and Iowa in mixed hardwood forests. T. walkeri is described from the upper midwestern USA, and T. lauryi and T. beyerlei occur in the western USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-087DOI Listing
March 2013

Nitrogen content, amino acid composition and digestibility of fungi from a nutritional perspective in animal mycophagy.

Fungal Biol 2012 May 3;116(5):590-602. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Ecology, Evolution and Genetics, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.

Fungi comprise a major part of the diet of many animals. Even so, the nutritional value of fungi has been much debated, with some arguing that fungi are nutritionally poor. However, the chemical composition of fungi and of the biology of the animals that eat them are not well understood, particularly in reference to amino acid (AA) composition of fungi and digestibility of fungal protein. We analysed fibre, total nitrogen (N), available N, and AA contents and measured in vitro digestibility of a wide range of epigeous and hypogeous fungi collected in Australia and the USA to test three hypotheses: (i) fungi are nutritionally poor because they contain few nutrients or are otherwise of low digestibility, (ii) fungi vary substantially in their nutritional composition; and (iii) animals can counter this variable quality by eating diverse taxa. Resultant data indicate many fungi are a reasonable source of AAs and digestible nitrogen. However, they vary highly between species in AA content, and the protein has a poor balance of digestible AAs. This helps explain why many mycophagous animals eat a wide array of fungi and often have digestive strategies to cope with fungi, such as foregut fermentation. Another common strategy is to supplement the diet with high quality protein, such as insect protein. Accordingly, evaluating nutritional value of fungi requires consideration of physiology of the animal species and their whole diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2012.02.007DOI Listing
May 2012

Cryptolepiota, a new sequestrate genus in the Agaricaceae with evidence for adaptive radiation in western North America.

Mycologia 2012 Jan-Feb;104(1):164-74. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA.

Phylogenetic analyses based on nLSU and ITS sequence data indicate that the sequestrate genus Gigasperma is polyphyletic. Gigasperma cryptica, which is known only from New Zealand, has affinities with the Cortinariaceae whereas G. americanum and two additional undescribed taxa from western North America are derived from Lepiota within the Agaricaceae. The three North American taxa appear to be recently evolved and are closely related. They occur in similar environments and form a well supported clade indicating that adaptive radiation has occurred within this group of fungi. An independent genus with sequestrate fructifications, Cryptolepiota is proposed to accommodate the three species in this clade. Cryptolepiota microspora and C. mengei are described as new, and G. americanum is transferred to Cryptolepiota. Gigasperma cryptica is illustrated and compared with the species of Cryptolepiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/11-046DOI Listing
May 2012

The dawn of symbiosis between plants and fungi.

Biol Lett 2011 Aug 9;7(4):574-7. Epub 2011 Mar 9.

Department of Biology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

The colonization of land by plants relied on fundamental biological innovations, among which was symbiosis with fungi to enhance nutrient uptake. Here we present evidence that several species representing the earliest groups of land plants are symbiotic with fungi of the Mucoromycotina. This finding brings up the possibility that terrestrialization was facilitated by these fungi rather than, as conventionally proposed, by members of the Glomeromycota. Since the 1970s it has been assumed, largely from the observation that vascular plant fossils of the early Devonian (400 Ma) show arbuscule-like structures, that fungi of the Glomeromycota were the earliest to form mycorrhizas, and evolutionary trees have, until now, placed Glomeromycota as the oldest known lineage of endomycorrhizal fungi. Our observation that Endogone-like fungi are widely associated with the earliest branching land plants, and give way to glomeromycotan fungi in later lineages, raises the new hypothesis that members of the Mucoromycotina rather than the Glomeromycota enabled the establishment and growth of early land colonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2010.1203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130224PMC
August 2011

Terfezia disappears from the American truffle mycota as two new genera and Mattirolomyces species emerge.

Mycologia 2011 Jul-Aug;103(4):831-40. Epub 2011 Jan 24.

Department of Plant Anatomy, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, 1117 Budapest, Hungary.

Reexamination and molecular phylogenetic analyses of American Terfezia species and Mattirolomyces tiffanyae revealed that their generic assignments were wrong. Therefore we here propose these combinations: Mattirolomyces spinosus comb. nov. (≡ Terfezia spinosa), Stouffera longii gen. & comb. nov. (≡ Terfezia longii) and Temperantia tiffanyae gen. & comb. nov. (≡ Mattirolomyces tiffanyae). In addition we describe a new species, Mattirolomyces mexicanus spec. nov. All species belong to the Pezizaceae. Based on these results Terfezia is not known from North America, Mattirolomyces is represented by two species and two new monotypic genera are present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/10-273DOI Listing
September 2011

James Wessell Gerdemann, 1921-2008.

Authors:
James M Trappe

Mycologia 2010 Nov-Dec;102(6):1518-22

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5752, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/10-133DOI Listing
December 2010

A global meta-analysis of Tuber ITS rDNA sequences: species diversity, host associations and long-distance dispersal.

Mol Ecol 2010 Nov 12;19(22):4994-5008. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0338, USA.

Truffles (Tuber) are ectomycorrhizal fungi characterized by hypogeous fruitbodies. Their biodiversity, host associations and geographical distributions are not well documented. ITS rDNA sequences of Tuber are commonly recovered from molecular surveys of fungal communities, but most remain insufficiently identified making it difficult to determine whether these sequences represent conspecific or novel taxa. In this meta-analysis, over 2000 insufficiently identified Tuber sequences from 76 independent studies were analysed within a phylogenetic framework. Species ranges, host associates, geographical distributions and intra- and interspecific ITS variability were assessed. Over 99% of the insufficiently identified Tuber sequences grouped within clades composed of species with little culinary value (Maculatum, Puberulum and Rufum). Sixty-four novel phylotypes were distinguished including 36 known only from ectomycorrhizae or soil. Most species of Tuber showed 1-3% intraspecific ITS variability and >4% interspecific ITS sequence variation. We found 123 distinct phylotypes based on 96% ITS sequence similarity and estimated that Tuber contains a minimum of 180 species. Based on this meta-analysis, species in Excavatum, Maculatum and Rufum clades exhibit preference for angiosperm hosts, whereas those in the Gibbosum clade are preferential towards gymnosperms. Sixteen Tuber species (>13% of the known diversity) have putatively been introduced to continents or islands outside their native range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04855.xDOI Listing
November 2010

Kalapuya brunnea gen. & sp. nov. and its relationship to the other sequestrate genera in Morchellaceae.

Mycologia 2010 Sep-Oct;102(5):1058-65

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-5752, USA.

Kalapuya is described as a new, monotypic truffle genus in the Morchellaceae known only from the Pacific northwestern United States. Its relationship to other hypogeous genera within Morchellaceae is explored by phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal LSU and EF1alpha protein coding region. The type species, K. brunnea, occurs in Douglas-fir forests up to about 50 y old on the west slope of the Cascade Range in Oregon and in the Coastal Ranges of Oregon and northern California. It has a roughened, warty, reddish brown to brown peridium, a solid whitish gleba that develops grayish brown mottling as the spores mature, and produces a cheesy-garlicky odor at maturity. Its smooth, ellipsoid spores resemble those of Morchella spp. but are much larger. The four hypogeous genera known in the Morchellaceae, Kalapuya, Fischerula, Imaia and Leucangium, are distinct from the epigeous genera Morchella and Verpa, but it is uncertain whether they resulted from a single transition to a hypogeous fruiting habit or from multiple independent transitions. Kalapuya, locally known as the Oregon brown truffle, has been commercially harvested for culinary use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/09-232DOI Listing
November 2010

Improved resolution of major clades within Tuber and taxonomy of species within the Tuber gibbosum complex.

Mycologia 2010 Sep-Oct;102(5):1042-57

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0338, USA.

Tuber gibbosum Harkn., described from northern California, originally was thought to be a single, variable species that fruited from autumn through winter to spring. It has become popular as a culinary truffle in northwestern USA, where it is commercially harvested. Morphological studies suggested it might be a complex that includes at least two species. We conducted morphological and phylogenetic studies of the complex to determine how many species it might contain and how they differed morphologically, geographically and seasonally. We also provide the first LSU phylogeny for the genus Tuber. Phylogenetic analyses resolve nine major clades in the genus with high bootstrap support and distinguish the Gibbosum clade from the Aestivum, Excavatum, Macrosporum, Magnatum, Melanosporum, Puberulum, Rufum and Spinoreticulatum clades. Further analyses of ITS and LSU regions revealed four distinct species in the Gibbosum complex. Although morphologically similar the four species differ in spore size and shape and in peridial anatomy. These species share the synapomorphy of having suprapellis hyphae with distinctive, irregular wall swellings at maturity; we have not seen this hyphal type in any other Tuber spp. worldwide. The three new species are named and described as T. bellisporum Bonito & Trappe, T. castellanoi Bonito & Trappe and T. oregonense Trappe, Bonito & Rawlinson.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/09-213DOI Listing
November 2010

Phylogenetic relationships of the Gomphales based on nuc-25S-rDNA, mit-12S-rDNA, and mit-atp6-DNA combined sequences.

Fungal Biol 2010 Feb-Mar;114(2-3):224-34. Epub 2010 Jan 28.

Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5752, USA.

Phylogenetic relationships among Geastrales, Gomphales, Hysterangiales, and Phallales were estimated via combined sequences: nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (nuc-25S-rDNA), mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mit-12S-rDNA), and mitochondrial atp6 DNA (mit-atp6-DNA). Eighty-one taxa comprising 19 genera and 58 species were investigated, including members of the Clathraceae, Gautieriaceae, Geastraceae, Gomphaceae, Hysterangiaceae, Phallaceae, Protophallaceae, and Sphaerobolaceae. Although some nodes deep in the tree could not be fully resolved, some well-supported lineages were recovered, and the interrelationships among Gloeocantharellus, Gomphus, Phaeoclavulina, and Turbinellus, and the placement of Ramaria are better understood. Both Gomphus sensu lato and Ramaria sensu lato comprise paraphyletic lineages within the Gomphaceae. Relationships of the subgenera of Ramaria sensu lato to each other and to other members of the Gomphales were clarified. Within Gomphus sensu lato, Gomphus sensu stricto, Turbinellus, Gloeocantharellus and Phaeoclavulina are separated by the presence/absence of clamp connections, spore ornamentation (echinulate, verrucose, subreticulate or reticulate), and basidiomal morphology (fan-shaped, funnel-shaped or ramarioid). Gautieria, a sequestrate genus in the Gautieriaceae, was recovered as monophyletic and nested with members of Ramaria subgenus Ramaria. This agrees with previous observations of traits shared by these two ectomycorrhizal taxa, such as the presence of fungal mats in the soil. Clavariadelphus was recovered as a sister group to Beenakia, Kavinia, and Lentaria. The results reaffirm relationships between the Geastrales, Gomphales, Hysterangiales, and the Phallales, suggesting extensive convergence in basidiomal morphology among members of these groups. A more extensive sampling that focuses on other loci (protein-coding genes have been shown to be phylogenetically informative) may be useful to answer questions about evolutionary relationships among these fungal groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2010.01.002DOI Listing
February 2011

Suillus quiescens, a new species commonly found in the spore bank in California and Oregon.

Mycologia 2010 Mar-Apr;102(2):438-46

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3102, USA.

Suillus quiescens sp. nov. is common under Pinus muricata on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands in the northern Channel Islands of California, and we subsequently found it fruiting at Point Reyes National Seashore on the central coast of California. Sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region show that it is distinct from all 44 species of Suillus tested, and features of its morphology separate it from all other unsequenced species. Suillus quiescens has a broader distribution than coastal California because it also was encountered as ectomycorrhizae on roots of pine seedlings from the eastern Sierra Nevada, coastal Oregon and the southern Cascade Mountains. The reason it had not been identified from these areas might be due to its resemblance to S. brevipes at maturity or it might be a rare fruiter that persists in the spore bank.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/09-149DOI Listing
May 2010

The hidden life of truffles.

Sci Am 2010 Apr;302(4):78-82, 84

U.S. Forest Service, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0410-78DOI Listing
April 2010

The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits.

Syst Biol 2009 Apr 4;58(2):224-39. Epub 2009 Jun 4.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

We present a 6-gene, 420-species maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Ascomycota, the largest phylum of Fungi. This analysis is the most taxonomically complete to date with species sampled from all 15 currently circumscribed classes. A number of superclass-level nodes that have previously evaded resolution and were unnamed in classifications of the Fungi are resolved for the first time. Based on the 6-gene phylogeny we conducted a phylogenetic informativeness analysis of all 6 genes and a series of ancestral character state reconstructions that focused on morphology of sporocarps, ascus dehiscence, and evolution of nutritional modes and ecologies. A gene-by-gene assessment of phylogenetic informativeness yielded higher levels of informativeness for protein genes (RPB1, RPB2, and TEF1) as compared with the ribosomal genes, which have been the standard bearer in fungal systematics. Our reconstruction of sporocarp characters is consistent with 2 origins for multicellular sexual reproductive structures in Ascomycota, once in the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina and once in the common ancestor of Neolectomycetes. This first report of dual origins of ascomycete sporocarps highlights the complicated nature of assessing homology of morphological traits across Fungi. Furthermore, ancestral reconstruction supports an open sporocarp with an exposed hymenium (apothecium) as the primitive morphology for Pezizomycotina with multiple derivations of the partially (perithecia) or completely enclosed (cleistothecia) sporocarps. Ascus dehiscence is most informative at the class level within Pezizomycotina with most superclass nodes reconstructed equivocally. Character-state reconstructions support a terrestrial, saprobic ecology as ancestral. In contrast to previous studies, these analyses support multiple origins of lichenization events with the loss of lichenization as less frequent and limited to terminal, closely related species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syp020DOI Listing
April 2009

Diversity and habitat relationships of hypogeous fungi. III. Factors influencing the occurrence of fire-adapted species.

Mycol Res 2009 Jun-Jul;113(Pt 6-7):792-801. Epub 2009 Mar 6.

Department of Environment and Climate Change, Parks and Wildlife Group, Planning and Performance Unit, Southern Branch, P.O. Box 733, Queanbeyan, New South Wales 2620, Australia.

Among the huge array of hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungi so far documented from Australia, six genera and more than 30 species occur within the family Mesophelliaceae, all of which show various adaptations for surviving in fire-prone landscapes. These mostly endemic fungi are critical to postfire reestablishment of regenerating vegetation, and their fruit-bodies provide essential food resources for diverse ground-dwelling fauna. We developed habitat models for five common representatives of the Mesophelliaceae based on repeat collections of their fruit-bodies from 136 study plots situated along a series of environmental gradients across the south-eastern mainland of Australia. At a meso- or landscape scale, temperature influenced the occurrence of Castoreum radicatum, Mesophellia clelandii and Nothocastoreum cretaceum, with the type of response varying. Below a threshold, C. radicatum preferred sites with cooler mean annual temperatures. In contrast, M. clelandii and N. cretaceum had optimal ranges of temperature, above and below which the probability of detecting them dropped. Also at a landscape scale, C. radicatum was more likely to be detected at sites with lower levels of precipitation during the driest quarter of the year. At a micro-site scale, M. clelandii and N. cretaceum were more likely to occur in stands with an intermediate number of host eucalypt stems, likely relating to successional age of the stand. Sites with a higher number of large fallen trees were more likely to have N. cretaceum, while sites with intermediate litter depths were more likely to have C. radicatum and M. clelandii. Mesophellia glauca and M. trabalis showed no consistent patterns. They are apparently the most broadly adaptable in terms of the independent variables tested. Although fire has been previously suggested to be heavily implicated in the life cycle of several members of the Mesophelliaceae, we found no relationship between time since disturbance by fire and other factors and likelihood of occurrence. Instead, other habitat attributes appeared to be more important in explaining their distribution. The complex and differing responses of the species of Mesophelliaceae studied here, to features of their environment, reinforce the need to manage multiple-use forest landscapes across the region for a diversity of attributes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2009.02.014DOI Listing
June 2009

Imaia, a new truffle genus to accommodate Terfezia gigantea.

Mycologia 2008 Nov-Dec;100(6):930-9

Department of Plant Anatomy, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, 1117 Budapest, Hungary.

Originally described from Japan by Sanshi Imai in 1933, the hypogeous ascomycete Terfezia gigantea was subsequently discovered in the Appalachian Mountains of the USA. Morphological, electron microscopic, and phylogenetic studies of specimens collected in both regions revealed that, despite this huge geographic disjunction, (1) the Japanese and Appalachian specimens are remarkably similar both in morphology and the sampled rDNA sequences, (2) the species unambiguously falls into the Morchellaceae and is separated from the genus Terfezia in the Pezizaceae, (3) its spores are much larger than those of Terfezia spp. and are enclosed in a unique, electron-semitransparent, amorphous epispore that appears to be permeated with minute, meandering strands or canals. In addition to the molecular phylogenetic results, the numerous nuclei in ascospores, the dome shaped, striate ascus septal plugs and the long cylindric Woronin bodies also strengthen the family assignment to the Morchellaceae. Moreover, the species occurs in moist, temperate forests as opposed to the xeric to arid habitats of other Terfezia spp. We propose the new, monotypic genus Imaia to accommodate the species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/08-023DOI Listing
April 2009

Lanostane-type triterpenes from the mushroom Astraeus pteridis with antituberculosis activity.

J Nat Prod 2008 Dec;71(12):2077-9

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA.

Bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the truffle-mimiking mushroom Astraeus pteridis led to the isolation and identification of three new (3-5) and two known (1, 2) lanostane triterpenes and phenylalanine betaine (6). The structures of the isolates were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, HRESIMS results, and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 5 and 1 showed moderate activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 34.0 and 58.0 microg/mL, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np800577pDOI Listing
December 2008

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the truffle Elaphomyces granulatus.

Phytother Res 2009 Apr;23(4):575-8

Department of Pharmacognosy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA.

The ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of Elaphomyces granulatus, a truffle-like fungus, was evaluated for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Inhibition of COX-2 activity was evaluated in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). The extract of E. granulatus caused a 68% inhibition of COX-2 activity at 50 microg/mL. Bioassay-guided investigation led to the isolation and identification of two active compounds, syringaldehyde and syringic acid. Syringaldehyde moderately inhibited COX-2 activity with an IC(50) of 3.5 microg/mL, while syringic acid strongly inhibited COX-2 activity with an IC(50) of 0.4 microg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the extract and isolated compounds was evaluated in HL-60 cells by the DCFH-DA method. The extract of E. granulatus showed a potent antioxidant effect, with an IC(50) of 41 microg/mL. Of the pure compounds, syringic acid displayed a strong antioxidant activity, with an IC(50) of 0.7 microg/mL, while syringaldehyde showed no activity in the assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2698DOI Listing
April 2009