Publications by authors named "James J Yahaya"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rationale of indications for caesarean delivery and associated factors among primigravidae in Tanzania.

J Taibah Univ Med Sci 2021 Jun 13;16(3):350-358. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Science (CHS), The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of modes of delivery and associated maternal and newborn outcomes among singleton primigravidae in the Iringa region of Tanzania.

Methods: A cross-sectional, analytical hospital-based study was conducted in the Iringa region among 356 singleton primigravidae between April and August 2018. Convenience sampling and consecutive collection of data using a face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire was done.

Results: A total of 356 singleton primigravid women with a mean age of 22.0 years (range: 15-49) participated in the study. The majority of the participants (73.0%, n = 250) were in the 20-35 age group. Caesarean and vaginal delivery were performed in 41.3% (n = 147) and 58.7% (n = 209) of the cases, respectively. The maternal height and weight of the newborn were significantly associated with caesarean delivery; ( = 0.001) and ( = 0.029), respectively. After adjusting for all variables, birth asphyxia (AOR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.867-5.646,  = 0.000) and low birth weight (AOR = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.003-0.211,  = 0.001) were associated with caesarean delivery.

Conclusions: The findings of our study indicated the prevalence of caesarean section to be three times more than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Pregnant women with a height of less than 150 cm should be considered for caesarean section. Therefore, it is necessary for stakeholders in the health sector to formulate guidelines for absolute indications for caesarean section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2021.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178681PMC
June 2021

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone of the femur and humerus: a case report and review of the literature.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2021 Apr 28;2021(4):omab024. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Lymphoma of bone is a rare neoplasm composed of malignant lymphoid cells, producing a tumefactive lesion within bone. We report a 13-year-old male who presented with progressively increasing swellings at the right shoulder and right mid-thigh for one month. Radiological images revealed lytic destructive lesions associated with soft tissue masses in both sites and a pathological fracture on the right humerus. The patient had no significant medical history. Histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent in-situ hybridization assessment of biopsies from the lesions confirmed the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone. Unfortunately, due to coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the patient was unable to follow-up treatment and died shortly after establishment of the diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and treatment is of serious concern when it comes to improve the prognosis of patients with this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omab024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082228PMC
April 2021

Transfusion-Transmitted Infections and associated risk factors at the Northern Zone Blood Transfusion Center in Tanzania: A study of blood donors between 2017 and 2019.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(3):e0249061. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Northern Zone Blood Transfusion Center (NZBTC), Moshi, Tanzania.

Background: Blood transfusion saves many people every year that would otherwise have died. The present study aimed to provide an update and insightful information regarding prevalence of the common Transfusion-Transmitted Infections (TTIs) and associated factors among blood donors in Tanzania.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving retrospectively collected data of blood donors from the Tanzania Northern Zone Blood Transfusion Center between 2017 and 2019. Descriptive statistics were performed to describe characteristics of the blood donors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine association between prevalence of TTIs and socio-demographic factors. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 101, 616 blood donors were included in the present study of which 85,053(83.7%) were males while 16,563 (16.3%) were females. Of all participants, the majority 45,400 (44.7%) were aged between 18 and 25 years; 79,582 (78.3%) were voluntary non-remunerated donors while 22,034 (21.7%) were replacement donors. The vast majority of them 99,626 (98%) were first time blood donors while 1990 (2%) were multiple donors. The overall prevalence of TTIs was 10.1% (10,226 out of 101,616) of which the leading was HBV accounting for 5.1% (5,264 out of 101,616). Being a replacement donor was associated with all the four types of TTIs: HIV (AOR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.10-1.35), HBV (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.27-1.44), HCV (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.12-1.46), and syphilis (AOR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.20-1.48).

Conclusions: Our study has demonstrated that Tanzania has relatively high prevalence of TTIs compared to some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. HBV infection seems to be the most common infection among blood donors and replacement blood donors are at a higher risk of harboring the commonest TTIs among blood donors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249061PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990303PMC
March 2021

Primary intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in children: a case report and review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jan 31;15(1):37. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of pathology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania.

Background: The importance of this paper is to help to emphasize the importance of chemotherapy for children with pure intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma after radical inguinal orchiectomy is done as first treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma. The information provided in this paper about the follow-up outcomes of the patient described in this paper, it highlights that, recurrence and even metastasis of intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in children are more likely to occur if surgery it not combined with chemotherapy.

Case Presentation: Herein, we present a 6-year old African male child with a 3 months history of a painless right intratesticular tumour. The tumour was poorly vascularized and was in continuity with the spermatic cord. Pelvic computer tomography (CT) scan showed a heterogeneous mass with well-defined margins without microcalcification and multiple bilateral inguinal enlarged lymph nodes were noticed without pelvic lymphadenopathy. The tumour measured 3.8 × 2.8 × 3.9 cm. The tumour marker panel showed: lactate dehydrogenase of (472 UI/l), alpha-fetoprotein (1.43 UI/ml) and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (2.9 mUI/ml). Microscopically, the tumour was composed of small to medium size undifferentiated cells. These were oval to spindle, hyperchromatic cells to stromal myxoid degeneration were noted. Tunica albuginea and rete testis both were infiltrated by tumour. The tumour showed high mitotic count which measured 50 mitoses per 10 High Power Field (HPF). The diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing using myoD antibody which showed strong and diffuse intranuclear staining of the tumour cells. Currently, he is on cyclophosphamide and vincristine chemotherapy regime and his condition has improved much.

Conclusions: The experience obtained from the index case is crucial for the management of patients with intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma which should always make sure that radical inguinal orchiectomy is covered by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. This will potentially lower the possibilities of recurrence and/or metastasis of the tumour, hence improving the prognosis of the patients. We report the clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics as well as the outcome of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-020-02599-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847602PMC
January 2021

Metastatic Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma in a 13-Year Old Girl: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Mainly Focusing on Treatment and Prognosis.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 27;77:791-794. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Pathology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania; Faculty of Medicine, Kilimanajro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCO), Moshi, Tanzania.

Introduction: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for less than 0.3% of all tumours occurring in children and adolescents and it also affects 2.6% of all renal tumours for the pediatriac population. The aim of this report is to present the case of a 13-year old girl with metastatic papillary RCC and to review the literature mainly on treatment modalities and prognosis of children and adolescents with RCC.

Presentation Of Case: The case of a 13-year old girl is presented. The girl presented with a painless abdominal mass in the right side for three months. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous mass of 15 cm in diameter with metastasis to the liver. Also CT scan of the abdomen and lungs revealed metastasis to the liver and lungs. She underwent radical right nephrectomy.

Discussion: Pediatric RCC is an aggressive malignancy and some series have reported a 50% incidence of metastasis at the point of initial diagnosis similar to our patient who had metastasis to both lungs and liver at the time of initial diagnosis. Over 50% of metastasis of RCC in the pediatric population occurs in the lungs and liver.

Conclusion: RCC in children is extremely rare with no known specific treatment regimen. Early diagnosis when the tumour is still confined to the kidney provides better clinical outcomes since radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy have not been found to improve the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.11.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718312PMC
November 2020

Hormonal Receptors, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 and Triple Negative Immunohistochemical Typing in Women with Breast Cancer in Kampala, Uganda.

Int J Womens Health 2020 27;12:1109-1123. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Pathology, Makerere College of Health Sciences (MaKCHS), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: The expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) has been reported to have an invaluable prognostic role. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of ER, PR and HER2 in women with breast cancer (BC) in Kampala, Uganda.

Methods: Expression of ER, PR and HER2 was determined immunohistochemically. Logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of the independent factors in predicting the risk of not expressing the breast markers. A two-tailed p<0.05 was regarded to be statistically significant.

Results: ER, PR and HER2 were expressed in 53.4%, 46.6% and 18.5%, respectively. ER and PR co-expression was present in 42.7% and 37.9% patients had triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Age was an independent predictor of expression of ER (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.062-0.541, p = 0.002) and PR (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.129-0.968, p = 0.043).

Conclusion: The majority of patients in this study had less than 50 years with high tumour grade. Interestingly, most of them had high expression of HER2 with TNBC which are molecular subtypes of BC with poor prognosis. Age was an independent predictor of expression of both ER and PR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S270082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745719PMC
November 2020

Recurrent giant phyllodes tumour in a 17-year-old female: a rare case report.

Authors:
James J Yahaya

Oxf Med Case Reports 2020 Oct 23;2020(10):omaa089. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Pathology, Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Phyllodes tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial tumours of the breast with incidence accounting for <1% in the general population. Availability of reports on PTs with size of 31 cm or more in diameter in the literature are extremely rare. Herein, the case of a 17-year-old female patient with a giant recurrent right breast PT is reported. Histologically, the tumour showed proliferation of stromal tumour cells consisting of spindle cells with uniform nuclear chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and proliferation labelling index for Ki67 of <10%. PTs require meticulous surgical excision due to the fact that they have a high rate of recurrence and status of surgical margins must be included in the pathology report. This is because recurrent cases of PTs tend to grow faster than the primary ones with a high chance of transforming to malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omaa089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583418PMC
October 2020

Bartholin's gland hyperplasia with dysplastic changes: a rare case report.

Authors:
James J Yahaya

J Surg Case Rep 2020 Sep 18;2020(9):rjaa312. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Science (CHS), The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania.

The purpose of this paper is to report unusual, rarest and interesting case of a patient with nodular hyperplasia of Bartholin's gland with dysplastic changes. The case of a 30-year old female with right-sided Bartholin's gland hyperplasia with dysplastic changes, which was confirmed histopathologically, is presented in this paper. The patient reported increased swelling of the right major labium when she became sexually aroused with intermittent dyspareunia during intercourse. Surgical excision of the swelling was done under general anaesthesia. Healing of the surgical scar was complete and she reported no any discomfort or dyspareunia during sexual intercourse. Bartholin's gland swellings with firm consistency require complete excision due to possibility of being neoplastic rather than just inflammation, cyst or obstructed gland particularly in postmenopausal women. Diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia of Bartholin's gland with areas of dysplastic changes in the present case is of great interest and requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjaa312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500470PMC
September 2020

Diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a resource-limited setting: a case report and review of the literature.

J Surg Case Rep 2020 Jul 23;2020(7):rjaa236. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences (CHS), The University of Dodoma, Dodoma, Tanzania.

Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal soft tissue tumor without attachment to the bone and is able to produce osteoid or cartilaginous matrix. Rendering a definitive diagnosis may pose a challenge particularly in a resource-limited setting. We report a case of primary osteosarcoma of the urinary bladder presenting with hematuria, dysuria and positive history of schistosomal contact. Computed tomography intravenous urogram revealed a large heterogeneous mass at the right superolateral aspect of the urinary bladder. Morphological evaluation of the biopsy and a minimal panel of immunohistochemical antibodies of vimentin and cytokeratin 20 ruled out potential differentials and thus confirmed the diagnosis of osteosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjaa236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378020PMC
July 2020

Missed opportunity of deworming a Maasai boy from nomadic family leading to life threatening intestinal obstruction.

J Surg Case Rep 2020 May 26;2020(5):rjaa096. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of pathology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.

Mass deworming against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, including (AL), is one of the largest public health interventions in low- and middle-income countries. The prevalence of in Tanzania is 6.8%. We present a 3-year-old male of a known Tanzanian nomadic tribe (Masaai tribe) with history of missed deworming, who was brought to the emergency department with a 3-day history of constipation, nonprojectile, bilious vomiting, generalized abdominal distension and pain.

He was diagnosed with intestinal obstruction by the use of a plain abdominal X-ray, which revealed marked gaseous distension of the stomach and bowels without significant air-fluid levels. He was initially treated with intravenous ceftriaxone 50 mg/kg, metronidazole 15 mg/kg and acetaminophen 15 mg/kg. An explorative laparotomy was then performed. Intraoperative findings demonstrated a dense collection of worms in the gangrenous proximal jejunum and duodenum. Thorough abdominal lavage was carried out and abdomen was closed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjaa096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251234PMC
May 2020

Ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules in a 13-year-old female: a case report.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2020 Apr 23;2020(4):omaa024. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pathology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania.

Sex cord tumour with annular tubules (SCTAT) is uncommon and distinctive type of sex cord-stromal tumours of the ovary which develops from sex cord cells. Most of SCTATs are strongly associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) and have low malignancy potential; however, 20% of non-PJS-associated SCTATs have been reported to have high malignancy potential. Herein, we present a 13-year-old female who presented with severe abdominal pain localized in the right lower side, associated with nausea. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, the diagnosis was confirmed to be SCTAT. SCTAT of the ovary is extremely rare in the paediatric population as compared to the general population. Its occurrence among paediatrics as it was the case in the patient described in this paper may pose diagnostic challenges due to lack of clinical suspicion and therefore resulting in delay of diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omaa024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243713PMC
April 2020

Advanced mucinous colorectal carcinoma in a 14-year old male child: A case report and review of the literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 11;70:201-204. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Science (CHS), The University of Dodoma, P. O. Box 395, Dodoma, Tanzania. Electronic address:

Introduction: ColorectaI carcinoma is extremely rare in children and presents with a poor prognosis.

Presentation Of Case: The present report describes the case of a 14-year old male child who presented with complaints of general weakness and recurrent abdominal pain, caused by a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon (Dukes stage which was inoperable.

Discussion: Mucinous histopathological type is the most common type with increased ability to invade the adjacent stromal tissue. This biological behaviour has been reported to be attributable to its aggressive behaviour. Additionally, delay of diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma in children accounts for the advanced disease at diagnosis.

Conclusion: Colorectal carcinoma occurring in both children and adolescents usually have poor prognosis because of not having specific symptoms which contributes to delay of diagnosis. Mimicking of its symptoms with other non-malignant conditions such as intestinal obstruction and acute appendicitis also has been found to contribute to delay of diagnosis as it was in our present case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.04.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229418PMC
May 2020

Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp in a 48-Year-Old Male: A Rare Cause of Intussusception.

Case Rep Surg 2020 3;2020:9251042. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Pathology, Makerere University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Inflammatory fibroid polyp is a neoplastic condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract and particularly the gastric antrum. It is virtually a benign submucosal mass comprising mesenchymal cells and numerous small blood vessels with inflammatory cells and commonly eosinophils. Patients with inflammatory fibroid polyps usually present clinically with mechanical intestinal obstruction with or without intussusception. Herein, we present a case of a 48-year-old male with a known history of schizophrenia who presented with mechanical intestinal obstruction following intussusception due to inflammatory fibroid polyp involving the proximal jejunojejunal part of the jejunum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9251042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970000PMC
January 2020