Publications by authors named "James H Cartwright"

4 Publications

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Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Multi-ancestry GWAS of the electrocardiographic PR interval identifies 202 loci underlying cardiac conduction.

Nat Commun 2020 05 21;11(1):2542. Epub 2020 May 21.

Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality. Here we report a multi-ancestry (N = 293,051) genome-wide association meta-analysis for the PR interval, discovering 202 loci of which 141 have not previously been reported. Variants at identified loci increase the percentage of heritability explained, from 33.5% to 62.6%. We observe enrichment for cardiac muscle developmental/contractile and cytoskeletal genes, highlighting key regulation processes for atrioventricular conduction. Additionally, 8 loci not previously reported harbor genes underlying inherited arrhythmic syndromes and/or cardiomyopathies suggesting a role for these genes in cardiovascular pathology in the general population. We show that polygenic predisposition to PR interval duration is an endophenotype for cardiovascular disease, including distal conduction disease, AF, and atrioventricular pre-excitation. These findings advance our understanding of the polygenic basis of cardiac conduction, and the genetic relationship between PR interval duration and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15706-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242331PMC
May 2020

Genetic variants in TRPM7 associated with unexplained stillbirth modify ion channel function.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 07;29(11):1797-1807

Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.

Stillbirth is the loss of a fetus after 22 weeks of gestation, of which almost half go completely unexplained despite post-mortem. We recently sequenced 35 arrhythmia-associated genes from 70 unexplained stillbirth cases. Our hypothesis was that deleterious mutations in channelopathy genes may have a functional effect in utero that may be pro-arrhythmic in the developing fetus. We observed four heterozygous, nonsynonymous variants in transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a ubiquitously expressed ion channel known to regulate cardiac development and repolarization in mice. We used site-directed mutagenesis and single-cell patch-clamp to analyze the functional effect of the four stillbirth mutants on TRPM7 ion channel function in heterologous cells. We also used cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells to model the contribution of TRPM7 to action potential morphology. Our results show that two TRPM7 variants, p.G179V and p.T860M, lead to a marked reduction in ion channel conductance. This observation was underpinned by a lack of measurable TRPM7 protein expression, which in the case of p.T860M was due to rapid proteasomal degradation. We also report that human hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes possess measurable TRPM7 currents; however, siRNA knockdown did not directly affect action potential morphology. TRPM7 variants found in the unexplained stillbirth population adversely affect ion channel function and this may precipitate fatal arrhythmia in utero.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7372550PMC
July 2020
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