Publications by authors named "James G Radney"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Filtration Efficiencies of Nanoscale Aerosol by Cloth Mask Materials Used to Slow the Spread of SARS-CoV-2.

ACS Nano 2020 07 7;14(7):9188-9200. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States.

Filtration efficiency (), differential pressure (Δ), quality factor (), and construction parameters were measured for 32 cloth materials (14 cotton, 1 wool, 9 synthetic, 4 synthetic blends, and 4 synthetic/cotton blends) used in cloth masks intended for protection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus (diameter 100 ± 10 nm). Seven polypropylene-based fiber filter materials were also measured including surgical masks and N95 respirators. Additional measurements were performed on both multilayered and mixed-material samples of natural, synthetic, or natural-synthetic blends to mimic cloth mask construction methods. Materials were microimaged and tested against size selected NaCl aerosol with particle mobility diameters between 50 and 825 nm. Three of the top five best performing samples were woven 100% cotton with high to moderate yarn counts, and the other two were woven synthetics of moderate yarn counts. In contrast to recently published studies, samples utilizing mixed materials did not exhibit a significant difference in the measured when compared to the product of the individual for the components. The and Δ increased monotonically with the number of cloth layers for a lightweight flannel, suggesting that multilayered cloth masks may offer increased protection from nanometer-sized aerosol with a maximum dictated by breathability (i.e., Δ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c05025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341689PMC
July 2020

Simultaneous transmission and absorption photometry of carbon-black absorption from drop-cast particle-laden filters.

Aerosol Sci Technol 2019 ;53

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.

Simultaneous transmissivity and absorptivity measurements were carried out in the visible at a laser wavelength of 532 nm on drop-cast, carbon-black-laden filters under ambient (laboratory) conditions. The focus of this investigation was to establish the feasibility of this approach to estimate the mass absorption coefficient of the isolated particles and compare results to earlier work with the same carbon-black source. Transmissivity measurements were carried out with a laser probe beam positioned normal to the particle-laden filter surface. Absorptivity measurements were carried out using a laser-heating approach to record in time the sample temperature rise to steady-state and decay back to the ambient temperature. The sample temperature was recorded using a fine-wire thermocouple that was integrated into the transmission arrangement by placing the thermocouple flush with the filter back surface. The advantage of this approach is that the sample absorptivity can be determined directly (using laser heating) instead of resolving the difference between reflectivity (filter surface scattering) and transmissivity. The current approach also provides the filter optical characteristics, as well as an estimate of filter effects on the absorption coefficient due to particle absorption enhancement or shadowing. The approach may also be incorporated into other filter-based techniques, like the particle/soot absorption photometer, with the simple addition of a thermocouple to the commercial instrument. For this investigation, measurements were carried out with several blank uncoated quartz filters. A range of solution concentrations was prepared with a well-characterized carbon black in deionized water (i.e., a water-soluble carbonaceous material referred to as a surrogate black carbon or 'carbon black'). The solution was then drop cast using a calibrated syringe onto blank filters to vary particle loading. After evaporation of the water, the measurements were repeated with the coated filters. The measurement repeatability (95% confidence level) was better than 0.3 K for temperature and 3 × 10 mW for laser power. From the measurements with both the blank and coated filters, the absorption coefficient was determined for the isolated particles. The results were then compared with an earlier investigation by You et al. and Zangmeister and Radney, who used the same carbon-black material. The measurements were also compared with Lorenz-Mie computations for a polydispersion of spherical particles dispersed throughout a volume representative of the actual particles. The mass absorption coefficient for the polydispersion of carbon-black particles was estimated to be about 7.7 ± 1.4m g, which was consistent with the results expected for these carbon black particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2019.1577950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6774385PMC
January 2019

Comparing Aerosol Refractive Indices Retrieved from Full Distribution and Size- and Mass-Selected Measurements.

J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2018 ;220

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899, USA.

Refractive index retrievals (also termed inverse Mie methods or optical closure) have seen considerable use as a method to extract the refractive index of aerosol particles from measured optical properties. Retrievals of an aerosol refractive index use one of two primary methods: 1) measurements of the extinction, absorption and/or scattering cross-sections or efficiencies of size- (and mass-) selected particles for mass-mobility refractive index retrievals (MM-RIR) or 2) measurements of aerosol size distributions and a combination of the extinction, absorption and/or scattering coefficients for full distribution refractive index retrievals (FD-RIR). These two methods were compared in this study using pure and mixtures of ammonium sulfate (AS) and nigrosin aerosol, which constitute a non-absorbing and absorbing material, respectively. The results indicate that the retrieved complex refractive index values are correlated to the amount of nigrosin in the aerosol but can be highly variable with differences in the real and imaginary components that range between -0.002 and 0.216 and -0.013 and 0.086; the average and standard deviation of the differences are 0.046 ± 0.046 and 0.023 ± 0.033, respectively. Forward calculation of the optical properties yielded average absolute values of the relative deviation of ≈ 15 and ≈ 26 for FD-RIR data using the MM-RIR values and contrariwise. The range of retrieved refractive indices were used to calculate the normalized global average aerosol radiative forcing of a model accumulation mode remote continental aerosol. Deviations using the refractive indices of the pure materials range from 9 % to 32 % for AS and 27 % to 45 % for nigrosin. For mixtures of nigrosin and AS, deviations were all > 100 % and not always able to capture the correct direction of the forcing; i.e., positive versus negative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2018.08.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459413PMC
January 2018

Direct In Situ Mass Specific Absorption Spectra of Biomass Burning Particles Generated from Smoldering Hard and Softwoods.

Environ Sci Technol 2017 May 4;51(10):5622-5629. Epub 2017 May 4.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology , Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States.

Particles from smoldering biomass burning (BB) represent a major source of carbonaceous aerosol in the terrestrial atmosphere. In this study, mass specific absorption spectra of laboratory-generated smoldering wood particles (SWP) from 3 hardwood and 3 softwood species were measured in situ. Absorption data spanning from λ = 500 to 840 nm were collected using a photoacoustic spectrometer coupled to a supercontinuum laser with a tunable wavelength and bandwidth filter. SWP were size- (electrical mobility) and mass-selected prior to optical characterization allowing data to be reported as mass-specific absorption cross sections (MAC). The median measured MAC at λ = 660 nm for smoldering oak particles was 1.1 (0.57/1.8) × 10 m g spanning from 83 femtograms (fg) to 517 fg (500 nm ≤ mobility diameter ≤950 nm), MAC values in parentheses are the 16 and 84 percentiles of the measured data (i.e., 1σ). The collection of all six wood species (Oak, Hickory, Mesquite, Western redcedar, Baldcypress, and Blue spruce) had median MAC values ranging from 1.4 × 10 m g to 7.9 × 10 m g at λ = 550 nm with absorption Ångström exponents (AAE) between 3.5 and 6.2. Oak, Western redcedar, and Blue spruce possessed statistically similar (p > 0.05) spectra while the spectra of Hickory, Mesquite, and Baldcypress were distinct (p < 0.01) as calculated from a point-by-point analysis using the Wilcox rank-sum test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b00810DOI Listing
May 2017

Light Source Effects on Aerosol Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Measurements.

J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 2017 01 6;187:145-149. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, 100 Bureau Dr., Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899, USA.

Photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements of flame-generated soot aerosol coated with small amounts of water yielded absorption enhancements that were dependent on the laser used: quasi-continuous wave (Q-CW, ≈ 650 ps pulse duration and 78 MHz repetition rate) versus continuous wave (CW). Water coating thickness was controlled by exposing the aerosol to a set relative humidity (RH). At ≈ 85 % RH, the mass of the soot particles increased by an amount comparable to a monolayer of water being deposited and enhanced the measured absorption by 36 % and 15 % for the Q-CW and CW lasers, respectively. Extinction measurements were also performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (extinction equals the sum of absorption and scattering) with a CW laser and negligible enhancement was observed at all RH. These findings demonstrate that source choice can impact measurements of aerosols with volatile coatings and that the absorption enhancements at high RH previously measured by Radney and Zangmeister (2015) [1] are the result of laser source used (Q-CW) and not from an increase in the particle absorption cross section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.09.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5207050PMC
January 2017

Measured Wavelength-Dependent Absorption Enhancement of Internally Mixed Black Carbon with Absorbing and Nonabsorbing Materials.

Environ Sci Technol 2016 08 14;50(15):7982-90. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology , Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States.

Optical absorption spectra of laboratory generated aerosols consisting of black carbon (BC) internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials (ammonium sulfate, AS, and sodium chloride, NaCl) and BC with a weakly absorbing brown carbon surrogate derived from humic acid (HA) were measured across the visible to near-IR (550 to 840 nm). Spectra were measured in situ using a photoacoustic spectrometer and step-scanning a supercontinuum laser source with a tunable wavelength and bandwidth filter. BC had a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) of 7.89 ± 0.25 m(2) g(-1) at λ = 550 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) of 1.03 ± 0.09 (2σ). For internally mixed BC, the ratio of BC mass to the total mass of the mixture was chosen as 0.13 to mimic particles observed in the terrestrial atmosphere. The manner in which BC mixed with each material was determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AS/BC and HA/BC particles were fully internally mixed, and the BC was both internally and externally mixed for NaCl/BC particles. The AS/BC, NaCl/BC, and HA/BC particles had AAEs of 1.43 ± 0.05, 1.34 ± 0.06, and 1.91 ± 0.05, respectively. The observed absorption enhancement of mixed BC relative to the pure BC was wavelength dependent for AS/BC and decreased from 1.5 at λ = 550 nm with increasing wavelength while the NaCl/BC enhancement was essentially wavelength independent. For HA/BC, the enhancement ranged from 2 to 3 and was strongly wavelength dependent. Removal of the HA absorption contribution to enhancement revealed that the enhancement was ≈1.5 and independent of wavelength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501421PMC
August 2016

Practical Limitations of Aerosol Separation by a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer.

Aerosol Sci Technol 2016 4;50(2):160-172. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899, USA.

A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fractal soot agglomerates. PSL and AS particles were easily resolved as a function of charge. For fresh soot, the presence of multiply charged particles severely affects the isolation of the singly charged particles. In cases where the DMA-APM was unable to fully resolve the singly charged particles of interest, the peak mass deviated by up to 13 % leading to errors in the mass specific extinction cross section of over 100 %. For measurements of non-spherical particles, non-symmetrical distributions of concentration as a function of mass were a sign of the presence of multiply charged particles. Under these conditions, the effects of multiply charged particles can be reduced by using a second charge neutralizer after the DMA and prior to the APM. Dilution of the aerosol stream serves to decrease the total number concentration of particles and does not remove the contributions of multiply charged particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2015.1136733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486234PMC
January 2016

Measurement of Gas and Aerosol Phase Absorption Spectra across the Visible and Near-IR Using Supercontinuum Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

Anal Chem 2015 Jul 2;87(14):7356-63. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States.

We demonstrate a method to measure the absorption spectra of gas and aerosol species across the visible and near-IR (500 to 840 nm) using a photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer and a pulsed supercontinuum laser source. Measurements of gas phase absorption spectra were demonstrated using H2O(g) as a function of relative humidity (RH). The measured absorption intensities and peak shapes were able to be quantified and compared to spectra calculated using the 2012 High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN2012) database. Size and mass selected nigrosin aerosol was used to measure absorption spectra across the visible and near-IR. Spectra were measured as a function of aerosol size/mass and show good agreement to Mie theory calculations. Lastly, we measured the broadband absorption spectrum of flame generated soot aerosol at 5% and 70% RH. For the high RH case, we are able to quantifiably separate the soot and water absorption contributions. For soot, we observe an enhancement in the mass specific absorption cross section ranging from 1.5 at 500 nm (p < 0.01) to 1.2 at 840 nm (p < 0.2) and a concomitant increase in the absorption Ångström exponent from 1.2 ± 0.4 (5% RH) to 1.6 ± 0.3 (70% RH).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.5b01541DOI Listing
July 2015

Packing density of rigid aggregates is independent of scale.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Jun 9;111(25):9037-41. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899; andDepartment of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

Large planetary seedlings, comets, microscale pharmaceuticals, and nanoscale soot particles are made from rigid, aggregated subunits that are compacted under low compression into larger structures spanning over 10 orders of magnitude in dimensional space. Here, we demonstrate that the packing density (θf) of compacted rigid aggregates is independent of spatial scale for systems under weak compaction. The θf of rigid aggregated structures across six orders of magnitude were measured using nanoscale spherical soot aerosol composed of aggregates with ∼ 17-nm monomeric subunits and aggregates made from uniform monomeric 6-mm spherical subunits at the macroscale. We find θf = 0.36 ± 0.02 at both dimensions. These values are remarkably similar to θf observed for comet nuclei and measured values of other rigid aggregated systems across a wide variety of spatial and formative conditions. We present a packing model that incorporates the aggregate morphology and show that θf is independent of both monomer and aggregate size. These observations suggest that the θf of rigid aggregates subject to weak compaction forces is independent of spatial dimension across varied formative conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1403768111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078842PMC
June 2014

Dependence of soot optical properties on particle morphology: measurements and model comparisons.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Mar 27;48(6):3169-76. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology , Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States.

We report the first mass-specific absorption and extinction cross sections for size- and mass-selected laboratory-generated soot aerosol. Measurement biases associated with aerosols possessing multiple charges were eliminated using mass selection to isolate singly charged particles for a specified electrical mobility diameter. Aerosol absorption and extinction coefficients were measured using photoacoustic and cavity ring-down spectroscopy techniques, respectively, for lacey and compacted soot morphologies. The measurements show that the mass-specific absorption cross sections are proportional to particle mass and independent of morphology, with values between 5.7 and 6 m(2) g(-1). Mass-specific extinction cross sections were morphology dependent and ranged between 12 and 16 m(2) g(-1) for the lacey and compact morphologies, respectively. The resulting single-scattering albedos ranged from 0.5 to 0.6. Results are also compared to theoretical calculations of light absorption and scattering from simulated particle agglomerates. The observed absorption is relatively well modeled, with minimum differences between the calculated and measured mass absorption cross sections ranging from ∼ 5% (lacey soot) to 14% (compact soot). The model, however, was unable to satisfactorily reproduce the measured extinction, underestimating the single-scattering albedo for both particle morphologies. These discrepancies between calculations and measurements underscore the need for validation and refinement of existing models of light scattering and absorption by soot agglomerates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4041804DOI Listing
March 2014

Direct measurements of mass-specific optical cross sections of single-component aerosol mixtures.

Anal Chem 2013 Sep 13;85(17):8319-25. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA.

The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols vary widely, being dependent upon particle composition, morphology, and mixing state. This diversity and complexity of aerosols motivates measurement techniques that can discriminate and quantify a variety of single- and multicomponent aerosols that are both internally and externally mixed. Here, we present a new combination of techniques to directly measure the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections of laboratory-generated aerosols that are relevant to atmospheric studies. Our approach employs a tandem differential mobility analyzer, an aerosol particle mass analyzer, cavity ring-down and photoacoustic spectrometers, and a condensation particle counter. This suite of instruments enables measurement of aerosol particle size, mass, extinction and absorption coefficients, and aerosol number density, respectively. Taken together, these observables yield the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections without the need to model particle morphology or account for sample collection artifacts. Here we demonstrate the technique in a set of case studies which involve complete separation of aerosol by charge, separation of an external mixture by mass, and discrimination between particle types by effective density and single-scattering albedo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac401645yDOI Listing
September 2013