Publications by authors named "James E Steward"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Folate-targeted intraoperative fluorescence, OTL38, in robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

Scand J Urol 2021 Jun 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of OTL38, a folate-targeted, intraoperative fluorescence agent, in patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

Methods: Patients with proven or suspected localized renal cell carcinoma at a single academic institution were selected from 2016 to 2018. Patients received one dose of OTL38 at 0.025 mg/kg prior to robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. The da Vinci Fluorescence Imaging Vision System was used to identify the tumor and inspect for residual disease after resection. Immunohistochemistry was performed to quantify folate receptor alpha in both the tumor and surrounding normal parenchyma. Patient follow-up was 1 month. Outcome data included descriptive statistics of the patient cohort and surgeon and pathologist surveys.

Results: Ten cases were performed. Mean patient age was 62.9 years (range = 50-70). Mean tumor size was 2.45 cm. Pathologic tumor stages ranged from T1a-T3a. Histologic tumor types included clear cell, chromophobe, type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. The tumors did not fluoresce, while the surrounding normal parenchyma did show fluorescence. No adverse reactions were seen. Staining for folate receptor alpha was localized to the proximal renal tubules. Average staining in normal surrounding renal parenchyma was significantly greater than staining observed in tumor tissue (0.2086 vs 0.0467;  = 0.002). The mean difference in staining between tumor tissue and surrounding normal renal parenchyma was 0.1619 (95% CI = 0.0796-0.2442).

Conclusions: Based on our initial experience, OTL38 shows potential as a safe, effective and easy to use tool to improve visualization and resection of renal tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21681805.2021.1933168DOI Listing
June 2021

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma: Characteristics and survival outcomes from a large single institutional series.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jun 23;39(6):370.e21-370.e25. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the clinical characteristics and survival outcomes of a large clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma cohort.

Methods And Materials: A retrospective review of patients with clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma at a single academic center was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. Patients underwent either partial or radical nephrectomy from September 2009 to July 2019. Demographic and clinical characteristics, recurrence, and cancer specific and overall survival were reported.

Results: A total of 90 patients were included in the study. Median follow up was 26.5 months. Median age was 61 (range 27 to 87). 47.8% of patients were African American. 26.7% of patients had end stage renal disease. 37.8% had multifocal renal tumors. 48.9% underwent partial nephrectomy, while the remainder underwent radical nephrectomy. 43.3% underwent an open surgical approach, 40.0% a robotic approach, and 16.7% a laparoscopic approach. Pathologic stage included T1a (90.0%), T1b (1.1%), and T2b (8.9%). Fuhrman grades 1-3 were present in 18.9%, 77.8%, and 3.3% of patients, respectively. There were no cancer specific deaths. There was one local recurrence and no metastases. The overall survival at a median follow up of 26.5 months was 92.1% (95% confidence interval 83.1%-96.4%).

Conclusions: Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma typically presents at a low stage and grade and has favorable survival outcomes. A nephron-sparing approach to treatment should be considered when feasible due to the tumor's indolent nature and propensity towards multifocality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.02.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Indwelling ureteric stents: Patterns of use and nomenclature.

Arab J Urol 2020 May 19;18(4):241-246. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Urology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

: To evaluate ureteric stenting practice patterns amongst a range of academic and community urologists, and to examine the nomenclature used to identify an indwelling ureteric stent from both our questionnaire and from a review of the literature. : A 16-question, peer-reviewed online survey was distributed to members of the Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association. Responses were collected over a 1-month period. Questions included demographics, ureteric stenting practice patterns, and utilization of stenting nomenclature. Inappropriate use of nomenclature was defined as a mismatch between the visually depicted stents and the written description amongst urologists. Trends in ureteric stenting and nomenclature usage were tabulated and analyzed. : Of 863 members, 105 (12.2%) responded to the survey. There was a wide variety of practice settings, with the single-specialty group (44.2%) and academic/university (27.9%) being the two most common. Most providers used both cystoscopy and fluoroscopy to place stents (87.5%) as compared to fluoroscopy alone (12.5%). Most urologists (63.5%) removed stents with cystoscopy as compared to using a stent string (36.5%). While about half (51.0%) of the respondents left stents for ≤3 months, many respondents (43.3%) felt comfortable with maximum dwell times of up to 6 months. The most commonly placed stent was the double pigtail stent (80.8%). However, most respondents inappropriately described this stent design as a Double J stent (72.1%). In the recent literature, 80% of articles clearly defined as using double pigtail stents, incorrectly identified their stent as a 'Double J'. : Variations in ureteric stenting practice patterns exist amongst community and academic urologists. Although most urologists utilize double pigtail ureteric stents, the majority inaccurately identified this stent design as a Double J. We propose use of the term 'indwelling ureteric stent' (IUS) unless describing any specific stent design.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2090598X.2020.1761675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717614PMC
May 2020

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Surgical Fields.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2020 Dec 15;11(4):573-577. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 535 N Barnhill Drive, Suite 150, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have the potential to improve multiple facets of medical practice, including diagnosis of disease, surgical training, clinical outcomes, and access to healthcare. There have been various applications of this technology to surgical fields. AI and ML have been used to evaluate a surgeon's technical skill. These technologies can detect instrument motion, recognize patterns in video recordings, and track the physical motion, eye movements, and cognitive function of the surgeon. These modalities also aid in the advancement of robotic surgical training. The da Vinci Standard Surgical System developed a recording and playback system to help trainees receive tactical feedback to acquire more precision when operating. ML has shown promise in recognizing and classifying complex patterns on diagnostic images and within pathologic tissue analysis. This allows for more accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment. Artificial neural networks are able to analyze sets of symptoms in conjunction with labs, imaging, and exam findings to determine the likelihood of a diagnosis or outcome. Telemedicine is another use of ML and AI that uses technology such as voice recognition to deliver health care remotely. Limitations include the need for large data sets to program computers to create the algorithms. There is also the potential for misclassification of data points that do not follow the typical patterns learned by the machine. As more applications of AI and ML are developed for the surgical field, further studies are needed to determine feasibility, efficacy, and cost.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13193-020-01166-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714893PMC
December 2020

Clinical Considerations and Prognosis of Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumor Occurring Within a Renal Teratoma-A Case Series.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 04 15;19(2):e72-e77. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.09.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Urologic Surgery and COVID-19: How the Pandemic Is Changing the Way We Operate.

J Endourol 2020 05;34(5):541-549

Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a global impact on all aspects of health care, including surgical procedures. For urologists, it has affected and will continue to influence how we approach the care of patients preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. A risk-benefit assessment of each patient undergoing surgery should be performed during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the urgency of the surgery and the risk of viral illness and transmission. Patients with advanced age and comorbidities have a higher incidence of mortality. Routine preoperative testing and symptom screening is recommended to identify those with COVID-19. Adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) for the surgical team is essential to protect health care workers and ensure an adequate workforce. For COVID-19 positive or suspected patients, the use of N95 respirators is recommended if available. The anesthesia method chosen should attempt to minimize aerosolization of the virus. Negative pressure rooms are strongly preferred for intubation/extubation and other aerosolizing procedures for COVID-19 positive patients or when COVID status is unknown. Although transmission has not yet been shown during laparoscopic and robotic procedures, efforts should be made to minimize the risk of aerosolization. Ultra-low particulate air filters are recommended for use during minimally invasive procedures to decrease the risk of viral transmission. Thorough cleaning and sterilization should be performed postoperatively with adequate time allowed for the operating room air to be cycled after procedures. COVID-19 patients should be separated from noninfected patients at all levels of care, including recovery, to decrease the risk of infection. Future directions will be guided by outcomes and infection rates as social distancing guidelines are relaxed and more surgical procedures are reintroduced. Recommendations should be adapted to the local environment and will continue to evolve as more data become available, the shortage of testing and PPE is resolved, and a vaccine and therapeutics for COVID-19 are developed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0342DOI Listing
May 2020

Prostatic Stromal Tumors of Uncertain Malignant Potential.

Urology 2019 Oct 26;132:e3-e4. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Urology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

We present a 53-year-old man with a multilocular solid and cystic mass measuring 19 cm on cross-sectional imaging. After undergoing pelvic mass excision, final histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of primary prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). Prostatic STUMPs are rare mesenchymal tumors with diverse histologic patterns. They are distinct from prostatic stromal sarcomas as they do not behave aggressively, although some may occasionally demonstrate local recurrence after resection. Due to their unpredictable malignant potential, lack of correlation between histologic patterns, and sarcomatous differentiation, these patients warrant surgical excision and close follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.06.023DOI Listing
October 2019

Pudendal nerve stretch reduces external urethral sphincter activity in rats.

J Urol 2012 Oct 17;188(4):1389-95. Epub 2012 Aug 17.

Division of Urology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97232, USA.

Purpose: Most animal models of stress urinary incontinence simulate maternal injuries of childbirth since delivery is a major risk factor but they do not reproduce the nerve stretch known to occur during human childbirth. We hypothesized that pudendal nerve stretch produces reversible dysfunction of the external urethral sphincter.

Materials And Methods: Female virgin Sprague-Dawley® rats were anesthetized with urethane. Bilateral pudendal nerve stretch or sham injury was performed for 5 minutes. External urethral sphincter electromyography and leak point pressure were recorded immediately before and after, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after pudendal nerve stretch. Post-pudendal nerve stretch results were compared to prestretch values and to values in sham injured animals. The pudendal nerves underwent qualitative histological assessment. The nucleus of Onuf was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction for β-APP and c-Fos expression as markers of neuronal activity and injury.

Results: A total of 14 rats underwent bilateral pudendal nerve stretch (9) or sham injury (5). Each nerve was stretched a mean ± SEM of 74% ± 18% on the left side and 63% ± 13% on the right side. Electromyography amplitude decreased significantly immediately after stretch compared to before stretch and after sham injury (p = 0.003) but it recovered by 30 minutes after stretch. There was no significant change in leak point pressure at any time. Two hours after injury histology showed occasional neuronal degeneration. β-APP and c-Fos expression was similar in the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Acute pudendal nerve stretch produces reversible electrophysiological dysfunction but without leak point pressure impairment. Pudendal nerve stretch shows promise in modeling injury. It should be tested as part of a multi-injury, chronic, physiological model of human childbirth injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2012.06.006DOI Listing
October 2012

Quantitative evaluation of electrodes for external urethral sphincter electromyography during bladder-to-urethral guarding reflex.

World J Urol 2010 Jun 13;28(3):365-71. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Ave. ND20, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Purpose: Accuracy in the recording of external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) is an important goal in the quantitative evaluation of urethral function. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare electrode recordings taken during tonic activity and leak point pressure (LPP) testing.

Methods: Several electrodes, including the surface electrode (SE), concentric electrode (CE), and wire electrode (WE), were placed on the EUS singly and simultaneously in six female Sprague-Dawley rats under urethane anesthesia. The bladder was filled via a retropubic catheter while LPP testing and EUS EMG recording were done. Quantitative baseline correction of the EUS EMG signal was performed to reduce baseline variation. Amplitude and frequency of 1-s samples of the EUS EMG signal were measured before LPP (tonic activity) and during peak LPP activity.

Results: The SE, CE, and WE signals demonstrated tonic activity before LPP and an increase in activity during LPP, suggesting that the electrodes accurately recorded EUS activity during tonic activity and during the bladder-to-EUS guarding reflex, regardless of the size or location of detection areas. SE recordings required significantly less baseline correction than both CE and WE recordings. The activity in CE-recorded EMG was significantly higher than that of the SE and WE both in single and simultaneous recordings.

Conclusions: These electrodes may be suitable for testing EUS EMG activity. The SE signal had significantly less baseline variation and the CE detected local activity more sensitively than the other electrodes, which may provide insight into choosing an appropriate electrode for EUS EMG recording.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-009-0463-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874638PMC
June 2010