Publications by authors named "James E Feng"

49 Publications

Discontinuation of the liposomal delivery of bupivacaine has no effect on pain management after primary total knee arthroplasty : no effect on pain scores, opioid consumption, or functional status.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6 Supple A):102-107

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery and Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) as part of a periarticular injection protocol continues to be a highly debated topic in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated the effect of discontinuing the use of LB in a periarticular protocol on immediate postoperative pain scores, opioid consumption, and objective functional outcomes.

Methods: On 1 July 2019, we discontinued the use of intraoperative LB as part of a periarticular injection protocol. A consecutive group of patients who received LB as part of the protocol (Protocol 1) and a subsequent group who did not (Protocol 2) were compared. All patients received the same opioid-sparing protocol. Verbal rating scale (VRS) pain scores were collected from our electronic data warehouse and averaged per patient per 12-hour interval. Events relating to the opiate administration were derived as morphine milligram equivalences (MMEs) per patient per 24-hour interval. The Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) tool was used to assess the immediate postoperative function.

Results: A total of 888 patients received Protocol 1 and while 789 received Protocol 2. The mean age of the patients was significantly higher in those who did not receive LB (66.80 vs 65.57 years, p = 0.006). The sex, BMI, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score, race, smoking status, marital status, operating time, length of stay, and discharge disposition were similar in the two groups. Compared with the LB group, discontinuing LB showed no significant difference in postoperative VRS pain scores up to 72 hours (p > 0.05), opioid administration up to 96 hours (p > 0.05), or AM-PAC scores within the first 24 hours (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The control of pain after TKA with a multimodal management protocol is not improved by the addition of LB compared with traditional bupivacaine. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6 Supple A):102-107.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-2033.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

High-volume revision surgeons have better outcomes following revision total knee arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6 Supple A):131-136

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: It has previously been shown that higher-volume hospitals have better outcomes following revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). We were unable to identify any studies which investigated the effect of surgeon volume on the outcome of rTKA. We sought to investigate whether patients of high-volume (HV) rTKA surgeons have better outcomes following this procedure compared with those of low-volume (LV) surgeons.

Methods: This retrospective study involved patients who underwent aseptic unilateral rTKA between January 2016 and March 2019, using the database of a large urban academic medical centre. Surgeons who performed ≥ 19 aseptic rTKAs per year during the study period were considered HV and those who performed < 19 per year were considered LV. Demographic characteristics, surgical factors, and postoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups.

Results: A total of 308 rTKAs were identified, 132 performed by HV surgeons and 176 by 22 LV surgeons. The LV group had a significantly greater proportion of non-smokers (59.8% vs 49.2%; p = 0.029). For all types of revision, HV surgeons had significantly shorter mean operating times by 17.75 minutes (p = 0.007). For the 169 full revisions (85 HV, 84 LV), HV surgeons had significantly shorter operating times (131.12 (SD 33.78) vs 171.65 (SD 49.88) minutes; p < 0.001), significantly lower re-revision rates (7.1% vs 19.0%; p = 0.023) and significantly fewer re-revisions (0.07 (SD 0.26) vs 0.29 (SD 0.74); p = 0.017).

Conclusion: Patients of HV rTKA surgeons have better outcomes following full rTKA. These findings support the development of revision teams within arthroplasty centres of excellence to offer patients the best possible outcomes following rTKA. Cite this article:  2021;103-B(6 Supple A):131-136.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B6.BJJ-2020-2287.R1DOI Listing
June 2021

Diagnosis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

JBJS Case Connect 2021 05 27;11(2). Epub 2021 May 27.

Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Case Report: A 67-year-old man presented with signs of acute periprosthetic infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Surgical debridement, antibiotics, and a head and liner exchange were performed. After showing no improvement, a single-stage revision was conducted. Postoperatively, he developed back pain and lower extremity weakness. Electrodiagnostic studies showed a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) variant. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered to halt disease progression. After 1 year, he still demonstrated neuromuscular deficits and required a cane for ambulation.

Conclusion: This case highlights GBS after THA. A high degree of clinical suspicion is essential to prevent misinterpretation as a postsurgical complication.

Level Of Evidence: V, case report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00848DOI Listing
May 2021

Total knee arthroplasty is associated with greater immediate post-surgical pain and opioid use than total hip arthroplasty.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

New York University Langone Orthopaedic Hospital, 301 East 17 St, Manhattan, New York, NY, 10003, USA.

Background: As greater emphasis is being placed on opioid reduction strategies and implementation of multimodal analgesia, we sought to determine whether immediate post-surgical opioid consumption was different between THA and TKA.

Methods: A single-institution total joint arthroplasty database was used to identify patients who underwent elective THA and TKA from 2016 to July 2019. Baseline demographic data, operative time (defined by incision time), and American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class were collected. Morphine milligram equivalents (MME) were calculated and derived from prospectively documented nursing opioid administration events, while visual analog scale (VAS) scores represented pain levels, both of which were collected as part of our institution's standard protocols. Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AMPAC) was used to determine physical therapy progress.

Results: A total of 11,693 cases were identified: 5,909 THA (50.53%) and 5784 (49.47%) TKA. THA patients tended to be slightly younger (63.38 years, SD 11.61 years, vs 65.72 years, SD 9.56 years; p < 0.01) and have lower BMIs (28.92 kg/m vs 32.52 kg/m; p < 0.01). THA patients had lower ASA scores in comparison to TKA patients (p < 0.01). Aggregate opioid consumption (93.76 MME vs 147.55 MME; p < 0.01) along with first 24-h and 48-h usage was significantly less for THA as compared to TKA. Similarly, mean pain scores (4.15 vs 5.08; p < 0.01) were lower for THA, while AMPAC mobilization scores were higher (20.88 vs 19.29; p < 0.01) when compared to TKA.

Conclusion: THA patients reported lower pain scores and were found to require less opioid medication in the immediate post-surgical period than TKA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-03951-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Adductor Canal Blocks Reduce Inpatient Opioid Consumption While Maintaining Noninferior Pain Control and Functional Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2021 06 2;36(6):1980-1986. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: The use of perioperative adductor canal blocks (PABs) continues to be a highly debated topic for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Here, we evaluate the effect of PABs on immediate postoperative subjective pain scores, opioid consumption, and objective functional outcomes.

Methods: On December 1, 2019, an institution-wide policy change was begun to use PABs in primary elective TKAs. Patient demographics, immediate postoperative nursing documented pain scores, opioid administration events, and validated physical therapy functional scores were prospectively collected as part of the standard of care and retrospectively queried through our electronic data warehouse. A historical comparison cohort was derived from consecutive patients undergoing TKA between July 1, 2019 and November 30, 2019.

Results: 405 primary TKAs received PABs, while 789 patients were in the control cohort. Compared with controls, average verbal rating scale pain scores were lower among PAB recipients from 0-12 hours (2.42 ± 1.60 vs 2.05 ± 1.60; <.001) and 24-36 hours (4.92 ± 2.00 vs 4.47 ± 2.27; <.01). PAB recipients demonstrated significantly lower opioid consumption within the first 24 hours (44.34 ± 40.98 vs 36.83 ± 48.13; P < .01) and during their total inpatient stay (92.27 ± 109.81 vs 77.52 ± 123.11; <.05). AM-PAC scores within the first 24 hours were also higher for PABs (total scores: 20.28 ± 3.06 vs 20.71 ± 3.12; <.05).

Conclusion: While the minimal clinically important differences in pain scores and functional status were comparable between both cohorts, patients demonstrated a significant reduction in overall inpatient opiate consumption after the introduction of PABs. Surgeons should consider these findings when evaluating for perioperative pain management, opioid-sparing, and rapid discharge protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.065DOI Listing
June 2021

Discontinuation of Intraoperative Liposomal Bupivacaine in Primary THA Does Not Clinically Change Postoperative Subjective Pain, Opioid Consumption, or Objective Functional Status.

J Arthroplasty 2021 06 28;36(6):2062-2067. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: There is debate regarding the benefit of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) as part of a periarticular injection (PAI) in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Here, we evaluate the effect of discontinuing intraoperative LB PAI on immediate postoperative subjective pain, opioid consumption, and objective functional outcomes.

Methods: On July 1, 2019, an institutional policy discontinued the use of intraoperative LB PAI. A consecutive cohort that received LB PAI and a subsequent cohort that did not were compared. All patients received the same opioid-sparing protocol. Nursing documented verbal rating scale pain scores were averaged per patient per 12-hour interval. Opiate administration events were converted into morphine milligram equivalences per patient per 24-hour interval. The validated Activity Measure for Postacute Care (AM-PAC) tool was used to evaluate functional outcomes.

Results: Six hundred thirty eight primary THAs received LB followed by 939 that did not. In the non-LB THAs, BMI was higher (30.06 vs 29.43; P < .05). Besides marital status, the remaining baseline demographics were similar between the two cohorts (P > .05). The non-LB THA cohort demonstrated a marginal increase in verbal rating scale pain scores between 12 to 24 hours (4.42 ± 1.70 vs 4.20 ± 1.87; P < .05) and 36 to 48 hours (4.49 ± 1.72 vs 4.21 ± 1.83; P < .05). There was no difference in inpatient opioid administration up to 96 hours postoperatively (P > .05) or AM-PAC functional scores within the first 24 hours (P > .05).

Conclusion: A small statistical, but not clinically meaningful, difference was observed in subjective pain scores with LB PAI discontinuation. Opioid consumption and postoperative AM-PAC functional scores were unchanged after LB PAI discontinuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.064DOI Listing
June 2021

How are peri-implant fractures below short versus long cephalomedullary nails different?

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Apr 9;31(3):421-427. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive Room R144, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Background: Cephalomedullary nails are a commonly used implant for the treatment of many pertrochanteric femur fractures and are available in short and long configurations. There is no consensus on ideal nail length. Relative advantages can be ascribed to short and long intramedullary nails, yet both implant styles share the potentially devastating complication of peri-implant fracture. Determining the clinical sequelae after fractures below nails of different lengths would provide valuable information for surgeons choosing between short or long nails. Thus, the purpose of the study was to compare injury patterns and treatment outcomes following peri-implant fractures below short or long cephalomedullary nails.

Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study that identified 33 patients referred for treatment of peri-implant fractures below short and long cephalomedullary nails (n = 19 short, n = 14 long). We compared fracture pattern, treatment strategy, complications, and outcomes between these two groups.

Results: Short nails were associated with more diaphyseal fractures (odds ratio [OR] 13.75, CI 2.2-57.9, p 0.002), which were treated more commonly with revision intramedullary nailing (OR, infinity; p 0.01), while long nails were associated with distal metaphyseal fractures (OR 13.75, CI 2.2-57.9, p 0.002), which were treated with plate and screw fixation (p 0.002). After peri-implant fracture, there were no differences in blood loss, operative time, weight bearing status, or complication rates based on the length of the initial nail. In patients treated with revision nailing, there was greater estimated blood loss (EBL, median 300 cc, interquartile range [IQR] 250-1200 vs median 200 cc, IQR 100-300, p 0.03), blood product utilization and complication rates (OR 11.1, CI 1.1-135.7, p 0.03), but a trend toward unrestricted post-operative weight-bearing compared to patients treated with plate and screw constructs.

Conclusion: Understanding fracture patterns and patient outcomes after fractures below nails of different lengths will help surgeons make more informed implant choices when treating intertrochanteric hip fractures. Revision to a long nail for the treatment of fractures at the tip of a short nail may be associated with increased patient morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-020-02785-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Safety and Efficacy of Same-Day Hip Resurfacing.

Orthopedics 2020 Nov 20;43(6):e595-e600. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Same-day discharge (SDD) surgery in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been shown to have similar outcomes to non-SDD THA in select patient populations. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is an alternative to THA for young, active patients, making them ideal candidates for SDD. This study compared the safety and efficacy of non-SDD HRA and SDD HRA for specific postoperative outcomes. An electronic data warehouse query was performed for procedures labeled "hip resurfacing." Data collected included demographics, surgical factors, and quality metrics. Statistical analyses were evaluated using a graphing and statistics software program. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square tests and continuous variables with Student's t tests, with P<.05 deemed significant. Sixty-three of 274 total HRAs were enrolled in this SDD HRA protocol. No significant difference was observed between SDD HRA and non-SDD HRA baseline characteristics. On postoperative day 0, 98.41% of SDD HRA recipients were discharged successfully. The SDD HRA recipients had shorter stays, with 1.59% requiring a hospital stay of 2 days or more compared with 56.87% of non-SDD HRA recipients (P<.0001). The non-SDD HRA recipients were found to have shorter surgical times than SDD HRA recipients (104.74 vs 125.51 minutes, P=.01). Rates of infection, periprosthetic fractures, emergency department visits, and hospital readmissions were equivalent (P=.99). Same-day discharge HRA is a safe and effective procedure with similar outcomes to non-SDD HRA regarding infections, fractures, emergency department visits, and readmissions. The major benefit of SDD is a shorter hospital stay that may lead to decreased cost while preserving and enhancing quality of care and patient satisfaction. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(6):e595-e600.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200812-07DOI Listing
November 2020

Transcription Error Rates in Retrospective Chart Reviews.

Orthopedics 2020 Sep 7;43(5):e404-e408. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Electronic health record (EHR) technologies have improved the ease of access to structured clinical data. The standard means by which data are collected continues to be manual chart review. The authors compared the accuracy of manual chart review against modern electronic data warehouse queries. A manual chart review of the EHR was performed with medical record numbers and surgical admission dates for the 100 most recent inpatient venous thromboembolic events after total joint arthroplasty. A separate data query was performed with the authors' electronic data warehouse. Data sets were then algorithmically compared to check for matches. Discrepancies between data sets were evaluated to categorize errors as random vs systematic. From 100 unique patient encounters, 27 variables were retrieved. The average transcription error rate was 9.19% (SD, ±5.74%) per patient encounter and 11.04% (SD, ±21.40%) per data variable. The systematic error rate was 7.41% (2 of 27). When systematic errors were excluded, the random error rate was 5.79% (SD, ±7.04%) per patient encounter and 5.44% (SD, ±5.63%) per data variable. Total time and average time for manual data collection per patient were 915 minutes and 10.3±3.89 minutes, respectively. Data collection time for the entire electronic query was 58 seconds. With an error rate of 10%, manual chart review studies may be more prone to type I and II errors. Computer-based data queries can improve the speed, reliability, reproducibility, and scalability of data retrieval and allow hospitals to make more data-driven decisions. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(5):e404-e408.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200619-10DOI Listing
September 2020

The effect of patient point of entry and Medicaid status on quality outcomes following total hip arthroplasty.

Bone Joint J 2020 Jul;102-B(7_Supple_B):78-84

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: Previous studies have reported an increased risk for postoperative complications in the Medicaid population undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). These studies have not controlled for the surgeon's practice or patient care setting. This study aims to evaluate whether patient point of entry and Medicaid status plays a role in quality outcomes and discharge disposition following THA.

Methods: The electronic medical record at our institution was retrospectively reviewed for all primary, unilateral THA between January 2016 and January 2018. THA recipients were categorized as either Medicaid or non-Medicaid patients based on a visit to our institution's Hospital Ambulatory Care Center (HACC) within the six months prior to surgery. Only patients who had been operated on by surgeons (CML, JV, JDS, RS) with at least ten Medicaid and ten non-Medicaid patients were included in the study. The patients included in this study were 56.33% female, had a mean age of 60.85 years, and had a mean BMI of 29.14. The average length of follow-up was 343.73 days.

Results: A total of 426 hips in 403 patients were included in this study, with 114 Medicaid patients and 312 non-Medicaid patients. Medicaid patients had a significantly lower mean age (54.68 years (SD 12.33) vs 63.10 years (SD 12.38); p < 0.001), more likely to be black or 'other' race (27.19% vs 13.46% black; 26.32% vs 12.82% other; p < 0.001), and more likely to be a current smoker (19.30% vs 9.29%; p = 0.001). After adjusting for patient risk factors, there was a significant Medicaid effect on length of stay (LOS) (rate ratio 1.129, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.048 to 1.216; p = 0.001) and facility discharge (odds ratio 2.010, 95% CI 1.398 to 2.890; p < 0.001). There was no Medicaid effect on surgical time (exponentiated β coefficient 1.015, 95% CI 0.995 to 1.036; p = 0.136). There was no difference in 30-day readmission, 90-day readmission, 30-day infections, 90-day infections, and 90-day mortality between the two groups.

Conclusion: After controlling for patient variables, there was a statistically significant Medicaid effect on LOS and facility discharge. These results indicate that clinically similar outcomes can be achieved for Medicaid patients; however, further work is needed on maximizing social support and preoperative patient education with a focus on successful home discharge. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):78-84.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B7.BJJ-2019-1424.R2DOI Listing
July 2020

Barriers to Revision Total Hip Service Lines: A Surgeon's Perspective Through a Deterministic Financial Model.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 07;478(7):1657-1666

J. E. Feng, L. H. Schoof, J. A. Gabor, J. Padilla, J. Slover, R. Schwarzkopf, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Revision THA represents approximately 5% to 10% of all THAs. Despite the complexity of these procedures, revision arthroplasty service lines are generally absent even at high-volume orthopaedic centers. We wanted to evaluate whether financial compensation is a barrier for the development of revision THA service lines as assessed by RVUs.

Questions/purposes: Therefore, we asked: (1) Are physicians fairly compensated for revision THA on a per-minute basis compared with primary THA? (2) Are physicians fairly compensated for revision THA on a per-day basis compared with primary THA?

Methods: Our deterministic financial model was derived from retrospective data of all patients undergoing primary or revision THA between January 2016 and June 2018 at an academic healthcare organization. Patients were divided into five cohorts based on their surgical procedure: primary THA, head and liner exchange, acetabular component revision THA, femoral component revision THA, and combined femoral and acetabular component revision THA. Mean surgical times were calculated for each cohort, and each cohort was assigned a relative value unit (RVU) derived from the 2018 Center for Medicaid and Medicare assigned RVU fee schedule. Using a combination of mean surgical time and RVUs rewarded for each procedure, three models were developed to assess the financial incentive to perform THA services for each cohort. These models included: (1) RVUs earned per the mean surgical time, (2) RVUs earned for a single operating room for a full day of THAs, and (3) RVUs earned for two operating rooms for a full day of primary THAs versus a single rooms for a full day of revision THAs. A sixth cohort was added in the latter two models to more accurately reflect the variety in a typical surgical day. This consisted of a blend of revision THAs: one acetabular, one femoral, and one full revision. The RVUs generated in each model were compared across the cohorts.

Results: Compared with primary THA by RVU per minute, in revision THA, head and liner exchange demonstrated a 4% per minute deficit, acetabular component revision demonstrated a 29% deficit, femoral component revision demonstrated a 32% deficit, and full revision demonstrated a 27% deficit. Compared with primary service lines with one room, revision surgeons with a variety of revision THA surgeries lost 26% potential relative value units per day. Compared with a two-room primary THA service, revision surgeons lost 55% potential relative value units per day.

Conclusions: In a comparison of relative value units of a typical two-room primary THA service line versus those of a dedicated revision THA service line, we found that revision specialists may lose between 28% and 55% of their RVU earnings. The current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reimbursement model is not viable for the arthroplasty surgeon and limits patient access to revision THA specialists.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, economic and decision analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310415PMC
July 2020

The Impact of Arthroplasty Fellowship Training on Total Joint Arthroplasty: Comparison of Peri-Operative Metrics between Fellowship-Trained Surgeons and Non-Fellowship-Trained Surgeons.

J Arthroplasty 2020 10 21;35(10):2820-2824. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Langone Orthopaedic Hospital, New York, NY.

Background: We sought to identify differences between total joint arthroplasties (TJAs) performed by adult reconstruction fellowship-trained surgeons (FT) than non-fellowship-trained surgeons (NFT).

Methods: A single-institution database was utilized to identify patients who underwent elective TJA between 2016 and 2019.

Results: In total, 16,882 TJAs were identified: 9111 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and 7771 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). Patients undergoing THA by FT surgeons were older (63.11 vs 61.84 years, P < .001), more likely to be white, insured by Medicare, and less likely to be active smokers (P < .0001). Both surgical time (90.03 vs 113.1 minutes, P < .0001) and mean length of stay (LOS) (1.85 vs 2.72 days, P < .0001) were significantly shorter for THAs performed by FT surgeons than NFT surgeons. A significantly greater percentage of patients were discharged home after THA by FT surgeons than NFT surgeons (88.7% vs 85.2%, P = .002). FT patients were quicker to mobilize with therapy and required 25% less opioids. TKAs performed by FT surgeons were associated with shorter surgical times (87.4 vs 94.92 minutes, P < .0001), LOS (2.62 vs 2.84 days, P < .0001), and nearly 19% less opioid requirement in the peri-operative period. In addition to higher Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores associated with FT surgeons after TKA, a significantly greater percentage of patients were discharged home after TKA by FT surgeons than NFT surgeons (83.97% vs 80.16%, P < .001).

Conclusion: For both THA and TKA, patients had significantly shorter surgical times, LOS, and required less opioids when their procedure was performed by FT surgeons compared to NTF surgeons. Patients who had their TJA performed by a FT surgeon achieved higher Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores and were discharged home more often than NFT surgeons. In an era of value-based care, more attention should be paid to the patient outcomes and financial implications associated with arthroplasty fellowship training.

Level Iii Evidence: Retrospective Cohort Study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.05.027DOI Listing
October 2020

What Are the Effects of Patient Point of Entry and Medicaid Status on Postoperative Opioid Consumption and Pain Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2020 10 23;35(10):2786-2790. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) provides excellent results across a variety of pathologies. As greater focus is placed on the opioid epidemic, we sought to determine if patients presenting for TKA via the Medicaid clinic (Medicaid) differed in terms of their opioid requirements compared to patients presenting via private office clinics (non-Medicaid).

Methods: A single-institution total joint arthroplasty database was utilized to identify patients who underwent elective TKA between January 2016 and May 2019. Medicaid clinic patients were insured by some form of Medicaid, whereas private office patients had commercial or Medicare insurance. Morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) and Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores were calculated.

Results: A total of 6509 patients were identified: 413 (6.35%) Medicaid and 6096 (93.65%) non-Medicaid. Medicaid patients were younger (63.32 vs 66.21 years, P < .0001), less likely to be of Caucasian race (21.31% vs 56.82%, P < .0001), and more likely to be active smokers (11.14% vs 7.73%, P < .0001). Although surgical time and home discharge rates were similar, Medicaid patients had longer length of stay (2.80 vs 2.46 days, P < .0001). Opioid requirements were higher for Medicaid patients (200.1 vs 132.2 MMEs, P < .0001), paralleling higher pain scores (3.03 vs 2.55, P < .0001). No differences were found in Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores (18.47 vs 18.77, P = .1824).

Conclusion: Medicaid patients tended to be younger, of minority race, and active smokers compared to non-Medicaid patients. Medicaid patients demonstrated worse postoperative pain scores and required 51% greater MMEs immediately following TKA, highlighting the need for preoperative counseling in traditionally at-risk socioeconomic groups.

Level Of Evidence: III, Retrospective Observational Analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.05.040DOI Listing
October 2020

Differences in Pain, Opioid Use, and Function Following Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty compared to Total Knee Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2020 09 27;35(9):2435-2438. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York University Langone Orthopaedic Hospital, New York, NY.

Background: We sought to determine if immediate postsurgical pain, opioid use, and clinical function differed between unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: A single-institution database was utilized to identify patients who underwent elective total joint arthroplasty between 2016 and 2019.

Results: In total, 6616 patients were identified: 98.20% TKA (6497) and 1.80% (119) UKA. UKA patients were younger, had lower body mass index, and more often male than the TKA cohort. Aggregate opioid consumption (75.94 morphine milligram equivalents vs 136.5 morphine milligram equivalents; P < .001) along with the first 24-hour and 48-hour usage was significantly less for UKA as compared to TKA. Similarly, pain scores (1.98 vs 2.58; P < .001) were lower for UKA while Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care mobilization scores were higher (21.02 vs 18.76; P < .001). UKA patients were able to be discharged home on the day of surgery 37% of the time as compared to 2.45% of TKA patients (P < .0001). Notably, when comparing UKA and TKA patients who were discharged home on the day of surgery, no differences regarding pain scores, opioid utilization, or mobilization were observed.

Conclusion: UKA patients are younger, have lower body mass index and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, and more often male than TKA patients. UKA patients had significantly shorter length of stay than TKA patients and were discharged home more often than TKA patients, on both the day of surgery and following hospital admission. Most notably, UKA patients reported lower pain scores and were found to require 45% lower opioid medication in the immediate postsurgical period than TKA patients. Surprisingly, UKA and TKA patients discharged on the day of surgery did not differ in terms of pain scores, opioid utilization, or mobilization, suggesting that our rapid rehabilitation UKA protocols can be successfully translated to outpatient TKAs with similar outcomes.

Level Iii Evidence: Retrospective Cohort Study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.04.072DOI Listing
September 2020

Inpatient Opioid Consumption Variability following Total Knee Arthroplasty: Analysis of 4,038 Procedures.

J Knee Surg 2021 Sep 20;34(11):1196-1204. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

This study examined an early iteration of an inpatient opioid administration-reporting tool, which standardized patient opioid consumption as an average daily morphine milligram equivalence per surgical encounter (MME/day/encounter) among total knee arthroplasty (TKA) recipients. The objective was to assess the variability of inpatient opioid administration rates among surgeons after implementation of a multimodal opioid sparing pain protocol. We queried the electronic medical record at our institution for patients undergoing elective primary TKA between January 1, 2016 and June 30, 2018. Patient demographics, inpatient and surgical factors, and inpatient opioid administration were retrieved. Opioid consumption was converted into average MME for each postoperative day. These MME/day/encounter values were used to determine mean and variance of opioids prescribed by individual surgeons. A secondary analysis of regional inpatient opioid consumption was determined by patient zip codes. In total, 23 surgeons performed 4,038 primary TKA. The institutional average opioid dose was 46.24 ± 0.75 MME/day/encounter. Average intersurgeon (IS) opioid prescribing ranged from 17.67 to 59.15 MME/day/encounter. Intrasurgeon variability ranged between ± 1.01 and ± 7.51 MME/day/encounter. After adjusting for patient factors, the average institutional MME/day/encounter was 38.43 ± 0.42, with average IS variability ranging from 18.29 to 42.84 MME/day/encounter, and intrasurgeon variability ranging between ± 1.05 and ± 2.82 MME/day/encounter. Our results suggest that there is intrainstitutional variability in opioid administration following primary TKA even after controlling for potential patient risk factors. TKA candidates may benefit from the implementation of a more rigid standardization of multimodal pain management protocols that can control pain while minimizing the opioid burden. This is a level of evidence III, retrospective observational analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1702183DOI Listing
September 2021

Hierarchical Representations of Aggression in a Hypothalamic-Midbrain Circuit.

Neuron 2020 05 11;106(4):637-648.e6. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Although the ventromedial hypothalamus ventrolateral area (VMHvl) is now well established as a critical locus for the generation of conspecific aggression, its role is complex, with neurons responding during multiple phases of social interactions with both males and females. It has been previously unclear how the brain uses this complex multidimensional signal and coordinates a discrete action: the attack. Here, we find a hypothalamic-midbrain circuit that represents hierarchically organized social signals during aggression. Optogenetic-assisted circuit mapping reveals a preferential projection from VMHvl to lPAG cells, and inactivation of downstream lPAG populations results in aggression-specific deficits. lPAG neurons are selective for attack action and exhibit short-latency, time-locked spiking relative to the activity of jaw muscles during biting. Last, we find that this projection conveys male-biased signals from the VMHvl to downstream lPAG neurons that are sensitive to features of ongoing activity, suggesting that action selectivity is generated by a combination of pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.02.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571490PMC
May 2020

Do Patient Point of Entry and Medicaid Status Affect Quality Outcomes Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2020 07 17;35(7):1761-1765. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: The effect of surgeon practice and patient care setting have not been studied in the Medicaid population undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study aims to evaluate whether point of entry and Medicaid status affect outcomes following TKA.

Methods: The electronic medical record at our urban, academic, tertiary care hospital system was retrospectively reviewed for all primary, unilateral TKA during January 2016 and January 2018. Outpatient visits within the 6-month preoperative period categorized TKA recipients as either Hospital Ambulatory Clinic Centers patients with Medicaid insurance or private office patients with non-Medicaid insurers.

Results: There were 174 Medicaid patients and 317 non-Medicaid patients for 491 total patients. Medicaid patients were significantly younger (62.6 ± 1.6 vs 65.4 ± 1.1 years, P < .01), of "other' ethnicity (43.1% vs 25.6%, P < .01), and to be a current smoker (9.3% vs 6.6%, P = .02). There was no difference in gender, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score. After controlling for patient factors, the Medicaid effect was insignificant for surgical time (exponentiated β 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-1.01, P = .076) and facility discharge (odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 0.71-3.51, P = .262). Medicaid status had a significant effect on length of stay (LOS) (rate ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.43, P = .026).

Conclusion: Multivariable analysis controlling for patient factors demonstrated that Medicaid coverage had minimal effect on surgical time and facility discharge. Medicaid patients had significantly longer LOS by one-half day. These results indicate that comparable outcomes can be achieved for Medicaid patients following TKA provided that the surgeon and care setting are similar. However, increased care coordination and preoperative education may be necessary to normalize disparities in hospital LOS.

Level Of Evidence: III, retrospective observational analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.02.023DOI Listing
July 2020

Utilization of a Novel Opioid-Sparing Protocol in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Results in Reduced Opiate Consumption and Improved Functional Status.

J Arthroplasty 2020 06 12;35(6S):S231-S236. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) candidates have historically received high doses of opioids within the perioperative period; however, the amounts are being continually reduced as awareness of opioid abuse spreads. Here we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel opiate-sparing protocol (OSP) for primary THAs in reducing opiate administrations, while maintaining similar levels of pain control and postoperative function.

Methods: All patients undergoing primary THA between January 1, 2019 and June 30, 2019 were placed under a novel OSP. Data were prospectively collected as part of standard of care. To assess the primary outcome of opiate consumption, nursing documented opiate administration events were converted into morphine milligram equivalences (MMEs) per patient encounter per 24-hour interval. Postoperative pain and functional status were assessed as secondary outcomes using the Verbal Rating Scale for pain and the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores, respectively.

Results: One thousand fifty primary THAs had received our institution's OSP, and 953 patients were utilized as our historical control. OSP patients demonstrated significantly lower 0-24, 24-48, and 48-72 hours with less opiate administration variance (total MME: Control 75.55 ± 121.07 MME vs OSP 57.10 ± 87.48 MME; 24.42% decrease, P < .001). Although pain scores reached statistical significance between 0 and 12 (Control 2.09 vs OSP 2.36, P < .001), their differences were not clinically significant. Finally, OSP patients demonstrated a trend toward higher Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores across all 6 domains (total scores: Control 20.53 ± 3.67 vs OSP 20.76 ± 3.64, P = .18).

Conclusion: Implementation of an OSP can significantly decrease the utilization of opioids in the immediate postoperative period. Inpatient opioid administration can be significantly reduced while maintaining a comparable and non-inferior level of pain and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.02.009DOI Listing
June 2020

Short-term outcomes with the REDAPT monolithic, tapered, fluted, grit-blasted, forged titanium revision femoral stem.

Bone Joint J 2020 Feb;102-B(2):191-197

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: Although good clinical outcomes have been reported for monolithic tapered, fluted, titanium stems (TFTS), early results showed high rates of subsidence. Advances in stem design may mitigate these concerns. This study reports on the use of a current monolithic TFTS for a variety of indications.

Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective study of all consecutive total hip arthroplasty (THA) and revision total hip arthroplasty (rTHA) patients who received the monolithic TFTS was conducted. Surgery was performed by eight fellowship-trained arthroplasty surgeons at four institutions. A total of 157 hips in 153 patients at a mean follow-up of 11.6 months (SD7.8) were included. Mean patient age at the time of surgery was 67.4 years (SD 13.3) and mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.9 kg/m (SD 6.5). Outcomes included intraoperative complications, one-year all-cause re-revisions, and subsidence at postoperative time intervals (two weeks, six weeks, six months, nine months, and one year).

Results: There were eight intraoperative complications (4.9%), six of which were intraoperative fractures; none occurred during stem insertion. Six hips (3.7%) underwent re-revision within one year; only one procedure involved removal of the prosthesis due to infection. Mean total subsidence at latest follow-up was 1.64 mm (SD 2.47). Overall, 17 of 144 stems (11.8%) on which measurements could be performed had >5 mm of subsidence, and 3/144 (2.1%) had >10 mm of subsidence within one year. A univariate regression analysis found that additional subsidence after three months was minimal. A multivariate regression analysis found that subsidence was not significantly associated with periprosthetic fracture as an indication for surgery, the presence of an extended trochanteric osteotomy (ETO), Paprosky classification of femoral bone loss, stem length, or type of procedure performed (i.e. full revision vs conversion/primary).

Conclusion: Advances in implant design, improved trials, a range of stem lengths and diameters, and high offset options mitigate concerns of early subsidence and dislocation with monolithic TFTS, making them a valuable option for femoral revision. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(2):191-197.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B2.BJJ-2019-0743.R1DOI Listing
February 2020

Perioperative Chlorhexidine Gluconate Wash During Joint Arthroplasty Has Equivalent Periprosthetic Joint Infection Rates in Comparison to Betadine Wash.

J Arthroplasty 2020 03 9;35(3):845-848. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, New York.

Background: Dilute betadine wash has been used for the prevention of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Appropriateness for this purpose has recently come into question as the Food and Drug Administration determined that several commercial products did not pass the standards of proper sterility. The goal of this study is to determine if change in our institution's perioperative infection protocol to sterile chlorhexidine gluconate wash affected rates of PJI.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data for patients who underwent unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty. Chart review was performed to determine 90-day and 1-year readmissions and the development of PJI as per the diagnostic criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society.

Results: A total of 2386 consecutive patients were included in this study. There were no significant demographic differences between the 2 groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of PJI requiring a return trip to the operating room between the 2 cohorts: 4 in chlorhexidine vs 7 in betadine at 3 months (P = .61); and 9 in chlorhexidine and 14 in betadine at 1 year (P = .48, respectively). There was also no difference in the rate of wound complications between the betadine and chlorhexidine use (P = .93).

Conclusion: When comparing patients who received a betadine wash intraoperatively to those who received a chlorhexidine gluconate wash, there were no statistically significant differences in the rate of postoperative PJIs or return trips to the operating room. Although chlorhexidine gluconate and betadine have equal efficacy in the prevention of PJI, betadine is a far less expensive alternative if their sterility concerns are unwarranted LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.10.009DOI Listing
March 2020

Cementation of a monoblock dual mobility bearing in a newly implanted porous revision acetabular component in patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty.

Arthroplast Today 2019 Sep 14;5(3):341-347. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: The most common indications for revision total hip arthroplasty are instability/dislocation and mechanical loosening. Efforts to address this have included the use of dual mobility (DM) articulations. The aim of this study is to report on the use of cemented DM cups in complex acetabular revision total hip arthroplasty cases with a high risk of recurrent instability.

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective study was conducted. Patients who received a novel acetabular construct consisting of a monoblock DM cup cemented into a fully porous metal shell were included. Outcome data included 90-day complications and readmissions, revision for any reason, and Harris Hip Scores.

Results: Thirty-eight hips in 38 patients were included for this study. At a median follow-up of 215.5 days (range 6-783), the Harris Hip Score improved from a mean of 50 ± 12.2 to 78 ± 11.2 ( < .001). One (2.6%) patient experienced a dislocation on postoperative day 1, and was closed reduced with no further complications. There was 1 (2.6%) reoperation for periprosthetic joint infection treated with a 2-stage exchange.

Conclusions: In this complex series of patients, cementation of a monoblock DM cup into a newly implanted fully porous revision shell reliably provided solid fixation with a low risk of dislocation at short-term follow-up. Although longer term follow-up is needed, utilization of this novel construct should be considered in patients at high risk for instability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2019.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6728441PMC
September 2019

Undetectable Hepatitis C Viral Load Is Associated With Improved Outcomes Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Dec 2;34(12):2890-2897. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY.

Background: Previous reports establish that infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) predisposes total joint arthroplasty (TJA) recipients to poor postoperative outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to assess whether variation in HCV VL influences perioperative outcomes following TJA.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with HCV who underwent primary TJA between January 2005 and April 2018 was conducted. Patients were stratified into 2 cohorts: (1) patients with an undetectable VL (U-VL) and (2) patients with a detectable VL (D-VL). Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was calculated with revision TJA as the end point. Subanalysis on the VL profile was done.

Results: A total of 289 TJAs were included (U-VL:118 TJAs; D-VL:171 TJAs). Patients in the D-VL cohort had longer operative times (133.9 vs 109.2 minutes), higher intraoperative blood loss (298.4 vs 219.5 mL), longer inpatient hospital stays (4.0 vs 2.9 days), more postoperative infections (11.7% vs 4.2%), and an increased risk for revision TJA (12.9% vs 5.1%). Kaplan-Meier demonstrated that the U-VL cohort trended toward better survivorship (P = .17). On subanalysis of low and high VL, no difference in outcomes was appreciated.

Conclusion: TJA recipients with a detectable HCV VL have longer operative times, experience more intraoperative blood loss, have longer hospital length of stay, and are more likely to experience infection and require revision TJA. The blood loss, hospital length of stay, and revision rate findings should be interpreted with caution, however, as there are confounding factors. Our findings suggest that HCV VL is a modifiable risk factor that, can reduce the risk of infection and revision surgery. Additionally, serum HCV VL was not correlated with outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.06.058DOI Listing
December 2019

Gastrointestinal Complications Warranting Invasive Interventions Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Nov 15;34(11):2780-2784. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) complications following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) are uncommon but can be associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The current literature on GI complications that warrant invasive procedures after TJA is lacking. This study reviews the incidence and outcomes of GI complications after TJA that went on to require invasive procedures.

Methods: All TJA patients at our institution between January 2012 and May 2018 who had GI complications requiring an invasive procedure within 30 days of TJA were identified and retrospectively chart reviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate these patients.

Results: Of 19,090 TJAs in a 6-year period, 34 patients (0.18%) required invasive procedures for GI complications within 30 days of the index surgery. Twenty-two (64%) of the required procedures were endoscopy for suspected GI bleeding. Within this cohort, aspirin was the most common thromboprophylaxis used (63.6% of patients) and smoking was more prevalent (9.1% current smokers) (P = .28). Of the remaining 12 GI procedures required, 75% were exploratory laparotomies, 44.4% of which were performed for obstruction. Three (33.3%) of the exploratory laparotomy patients died during the study period.

Conclusion: GI complications necessitating surgical intervention after TJA are rare. Suspected GI bleeding is the most common indication for intervention and is typically managed endoscopically. Other complications, such as GI obstruction, often require more extensive intervention and open procedures. Though rare, GI complications following TJA can lead to detrimental outcomes, significant patient morbidity, and occasionally mortality; therefore, a heightened awareness of these complications is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.06.026DOI Listing
November 2019

Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems: Do Patient Demographics Affect Outcomes in Total Hip Arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2019 Nov 12;34(11):2580-2585. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY; Insall Scott Kelly Institute, New York, NY.

Background: The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) score is a nationally standardized measure of a patient's hospital experience. This study aims to assess whether HCAHPS scores vary by demographic or surgical factors in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty.

Methods: Patients who completed an HCAHPS survey after a primary total hip arthroplasty between October 2011 and November 2016 were included in this study. Patient demographics and surgical factors were evaluated for correlations with individual HCAHPS questions.

Results: One thousand three hundred eighty-three HCAHPS questionnaires were reviewed for this study. Patients with a submitted HCAHPS response had an average age of 63.83 ± 10.17 years. Gender distribution was biased toward females at 57.27% (792 females) versus 42.73% (591 males). The average body mass index (BMI) was 28.68 ± 5.86 kg/m. Race distribution was predominantly Caucasian at 81.49% (1127 patients), followed by "unknown" at 8.60% (119 patients) and African-American at 8.46% (117 patients). Home discharge occurred for 93.06% (1287 patients) versus 6.94% for facility discharge (96 patients). Mean length of stay was 2.41 ± 1.17 days. Each 1-year increase in age was positively correlated with a 0.16% increase in top-box response rate (β = 0.0016 ± 0.0008; P < .05). Male gender was correlated with a 4.61% increase in top-box response rate when compared to female gender (β = 0.0461 ± 0.0118; P < .01). BMI was found to be correlated with a 0.20% increase in HCAHPS response rates for each 1 kg/m increase (β = 0.0020 ± 0.0010; P < .05). For each day increase in length of stay, HCAHPS top-box response rates decrease by 3.41% (β = -0.0341 ± 0.0051; P < .0001). Race, marital status, smoking status, insurance type, and discharge disposition were not found to be significantly correlated with HCAHPS top-box response rate (P > .05).

Conclusion: The HCAHPS quality measurement metric affects physician reimbursement and may be biased by a number of variables including sex, length of stay, and BMI, rather than a true reflection of the quality of their hospital experience. Further research is warranted to determine whether HCAHPS scores are an appropriate measure of the quality of care received.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.06.006DOI Listing
November 2019

Arthrofibrosis After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

Orthop Clin North Am 2019 Jul 16;50(3):269-279. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Adult Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedics, NYU Langone Health, 301 East 17th Street, New York, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:

Arthrofibrosis is the pathologic stiffening of a joint caused by an exaggerated inflammatory response. As a common complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), this benign-appearing connective tissue hyperplasia can cause significant disability among patients because the concomitant knee pain and restricted range of motion severely hinder postoperative rehabilitation, clinical outcomes, and basic activities of daily living. The most effective management for arthrofibrosis in the setting of TKA is prevention, including preoperative patient education programs, aggressive postoperative physical therapy regimens, and anti-inflammatory medications. Operative treatments include manipulation under anesthesia, arthroscopic debridement, and quadricepsplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2019.02.005DOI Listing
July 2019

Tramadol in Knee Osteoarthritis: Does Preoperative Use Affect Patient-Reported Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2019 Aug 10;34(8):1662-1666. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Investigation performed at NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York, NY.

Background: The 2013 American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons evidence-based guidelines recommend against the use of preoperative narcotics in the management of symptomatic osteoarthritic knees; however, the guidelines strongly recommend tramadol in this patient population. To our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated outcomes in patients who use tramadol exclusively as compared with narcotics naive patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data for patients who underwent unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty between January 2017 and March 2018. PRO scores were obtained using a novel electronic patient rehabilitation application, which pushed PRO surveys via email and mobile devices within 1 month prior to surgery and 3 months postoperatively.

Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients were opiate naïve, while 63 had obtained narcotics before the index operation. Of those, 21 patients received tramadol. The average preoperative Knee Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores were 50.4, 49.95, and 48.01 for the naïve, tramadol, and narcotic populations, respectively, (P = .60). The tramadol cohort had the least gain in 3 months postoperative Knee Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores, improving on average 12.5 points in comparison to the 19.1 and 20.1 improvements seen in the narcotic and naïve cohorts, respectively (P = .09). This difference was statistically significant when comparing the naïve and tramadol populations alone in post hoc analysis (P = .016).

Conclusions: When comparing patients who took tramadol preoperatively to patients who were opiate naïve, patients that used tramadol trended toward significantly less improvement in functional outcomes in the short-term postoperative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.056DOI Listing
August 2019

Virtual Reality Simulation Facilitates Resident Training in Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Arthroplasty 2019 10 8;34(10):2278-2283. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY.

Background: No study has yet assessed the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) simulation for teaching orthopedic surgery residents. In this blinded, randomized, and controlled trial, we asked if the use of VR simulation improved postgraduate year (PGY)-1 orthopedic residents' performance in cadaver total hip arthroplasty and if the use of VR simulation had a preferentially beneficial effect on specific aspects of surgical skills or knowledge.

Methods: Fourteen PGY-1 orthopedic residents completed a written pretest and a single cadaver total hip arthroplasty (THA) to establish baseline levels of knowledge and surgical ability before 7 were randomized to VR-THA simulation. All participants then completed a second cadaver THA and retook the test to assess for score improvements. The primary outcomes were improvement in test and cadaver THA scores.

Results: There was no significant difference in the improvement in test scores between the VR and control groups (P = .078). In multivariate regression analysis, the VR cohort demonstrated a significant improvement in overall cadaver THA scores (P = .048). The VR cohort demonstrated greater improvement in each specific score category compared with the control group, but this trend was only statistically significant for technical performance (P = .009).

Conclusions: VR-simulation improves PGY-1 resident surgical skills but has no significant effect on medical knowledge. The most significant improvement was seen in technical skills. We anticipate that VR simulation will become an indispensable part of orthopedic surgical education, but further study is needed to determine how best to use VR simulation within a comprehensive curriculum.

Level Of Evidence: Level 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.04.002DOI Listing
October 2019

Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems: Do Patient Demographics Affect Outcomes in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

J Arthroplasty 2019 Aug 12;34(8):1570-1574. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY; Insall Scott Kelly Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicines, New York, NY.

Background: The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) is a nationally standardized tool to assess patient experience between hospitals. The HCAHPS survey can affect hospital reimbursement. This study aims to determine if HCAHPS scores vary by a number of demographic variables in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: Patients who underwent primary TKA and returned a completed HCAHPS survey were included in this study. HCAHPS surveys were collected from our institution's Center for Quality and Patient Safety department, which was cross-referenced with our hospital's electronic data warehouse. Patient demographics, surgical factors, and quality outcomes were queried, and multivariable linear regression was performed.

Results: In total, 1028 HCAHPS questionnaires after primary TKA were evaluated. The average age of patients was 65.9 ± 9.0 years and 67.9% (698 patients) were female. Average body mass index was 32.5 ± 6.9 kg/m. Sixty-nine percent of the patients (1287 patients) were discharged home versus 10.3% (106 patients) to another facility. Mean length of stay was 2.9 ± 1.4 days. Age was correlated with a 0.3% decrease in top-box response rate (P < .01) for each 1-year increase in age. Compared to Caucasian race, African American race was correlated with a 5.6% increased rate for top-box response (P < .01), while Asian race (P = .42) and unknown race (P = 1.00) demonstrated no significant difference. Marital status demonstrated that divorced/separated status resulted in a significant 5.4% decrease in top-box response rates (P < .05). Similarly, single (P = .12) and widowed (P = .09) statuses also demonstrated a trend toward lower top-box response rates when compared to married or partnered patients. For each day increase in length of stay, HCAHPS top-box response rates decrease by 1.6% (P < .01). Gender, body mass index, smoking status, insurance type, and discharge disposition were not found to be significantly correlated with HCHAPS top-box response rate (P > .05).

Conclusion: HCAHPS scores in patients undergoing primary TKA are influenced not just by hospital and surgeon factors such as length of stay but by demographic variables such as age, race, and marital status. As surgeons become more involved with the burden of improving patient experience, they should be aware that static demographic variables can have a significant effect on HCAHPS scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.04.010DOI Listing
August 2019

Payer type does not impact patient-reported outcomes after primary total knee arthroplasty.

Arthroplast Today 2019 Mar 3;5(1):113-118. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of literature assessing whether payer type has an impact on postoperative patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate TKA PROs among patients with commercial and Medicare insurance.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of patients operated between January 2017 and March 2018. Knee Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Junior (KOOS-Jr) and Veterans RAND 12 Health Survey (VR-12) Physical Component (VR-12 PCS) and Mental Component (VR-12 MCS) PRO scores were collected prospectively at baseline and 12 weeks postoperatively via an electronic patient rehabilitation application. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were utilized to assess the effects of patient insurance type on PRO.

Results: In total, 193 TKA candidates had commercial (n = 91) or Medicare (n = 102) as their primary payer type. Demographic variables including age, gender, body mass index, and race varied significantly between the cohorts ( < .05). Length of stay and discharge disposition also varied significantly ( < .05). When compared with commercial payers, Medicare beneficiaries demonstrated a 4.13 ± 2.06 increase in Knee Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score JR. scores at baseline ( < .05). However, after adjusting for patient-specific demographic and perioperative variables, all PROs recorded in this study were similar between the 2 payer groups at baseline and 12 weeks postoperatively ( > .05). Furthermore, ΔPRO scores from baseline to 12 weeks were also similar ( > .05).

Conclusions: After adjusting for patient-specific variables, PROs are similar at baseline and 12 weeks postoperatively between commercial and Medicare cohorts. For TKA candidates with similar baseline demographics, surgeons can expect similar perioperative PROs regardless of insurance type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470348PMC
March 2019
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