Publications by authors named "James C Zimring"

144 Publications

Antibodies to Low-Copy Number RBC Alloantigen Convert a Tolerogenic Stimulus to an Immunogenic Stimulus in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:629608. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

Red blood cells expressing alloantigens are well known to be capable of inducing robust humoral alloantibody responses both in transfusion and pregnancy. However, the majority of transfusion recipients and pregnant women never make alloantibodies, even after repeat exposure to foreign RBCs. More recently, RBCs have been used as a cellular therapeutic-very much like transfusion, engineered RBCs are highly immunogenic in some cases but not others. In animal models of both transfusion and RBC based therapeutics, RBCs that do not induce an immune response also cause tolerance. Despite a robust phenomenology, the mechanisms of what regulates immunity vs. tolerance to RBCs remains unclear. However, it has been reported that copy number of alloantigens on the RBCs is a critical factor, with a very low copy number causing non-responsiveness (in both humans and mice) and also leading to tolerance in mice. Recently, we reported that an IgG2c specific for an RBC antigen can substantially enhance the humoral immune response upon transfusion of RBCs expressing that antigen. Herein, we report that an IgG2c converts RBCs with low antigen copy number from a tolerogenic to an immunogenic stimulus. These findings report the first known stimulus that induces humoral alloimmunization to a low copy number RBC alloantigen and identify a previously undescribed molecular switch that has the ability to affect responder vs. non-responder phenotypes of transfusion recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.629608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994621PMC
March 2021

Blood donor exposome and impact of common drugs on red blood cell metabolism.

JCI Insight 2021 Feb 8;6(3). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Computational models based on recent maps of the RBC proteome suggest that mature erythrocytes may harbor targets for common drugs. This prediction is relevant to RBC storage in the blood bank, in which the impact of small molecule drugs or other xenometabolites deriving from dietary, iatrogenic, or environmental exposures ("exposome") may alter erythrocyte energy and redox metabolism and, in so doing, affect red cell storage quality and posttransfusion efficacy. To test this prediction, here we provide a comprehensive characterization of the blood donor exposome, including the detection of common prescription and over-the-counter drugs in blood units donated by 250 healthy volunteers in the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics (REDS-III RBC-Omics) Study. Based on high-throughput drug screenings of 1366 FDA-approved drugs, we report that approximately 65% of the tested drugs had an impact on erythrocyte metabolism. Machine learning models built using metabolites as predictors were able to accurately predict drugs for several drug classes/targets (bisphosphonates, anticholinergics, calcium channel blockers, adrenergics, proton pump inhibitors, antimetabolites, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and mTOR), suggesting that these drugs have a direct, conserved, and substantial impact on erythrocyte metabolism. As a proof of principle, here we show that the antacid ranitidine - though rarely detected in the blood donor population - has a strong effect on RBC markers of storage quality in vitro. We thus show that supplementation of blood units stored in bags with ranitidine could - through mechanisms involving sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent modulation of erythrocyte glycolysis and/or direct binding to hemoglobin - improve erythrocyte metabolism and storage quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.146175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934844PMC
February 2021

In utero exposure to alloantigens primes alloimmunization to platelet transfusion in mice.

Transfusion 2021 Mar 18;61(3):687-691. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Platelet transfusions remain a mainstay of treatment for many patients with thrombocytopenia, but can lead to alloantibodies to Human Leukocyte Antigens (anti-HLA) resulting in inadequate responses to subsequent platelet transfusions (refractoriness), as well as complicate transplantation. Despite substantial decreases in alloimmunization with the implementation of leukoreduction, a significant percentage of patients still become alloimmunized following platelet transfusions. It remains unclear why some patients make anti-HLA antibodies, but others do not make anti-HLA antibodies even with chronic transfusion. Antecedent pregnancy correlates with risk of alloimmunization due to platelet transfusion in humans - however, isolation of pregnancy as a single variable is not possible in human populations.

Study Design And Methods: A tractable murine model of pregnancy and transfusion was engineered by breeding C57BL/6 (H-2 ) dames with BALB/c (H-2 ) sires. After pregnancy, female mice were transfused with leukoreduced platelets from F1 (H-2 ) donors that expressed the same paternal major histocompatibility complex (MHC) H-2 alloantigens as the sires. Control groups allowed isolation of pregnancy or transfusion alone as independent variables. Alloimmunization was determined by testing serum for antibodies to H-2 MHC alloantigens.

Results: No alloantibodies were detected after pregnancy alone, or in response to transfusion of platelets alone; however, significant levels of alloantibodies were detected when pregnancy was followed by transfusion.

Conclusions: These findings isolate antecedent pregnancy as a causal contribution to increased frequencies of alloimmunization by subsequent platelet transfusion in mice and provide a platform for ongoing mechanistic investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.16224DOI Listing
March 2021

ZOOMICS: Comparative Metabolomics of Red Blood Cells From Old World Monkeys and Humans.

Front Physiol 2020 23;11:593841. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States.

As part of the ZOOMICS project, we set out to investigate common and diverging metabolic traits in the blood metabolome across various species by taking advantage of recent developments in high-throughput metabolomics. Here we provide the first comparative metabolomics analysis of fresh and stored human ( = 21, 10 males, 11 females), olive baboon ( = 20), and rhesus macaque ( = 20) red blood cells at baseline and upon 42 days of storage under blood bank conditions. The results indicated similarities and differences across species, which ultimately resulted in a differential propensity to undergo morphological alterations and lyse as a function of the duration of refrigerated storage. Focusing on purine oxidation, carboxylic acid, fatty acid, and arginine metabolism further highlighted species-specific metabolic wiring. For example, through a combination of steady state measurements and CN-arginine tracing experiments, we report an increase in arginine catabolism into ornithine in humans, suggestive of species-specific arginase 1 activity and nitric oxide synthesis-an observation that may impact the translatability of cardiovascular disease studies carried out in non-human primates (NHPs). Finally, we correlated metabolic measurements to storage-induced morphological alterations via scanning electron microscopy and hemolysis, which were significantly lower in human red cells compared to both NHPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.593841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645159PMC
October 2020

Evidence of Structural Protein Damage and Membrane Lipid Remodeling in Red Blood Cells from COVID-19 Patients.

J Proteome Res 2020 11 26;19(11):4455-4469. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, United States.

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, in particular, short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading and metabolic rewiring toward the hexose monophosphate shunt, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be less capable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation/oxidant stress when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640979PMC
November 2020

The impact of donor sex and age on stored platelet metabolism and post-transfusion recovery.

Blood Transfus 2020 Oct 14. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Virginia, Charlotesville, VA, United States of America.

Background: The impact of donor biology on blood component storability is increasingly appreciated as a determinant of the storage lesion and post-transfusion performances. Platelet metabolism is affected by age and it is critical to platelet responses to activating stimuli in an age-dependent manner. Sex has been previously highlighted as a contributing factor to the platelet proteomics lesion. However, little is known about the impact of donor sex and age on stored platelet metabolism and post-transfusion capacity to circulate.

Materials And Methods: Apheresis platelets were donated via apheresis by 21 healthy volunteers (12 males and 9 females; ages 20 to 59). Metabolomics analyses were performed at day 0 and after 5 days of storage at 22+2 °C, along with autologous post-transfusion recovery and survival studies with Cr and In.

Results: Sex and age significantly impacted platelet metabolism at baseline and upon storage. Platelets from older, male donors were characterised by higher levels of Krebs cycle metabolites, pentose phosphate pathway intermediates and byproducts, deaminated purines and long chain fatty acids. These metabolites ranked amongst the top significant correlates to post-transfusion recoveries. Glutathione homeostasis and sphingosine 1-phosphate were the top positive correlates to long term survival, which was lower in platelets from older, male donors - without reaching statistical significance.

Discussion: In this study we report that donor sex and age have a significant impact on platelet metabolism. Novel metabolic correlates to platelet post-transfusion performances (24 h recovery and long-term survival) were identified through high-resolution, stable isotope-labeled internal standard-assisted metabolomics approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2450/2020.0145-20DOI Listing
October 2020

Protein-L-isoaspartate O-methyltransferase is required for in vivo control of oxidative damage in red blood cells.

Haematologica 2020 Sep 10;Online ahead of print. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

University of Virginia, Charlotesville, VA.

Red blood cells have the special challenge of a large amount of reactive oxygen species (from their substantial iron load and Fenton reactions) combined with the inability to synthesize new gene products. Considerable progress has been made in elucidating the multiple pathways by which red blood cells neutralize reactive oxygen species via NADPH driven redox reactions. However, far less is known about how red blood cells repair the inevitable damage that does occur when reactive oxygen species break through anti-oxidant defenses. When structural and functional proteins become oxidized, the only remedy available to red blood cells is direct repair of the damaged molecules, as red blood cells cannot synthesize new proteins. Amongst the most common amino acid targets of oxidative damage is the conversion of asparagine and aspartate side chains into a succinimidyl group through deamidation or dehydration, respectively. Red blood cells express an L-Isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT, gene name PCMT1) that can convert succinimidyl groups back to an aspartate. Herein, we report that deletion of PCMT1 significantly alters red blood cell metabolism in a healthy state, but does not impair the circulatory lifespan of red blood cells. Through a combination of genetic ablation, bone marrow transplantation and oxidant stimulation with phenylhydrazine in vivo or blood storage ex vivo, we use omics approaches to show that, when animals are exposed to oxidative stress, red blood cells from PCMT1 knockout undergo significant metabolic reprogramming and increased hemolysis. This is the first report of an essential role of PCMT1 for normal RBC circulation during oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.266676DOI Listing
September 2020

Turning over a new leaf on turning over RBCs.

Authors:
James C Zimring

Blood 2020 10;136(14):1569-1570

University of Virginia School of Medicine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008463DOI Listing
October 2020

Cross-reactivity of mouse IgG subclasses to human Fc gamma receptors: Antibody deglycosylation only eliminates IgG2b binding.

Mol Immunol 2020 11 15;127:79-86. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are important for protection against pathogens and exert effector functions through binding to IgG-Fc receptors (FcγRs) on myeloid and natural killer cells, resulting in destruction of opsonized target cells. Despite interspecies differences, IgG subclasses and FcγRs show substantial similarities and functional conservation between mammals. Accordingly, binding of human IgG (hIgG) to mouse FcγRs (mFcγRs) has been utilized to study effector functions of hIgG in mice. In other applications, such as immunostaining with mouse IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), these cross-reactivities are undesired and prone to misinterpretation. Despite this drawback, the binding of mouse IgG (mIgG) subclasses to human FcγR (hFcγR) classes has never been fully documented. Here, we report detailed and quantifiable characterization of binding affinities for all mIgG subclasses to hFcγRs, including functional polymorphic variants. mIgG subclasses show the strongest binding to hFcγRIa, with relative affinities mIgG2a = mIgG2c > mIgG3 > mIgG2b, and no binding by mIgG1. hFcγRIIa/b showed general low reactivities to all mIgG (mIgG1> mIgG2a/c > mIgG2b), with no reactivity to mIgG3. A particularly high affinity was observed for mIgG1 to the hFcγRIIa-R131 polymorphic variant. hFcγRIIIa showed lower binding (mIgG2a/c > mIgG3), slightly favouring binding to the hFcγRIIIa-V158 over the F158 polymorphic variant. No binding was observed of mIgG to hFcγRIIIb. Deglycosylation of mIgG1 did not abrogate binding to hFcγRIIa-R131, nor did deglycosylation of mIgG2a/c and mIgG3 prevent hFcγRIa binding. Importantly, deglycosylation of the least cross-reactive mIgG subclass, mIgG2b, abrogated reactivity to all hFcγRs. Together, these data document for the first time the full spectrum of cross-reactivities of mouse IgG to human FcγRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2020.08.015DOI Listing
November 2020

Serum Proteomics in COVID-19 Patients: Altered Coagulation and Complement Status as a Function of IL-6 Level.

J Proteome Res 2020 11 14;19(11):4417-4427. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045, United States.

Over 5 million people around the world have tested positive for the beta coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 as of May 29, 2020, a third of which are in the United States alone. These infections are associated with the development of a disease known as COVID-19, which is characterized by several symptoms, including persistent dry cough, shortness of breath, chills, muscle pain, headache, loss of taste or smell, and gastrointestinal distress. COVID-19 has been characterized by elevated mortality (over 100 thousand people have already died in the US alone), mostly due to thromboinflammatory complications that impair lung perfusion and systemic oxygenation in the most severe cases. While the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with the severity of the disease, little is known about the impact of IL-6 levels on the proteome of COVID-19 patients. The present study provides the first proteomics analysis of sera from COVID-19 patients, stratified by circulating levels of IL-6, and correlated to markers of inflammation and renal function. As a function of IL-6 levels, we identified significant dysregulation in serum levels of various coagulation factors, accompanied by increased levels of antifibrinolytic components, including several serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). These were accompanied by up-regulation of the complement cascade and antimicrobial enzymes, especially in subjects with the highest levels of IL-6, which is consistent with an exacerbation of the acute phase response in these subjects. Although our results are observational, they highlight a clear increase in the levels of inhibitory components of the fibrinolytic cascade in severe COVID-19 disease, providing potential clues related to the etiology of coagulopathic complications in COVID-19 and paving the way for potential therapeutic interventions, such as the use of pro-fibrinolytic agents. Raw data for this study are available through ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD020601.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640953PMC
November 2020

IgG Subclass Determines Suppression Versus Enhancement of Humoral Alloimmunity to Kell RBC Antigens in Mice.

Front Immunol 2020 16;11:1516. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Bloodworks Northwest Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

It has long been appreciated that immunoglobulins are not just the effector endpoint of humoral immunity, but rather have a complex role in regulating antibody responses themselves. Donor derived anti-RhD IgG has been used for over 50 years as an immunoprophylactic to prevent maternal alloimmunization to RhD. Although anti-RhD has dramatically decreased rates of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (for the RhD alloantigen), anti-RhD also fails in some cases, and can even paradoxically enhance immune responses in some circumstances. Attempts to generate a monoclonal anti-RhD have largely failed, with some monoclonals suppressing less than donor derived anti-RhD and others enhancing immunity. These difficulties likely result, in part, because the mechanism of anti-RhD remains unclear. However, substantial evidence exists to reject the common explanations of simple clearance of RhD + RBCs or masking of antigen. Donor derived anti-RhD is a mixture of 4 different IgG subtypes. To the best of our knowledge an analysis of the role different IgG subtypes play in immunoregulation has not been carried out; and, only IgG1 and IgG3 have been tested as monoclonals. Multiple attempts to elicit alloimmune responses to human RhD epitopes in mice have failed. To circumvent this limitation, we utilize a tractable animal model of RBC alloimmunization using the human Kell glycoprotein as an antigen to test the effect of IgG subtype on immunoregulation by antibodies to RBC alloantigens. We report that the ability of an anti-RBC IgG to enhance, suppress (at the level of IgM responses), or have no effect is a function of the IgG subclass in this model system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378678PMC
July 2020

Complement activation on endothelium initiates antibody-mediated acute lung injury.

J Clin Invest 2020 11;130(11):5909-5923

Department of Medicine, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA.

Antibodies targeting human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins limit successful transplantation and transfusion, and their presence in blood products can cause lethal transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). It is unclear which cell types are bound by these anti-leukocyte antibodies to initiate an immunologic cascade resulting in lung injury. We therefore conditionally removed MHC class I (MHC I) from likely cellular targets in antibody-mediated lung injury. Only the removal of endothelial MHC I reduced lung injury and mortality, related mechanistically to absent endothelial complement fixation and lung platelet retention. Restoration of endothelial MHC I rendered MHC I-deficient mice susceptible to lung injury. Neutrophil responses, including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, were intact in endothelial MHC I-deficient mice, whereas complement depletion reduced both lung injury and NETs. Human pulmonary endothelial cells showed high HLA class I expression, and posttransfusion complement activation was increased in clinical TRALI. These results indicate that the critical source of antigen for anti-leukocyte antibodies is in fact the endothelium, which reframes our understanding of TRALI as a rapid-onset vasculitis. Inhibition of complement activation may have multiple beneficial effects of reducing endothelial injury, platelet retention, and NET release in conditions where antibodies trigger these pathogenic responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598054PMC
November 2020

Evidence for structural protein damage and membrane lipid remodeling in red blood cells from COVID-19 patients.

medRxiv 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

The SARS-CoV-2 beta coronavirus is the etiological driver of COVID-19 disease, which is primarily characterized by shortness of breath, persistent dry cough, and fever. Because they transport oxygen, red blood cells (RBCs) may play a role in the severity of hypoxemia in COVID-19 patients. The present study combines state-of-the-art metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics approaches to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on RBCs from 23 healthy subjects and 29 molecularly-diagnosed COVID-19 patients. RBCs from COVID-19 patients had increased levels of glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by oxidation and fragmentation of ankyrin, spectrin beta, and the N-terminal cytosolic domain of band 3 (AE1). Significantly altered lipid metabolism was also observed, especially short and medium chain saturated fatty acids, acyl-carnitines, and sphingolipids. Nonetheless, there were no alterations of clinical hematological parameters, such as RBC count, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, with only minor increases in mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, these results suggest a significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on RBC structural membrane homeostasis at the protein and lipid levels. Increases in RBC glycolytic metabolites are consistent with a theoretically improved capacity of hemoglobin to off-load oxygen as a function of allosteric modulation by high-energy phosphate compounds, perhaps to counteract COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Conversely, because the N-terminus of AE1 stabilizes deoxyhemoglobin and finely tunes oxygen off-loading, RBCs from COVID-19 patients may be incapable of responding to environmental variations in hemoglobin oxygen saturation when traveling from the lungs to peripheral capillaries and, as such, may have a compromised capacity to transport and deliver oxygen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.29.20142703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340206PMC
June 2020

COVID-19 infection alters kynurenine and fatty acid metabolism, correlating with IL-6 levels and renal status.

JCI Insight 2020 07 23;5(14). Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

BACKGROUNDReprogramming of host metabolism supports viral pathogenesis by fueling viral proliferation, by providing, for example, free amino acids and fatty acids as building blocks.METHODSTo investigate metabolic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we evaluated serum metabolites of patients with COVID-19 (n = 33; diagnosed by nucleic acid testing), as compared with COVID-19-negative controls (n = 16).RESULTSTargeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses identified altered tryptophan metabolism into the kynurenine pathway, which regulates inflammation and immunity. Indeed, these changes in tryptophan metabolism correlated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Widespread dysregulation of nitrogen metabolism was also seen in infected patients, with altered levels of most amino acids, along with increased markers of oxidant stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide, cystine), proteolysis, and renal dysfunction (e.g., creatine, creatinine, polyamines). Increased circulating levels of glucose and free fatty acids were also observed, consistent with altered carbon homeostasis. Interestingly, metabolite levels in these pathways correlated with clinical laboratory markers of inflammation (i.e., IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and renal function (i.e., blood urea nitrogen).CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, this initial observational study identified amino acid and fatty acid metabolism as correlates of COVID-19, providing mechanistic insights, potential markers of clinical severity, and potential therapeutic targets.FUNDINGBoettcher Foundation Webb-Waring Biomedical Research Award; National Institute of General and Medical Sciences, NIH; and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.140327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453907PMC
July 2020

COVID-19 infection results in alterations of the kynurenine pathway and fatty acid metabolism that correlate with IL-6 levels and renal status.

medRxiv 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Previous studies suggest a role for systemic reprogramming of host metabolism during viral pathogenesis to fuel rapidly expanding viral proliferation, for example by providing free amino acids and fatty acids as building blocks. In addition, general alterations in metabolism can provide key understanding of pathogenesis. However, little is known about the specific metabolic effects of SARS-COV-2 infection. The present study evaluated the serum metabolism of COVID-19 patients (n=33), identified by a positive nucleic acid test of a nasopharyngeal swab, as compared to COVID-19-negative control patients (n=16). Targeted and untargeted metabolomics analyses specifically identified alterations in the metabolism of tryptophan into the kynurenine pathway, which is well-known to be involved in regulating inflammation and immunity. Indeed, the observed changes in tryptophan metabolism correlated with serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Metabolomics analysis also confirmed widespread dysregulation of nitrogen metabolism in infected patients, with decreased circulating levels of most amino acids, except for tryptophan metabolites in the kynurenine pathway, and increased markers of oxidant stress (e.g., methionine sulfoxide, cystine), proteolysis, and kidney dysfunction (e.g., creatine, creatinine, polyamines). Increased circulating levels of glucose and free fatty acids were also observed, consistent with altered carbon homeostasis in COVID-19 patients. Metabolite levels in these pathways correlated with clinical laboratory markers of inflammation and disease severity (i.e., IL-6 and C-reactive protein) and renal function (i.e., blood urea nitrogen). In conclusion, this initial observational study of the metabolic consequences of COVID-19 infection in a clinical cohort identified amino acid metabolism (especially kynurenine and cysteine/taurine) and fatty acid metabolism as correlates of COVID-19, providing mechanistic insights, potential markers of clinical severity, and potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.14.20102491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274252PMC
May 2020

Metabolic Reprogramming of Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages Following Erythrophagocytosis.

Front Physiol 2020 30;11:396. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States.

Reticuloendothelial macrophages engulf ∼0.2 trillion senescent erythrocytes daily in a process called erythrophagocytosis (EP). This critical mechanism preserves systemic heme-iron homeostasis by regulating red blood cell (RBC) catabolism and iron recycling. Although extensive work has demonstrated the various effects on macrophage metabolic reprogramming by stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines, little is known about the impact of EP on the macrophage metabolome and proteome. Thus, we performed mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and proteomics analyses of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) before and after EP of IgG-coated RBCs. Further, metabolomics was performed on BMDMs incubated with free IgG to ensure that changes to macrophage metabolism were due to opsonized RBCs and not to free IgG binding. Uniformly labeled tracing experiments were conducted on BMDMs in the presence and absence of IgG-coated RBCs to assess the flux of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In this study, we demonstrate that EP significantly alters amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, the Krebs cycle, OXPHOS, and arachidonate-linoleate metabolism. Increases in levels of amino acids, lipids and oxylipins, heme products, and RBC-derived proteins are noted in BMDMs following EP. Tracing experiments with U-C glucose indicated a slower flux through glycolysis and enhanced PPP activation. Notably, we show that it is fueled by glucose derived from the macrophages themselves or from the extracellular media prior to EP, but not from opsonized RBCs. The PPP-derived NADPH can then fuel the oxidative burst, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species necessary to promote digestion of phagocytosed RBC proteins via radical attack. Results were confirmed by redox proteomics experiments, demonstrating the oxidation of Cys152 and Cys94 of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and hemoglobin-β, respectively. Significant increases in early Krebs cycle and C-branched dibasic acid metabolites (α-ketoglutarate and 2-hydroxyglutarate, respectively) indicate that EP promotes the dysregulation of mitochondrial metabolism. Lastly, EP stimulated aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase and arginase activity as indicated by significant accumulations of ALA and ornithine after IgG-mediated RBC ingestion. Importantly, EP-mediated metabolic reprogramming of BMDMs does not occur following exposure to IgG alone. In conclusion, we show that EP reprograms macrophage metabolism and modifies macrophage polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204509PMC
April 2020

Stored RBC metabolism as a function of caffeine levels.

Transfusion 2020 Jun 11;60(6):1197-1211. Epub 2020 May 11.

Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco, California.

Background: Coffee consumption is extremely common in the United States. Coffee is rich with caffeine, a psychoactive, purinergic antagonist of adenosine receptors, which regulate red blood cell energy and redox metabolism. Since red blood cell (purine) metabolism is a critical component to the red cell storage lesion, here we set out to investigate whether caffeine levels correlated with alterations of energy and redox metabolism in stored red blood cells.

Study Design And Methods: We measured the levels of caffeine and its main metabolites in 599 samples from the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study via ultra-high-pressure-liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry and correlated them to global metabolomic and lipidomic analyses of RBCs stored for 10, 23, and 42 days.

Results: Caffeine levels positively correlated with increased levels of the main red cell antioxidant, glutathione, and its metabolic intermediates in glutathione-dependent detoxification pathways of oxidized lipids and sugar aldehydes. Caffeine levels were positively correlated with transamination products and substrates, tryptophan, and indole metabolites. Expectedly, since caffeine and its metabolites belong to the family of xanthine purines, all xanthine metabolites were significantly increased in the subjects with the highest levels of caffeine. However, high-energy phosphate compounds ATP and DPG were not affected by caffeine levels, despite decreases in glucose oxidation products-both via glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway.

Conclusion: Though preliminary, this study is suggestive of a beneficial correlation between the caffeine levels and improved antioxidant capacity of stored red cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990510PMC
June 2020

Ethyl glucuronide, a marker of alcohol consumption, correlates with metabolic markers of oxidant stress but not with hemolysis in stored red blood cells from healthy blood donors.

Transfusion 2020 Jun 8;60(6):1183-1196. Epub 2020 May 8.

Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco, California.

Background: Red blood cell (RBC) storage in the blood bank is associated with the progressive accumulation of oxidant stress. While the mature erythrocyte is well equipped to cope with such stress, recreative habits like alcohol consumption may further exacerbate the basal level of oxidant stress and contribute to the progress of the storage lesion.

Study Design And Methods: RBC levels of ethyl glucuronide, a marker of alcohol consumption, were measured via ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Analyses were performed on 599 samples from the recalled donor population at Storage Days 10, 23, and 42 (n = 250), as part of the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study. This cohort consisted of the 5th and 95th percentile of donors with extreme hemolytic propensity out of the original cohort of 13,403 subjects enrolled in the REDS-III RBC Omics study. Ehtyl glucuronide levels were thus correlated to global metabolomics and lipidomics analyses and RBC hemolytic propensity.

Results: Ethyl glucuronide levels were positively associated with oxidant stress markers, including glutathione consumption and turnover, methionine oxidation, S-adenosylhomocysteine accumulation, purine oxidation, and transamination markers. Decreases in glycolysis and energy metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway and ascorbate system were observed in those subjects with the highest levels of ethyl glucuronide, though hemolysis values were comparable between groups.

Conclusion: Though preliminary, this study is suggestive that markers of alcohol consumption are associated with increases in oxidant stress and decreases in energy metabolism with no significant impact on hemolytic parameters in stored RBCs from healthy donor volunteers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967801PMC
June 2020

Nicotine exposure increases markers of oxidant stress in stored red blood cells from healthy donor volunteers.

Transfusion 2020 Jun 8;60(6):1160-1174. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Cigarette smoking is a frequent habit across blood donors (approx. 13% of the donor population), that could compound biologic factors and exacerbate oxidant stress to stored red blood cells (RBCs).

Study Design And Methods: As part of the REDS-III RBC-Omics (Recipient Epidemiology Donor Evaluation Study III Red Blood Cell-Omics) study, a total of 599 samples were sterilely drawn from RBC units stored under blood bank conditions at Storage Days 10, 23, and 42 days, before testing for hemolysis parameters and metabolomics. Quantitative measurements of nicotine and its metabolites cotinine and cotinine oxide were performed against deuterium-labeled internal standards.

Results: Donors whose blood cotinine levels exceeded 10 ng/mL (14% of the tested donors) were characterized by higher levels of early glycolytic intermediates, pentose phosphate pathway metabolites, and pyruvate-to-lactate ratios, all markers of increased basal oxidant stress. Consistently, increased glutathionylation of oxidized triose sugars and lipid aldehydes was observed in RBCs donated by nicotine-exposed donors, which were also characterized by increased fatty acid desaturation, purine salvage, and methionine oxidation and consumption via pathways involved in oxidative stress-triggered protein damage-repair mechanisms.

Conclusion: RBCs from donors with high levels of nicotine exposure are characterized by increases in basal oxidant stress and decreases in osmotic hemolysis. These findings indicate the need for future clinical studies aimed at addressing the impact of smoking and other sources of nicotine (e.g., nicotine patches, snuff, vaping, secondhand tobacco smoke) on RBC storage quality and transfusion efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960685PMC
June 2020

Characterization and refinement of monoclonal anti-human globulins that lack reactivity with human IgG4.

Transfusion 2020 05 5;60(5):1060-1068. Epub 2020 May 5.

University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Background: Anti-red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies consisting of only the immunoglobulin G (IgG) 4 subtype are typically considered clinically insignificant. A US Food and Drug Administration-approved monoclonal anti-human globulin (16H8) is nonreactive with IgG4, which has been considered a benefit to avoid testing interference from IgG4. However, 16H8 also does not recognize two natural IgG3 variants (IgG3-03 and IgG3-13). Thus, 16H8 may miss clinically significant alloantibodies in some settings.

Study Design And Methods: Novel mouse anti-human IgG hybridomas were generated and screened for reactivity with 32 human variants of anti-KEL1 across different IgG subtypes, as well as mutants to allow epitope mapping. Anti-IgG reactivity was determined using KEL1+ RBCs bound by each IgG variant as targets. Binding of anti-IgG was determined by flow cytometry.

Results: 16H8 recognized an epitope involving amino acid 419, which is glutamate in IgG4, IgG3-03, and IgG3-13, explaining the lack of 16H8 reactivity with these subtypes/isoallotypes. A new monoclonal antibody (PUMA8) was isolated that, like 16H8, was nonreactive with IgG4 but without blind spots for known variants of IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3. PUMA8 recognized an epitope containing arginine at position 355, which is glutamine in IgG4. However, a recently described new IgG4 variant with an arginine at position 355 results in PUMA8 reactivity.

Conclusion: PUMA8 represents an alternative to 16H8 that avoids IgG4 but without blind spots for IgG3 variants. However, PUMA8 reacts with one recently described IgG4 variant. In addition to relevance to immunohematology, these studies highlight the importance of patient variation with regards to assay performance in an era of personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15796DOI Listing
May 2020

Impact of taurine on red blood cell metabolism and implications for blood storage.

Transfusion 2020 Jun 27;60(6):1212-1226. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver-Anschutz Medical Campus Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Taurine is an antioxidant that is abundant in some common energy drinks. Here we hypothesized that the antioxidant activity of taurine in red blood cells (RBCs) could be leveraged to counteract storage-induced oxidant stress.

Study Design And Methods: Metabolomics analyses were performed on plasma and RBCs from healthy volunteers (n = 4) at baseline and after consumption of a whole can of a common, taurine-rich (1000 mg/serving) energy drink. Reductionistic studies were also performed by incubating human RBCs with taurine ex vivo (unlabeled or C N-labeled) at increasing doses (0, 100, 500, and 1000 μmol/L) at 37°C for up to 16 hours, with and without oxidant stress challenge with hydrogen peroxide (0.1% or 0.5%). Finally, we stored human and murine RBCs under blood bank conditions in additives supplemented with 500 μmol/L taurine, before metabolomics and posttransfusion recovery studies.

Results: Consumption of energy drinks increased plasma and RBC levels of taurine, which was paralleled by increases in glycolysis and glutathione (GSH) metabolism in the RBC. These observations were recapitulated ex vivo after incubation with taurine and hydrogen peroxide. Taurine levels in the RBCs from the REDS-III RBC-Omics donor biobank were directly proportional to the total levels of GSH and glutathionylated metabolites and inversely correlated to oxidative hemolysis measurements. Storage of human RBCs in the presence of taurine improved energy and redox markers of storage quality and increased posttransfusion recoveries in FVB mice.

Conclusion: Taurine modulates RBC antioxidant metabolism in vivo and ex vivo, an observation of potential relevance to transfusion medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995806PMC
June 2020

Passively transferred IgG enhances humoral immunity to a red blood cell alloantigen in mice.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1526-1537

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.

Antibodies are typically thought of as the endpoint of humoral immunity that occur as the result of an adaptive immune response. However, affinity-matured antibodies can be present at the initiation of a new immune response, most commonly because of passive administration as a medical therapy. The current paradigm is that immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgE enhance subsequent humoral immunity. In contrast, IgG has a "dual effect" in which it enhances responses to soluble antigens but suppresses responses to antigens on red blood cells (RBCs) (eg, immunoprophylaxis with anti-RhD). Here, we report a system in which passive antibody to an RBC antigen promotes a robust cellular immune response leading to endogenous CD4+ T-cell activation, germinal center formation, antibody secretion, and immunological memory. The mechanism requires ligation of Fcγ receptors on a specific subset of dendritic cells that results in CD4+ T-cell activation and expansion. Moreover, antibodies cross-enhance responses to a third-party antigen, but only if it is expressed on the same RBC as the antigen recognized by the antibody. Importantly, these observations were IgG subtype specific. Thus, these findings demonstrate that antibodies to RBC alloantigens can enhance humoral immunity in an IgG subtype-specific fashion and provide mechanistic elucidation of the enhancing effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160277PMC
April 2020

Poly(I:C) causes failure of immunoprophylaxis to red blood cells expressing the KEL glycoprotein in mice.

Blood 2020 05;135(22):1983-1993

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Polyclonal anti-D (Rh immune globulin [RhIg]) therapy has mitigated hemolytic disease of the newborn over the past half century, although breakthrough anti-D alloimmunization still occurs in some treated females. We hypothesized that antiviral responses may impact the efficacy of immunoprophylaxis therapy in a type 1 interferon (IFN)-dependent manner and tested this hypothesis in a murine model of KEL alloimmunization. Polyclonal anti-KEL immunoprophylaxis (KELIg) was administered to wild-type or knockout mice in the presence or absence of polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly[I:C]), followed by the transfusion of murine red blood cells (RBCs) expressing the human KEL glycoprotein. Anti-KEL alloimmunization, serum cytokines, and consumption of the transfused RBCs were evaluated longitudinally. In some experiments, recipients were treated with type 1 IFN (IFN-α/β). Recipient treatment with poly(I:C) led to breakthrough anti-KEL alloimmunization despite KELIg administration. Recipient CD4+ T cells were not required for immunoprophylaxis efficacy at baseline, and modulation of the KEL glycoprotein antigen occurred to the same extent in the presence or absence of recipient inflammation. Under conditions where breakthrough anti-KEL alloimmunization occurred, KEL RBC consumption by inflammatory monocytes and serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 were significantly increased. Poly(I:C) or type I IFN administration was sufficient to cause breakthrough alloimmunization, with poly(I:C) inducing alloimmunization even in the absence of recipient type I IFN receptors. A better understanding of how recipient antiviral responses lead to breakthrough alloimmunization despite immunoprophylaxis may have translational relevance to instances of RhIg failure that occur in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256361PMC
May 2020

Donor sex, age and ethnicity impact stored red blood cell antioxidant metabolism through mechanisms in part explained by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels and activity.

Haematologica 2020 04 2. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

University of Virginia, Charlotesville, VA, USA.

Red blood cell storage in the blood bank promotes the progressive accumulation of metabolic alterations that may ultimately impact the erythrocyte capacity to cope with oxidant stressors. However, the metabolic underpinnings of the capacity of RBCs to resist oxidant stress and the potential impact of donor biology on this phenotype are not known. Within the framework of the REDS-III RBC-Omics study, RBCs from 8,502 healthy blood donors were stored for 42 days and tested for their propensity to hemolyze following oxidant stress. A subset of extreme hemolyzers donated a second unit of blood, which was stored for 10, 23, and 42 days and profiled again for oxidative hemolysis and metabolomics (599 samples). Alterations of RBC energy and redox homeostasis were noted in donors with high oxidative hemolysis. RBCs from females, donors over 60 years old, donors of Asian/South Asian race-ethnicity, and RBCs stored in additive solution-3 were each independently characterized by improved antioxidant metabolism compared to, respectively, males, donors under 30 years old, Hispanic and African American race ethnicity donors, and RBCs stored in additive solution-1. Merging metabolomics data with results from an independent GWAS study on the same cohort, we identified metabolic markers of hemolysis and G6PD-deficiency, which were associated with extremes in oxidative hemolysis and dysregulation in NADPH and glutathione-dependent detoxification pathways of oxidized lipids. Donor sex, age, ethnicity, additive solution and G6PD status impact the metabolism of the stored erythrocyte and its susceptibility to hemolysis following oxidative insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.246603DOI Listing
April 2020

Donor glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency decreases blood quality for transfusion.

J Clin Invest 2020 05;130(5):2270-2285

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA.

BACKGROUNDGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency decreases the ability of red blood cells (RBCs) to withstand oxidative stress. Refrigerated storage of RBCs induces oxidative stress. We hypothesized that G6PD-deficient donor RBCs would have inferior storage quality for transfusion as compared with G6PD-normal RBCs.METHODSMale volunteers were screened for G6PD deficiency; 27 control and 10 G6PD-deficient volunteers each donated 1 RBC unit. After 42 days of refrigerated storage, autologous 51-chromium 24-hour posttransfusion RBC recovery (PTR) studies were performed. Metabolomics analyses of these RBC units were also performed.RESULTSThe mean 24-hour PTR for G6PD-deficient subjects was 78.5% ± 8.4% (mean ± SD), which was significantly lower than that for G6PD-normal RBCs (85.3% ± 3.2%; P = 0.0009). None of the G6PD-normal volunteers (0/27) and 3 G6PD-deficient volunteers (3/10) had PTR results below 75%, a key FDA acceptability criterion for stored donor RBCs. As expected, fresh G6PD-deficient RBCs demonstrated defects in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway. During refrigerated storage, G6PD-deficient RBCs demonstrated increased glycolysis, impaired glutathione homeostasis, and increased purine oxidation, as compared with G6PD-normal RBCs. In addition, there were significant correlations between PTR and specific metabolites in these pathways.CONCLUSIONBased on current FDA criteria, RBCs from G6PD-deficient donors would not meet the requirements for storage quality. Metabolomics assessment identified markers of PTR and G6PD deficiency (e.g., pyruvate/lactate ratios), along with potential compensatory pathways that could be leveraged to ameliorate the metabolic needs of G6PD-deficient RBCs.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT04081272.FUNDINGThe Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Program, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation grant 71590, the National Blood Foundation, NIH grant UL1 TR000040, the Webb-Waring Early Career Award 2017 by the Boettcher Foundation, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grants R01HL14644 and R01HL148151.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI133530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191001PMC
May 2020

IgG3 anti-Kell allotypic variation results in differential antigen binding and phagocytosis.

Transfusion 2020 04 13;60(4):688-693. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Center for Innovation, Canadian Blood Services, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) includes four different subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4). Due to genetic variations, each IgG subtype contains different isoallotypes. It was previously shown that a Food and Drug Administration-approved monoclonal anti-IgG failed to recognize 2 of 15 recombinant, human IgG3 anti-Kell (K1) isoallotypes (rIgG3-03 and rIgG3-13) by indirect antiglobulin test (IAT).

Study Design And Methods: We expressed and purified 15 recombinant human rIgG3 anti-K1 isoallotypes and investigated their antigen binding and ability to induce phagocytosis using homozygous (KK) and heterozygous (Kk) K1-positive red blood cells (RBCs) by gel IAT, flow cytometry, and a monocyte monolayer assay (MMA) with peripheral blood monocytes and cultured inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages.

Results: MMA results showed that differences in the Fc region of rIgG3 anti-K1 led to distinctive phagocytic activity with both monocytes and M1 macrophages. rIgG3-18 and rIgG3-19 showed an enhanced ability to induce phagocytosis. Differences in Fc regions also led to variations in the number of antibodies bound to KK RBCs. Despite the differences in phagocytic activity, all 15 rIgG3 clones are predicted to induce clinically significant hemolysis if K1-positive blood was transfused into patients.

Conclusion: These results argue that antiglobulin reagents that fail to detect isoallotype rIgG3-03 or rIgG3-13 could present a transfusion risk or lack of detection of a potentially clinically significant anti-K1 in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15663DOI Listing
April 2020

Functional Attributes of Antibodies, Effector Cells, and Target Cells Affecting NK Cell-Mediated Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

J Immunol 2019 12 20;203(12):3126-3135. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands;

Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the most important effector mechanisms of tumor-targeting Abs in current immunotherapies. In ADCC and other Ab-dependent activation of myeloid effector cells, close cell-cell contact (between effector and target cell) and formation of immunological synapses are required. However, we still lack basic knowledge on the principal factors influencing ADCC potential by therapeutic Abs. In this study we investigated the combined roles of five factors affecting human NK cell-mediated ADCC, namely: 1) Ag density, 2) target cell membrane composition, 3) IgG FcγR polymorphism, 4) FcγR-blocking cytophilic Abs, and 5) Ab fucosylation. We demonstrate that the magnitude of NK cell-mediated ADCC responses is predominantly influenced by Ag density and Ab fucosylation. Afucosylation consistently induced efficient ADCC, even at very low Ag density, where fucosylated target Abs did not elicit ADCC. On the side of the effector cell, the FcγRIIIa-Val/Phe158 polymorphism influenced ADCC potency, with NK cells expressing the Val158 variant showing more potent ADCC. In addition, we identified the sialic acid content of the target cell membrane as an important inhibitory factor for ADCC. Furthermore, we found that the presence and glycosylation status of aspecific endogenous Abs bound to NK cell FcγRIIIa (cytophilic Abs) determine the blocking effect on ADCC. These five parameters affect the potency of Abs in vitro and should be further tested as predictors of in vivo capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900985DOI Listing
December 2019

Red blood cell metabolism in Rhesus macaques and humans: comparative biology of blood storage.

Haematologica 2020 08 7;105(8):2174-2186. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO

Macaques are emerging as a critical animal model in transfusion medicine, because of their evolutionary similarity to humans and perceived utility in discovery and translational science. However, little is known about the metabolism of Rhesus macaque red blood cells (RBC) and how this compares to human RBC metabolism under standard blood banking conditions. Metabolomic and lipidomic analyses, and tracing experiments with [1,2,3-C]glucose, were performed using fresh and stored RBC (sampled weekly until storage day 42) obtained from Rhesus macaques (n=20) and healthy human volunteers (n=21). These results were further validated with targeted quantification against stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Metabolomic analyses demonstrated inter-species differences in RBC metabolism independent of refrigerated storage. Although similar trends were observed throughout storage for several metabolic pathways, species- and sex-specific differences were also observed. The most notable differences were in glutathione and sulfur metabolites, purine and lipid oxidation metabolites, acylcarnitines, fatty acyl composition of several classes of lipids (including phosphatidylserines), glyoxylate pathway intermediates, and arginine and carboxylic acid metabolites. Species-specific dietary and environmental compounds were also detected. Overall, the results suggest an increased basal and refrigerator-storage-induced propensity for oxidant stress and lipid remodeling in Rhesus macaque RBC cells, as compared to human red cells. The overlap between Rhesus macaque and human RBC metabolic phenotypes suggests the potential utility of a translational model for simple RBC transfusions, although inter-species storage-dependent differences need to be considered when modeling complex disease states, such as transfusion in trauma/hemorrhagic shock models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.229930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7395274PMC
August 2020

Differences in Steap3 expression are a mechanism of genetic variation of RBC storage and oxidative damage in mice.

Blood Adv 2019 08;3(15):2272-2285

Bloodworks NW Research Institute, Seattle, WA.

Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most numerous cell type in the body and serve a vital purpose of delivering oxygen to essentially all tissues. In addition to the central role of RBCs in health and disease, RBC storage is a requirement for the >90 million units of RBC transfusions given to millions of recipients each year, worldwide. It is well known that there is genetic donor-to-donor variability in how human RBCs store, rendering blood a nonstandardized therapeutic with a wide range of biological properties from unit to unit, by the time it is transfused. As with humans, genetic variation exists in how murine RBCs, from different strains of mice, store and perform after transfusion. The genetic mechanisms for variation, in humans and mice, both remain obscure. Combining advanced metabolomics, genetics, and molecular and cellular biology approaches, we identify genetic variation in six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 3 (Steap3) expression as a critical and previously unrecognized mechanism of oxidative damage of RBCs during storage. Increased levels of Steap3 result in degradation of cellular membrane through lipid peroxidation, leading to failure of RBC homeostasis and hemolysis/clearance of RBCs. This article is the first report of a role of Steap3 in mature RBCs; it defines a new mechanism of redox biology in RBCs with a substantial effect upon RBC function and provides a novel mechanistic determinant of genetic variation of RBC storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693009PMC
August 2019

Parabiosis Incompletely Reverses Aging-Induced Metabolic Changes and Oxidant Stress in Mouse Red Blood Cells.

Nutrients 2019 Jun 14;11(6). Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus, 12801 East 17th Ave RC1 South, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Mature red blood cells (RBCs) not only account for ~83% of the total host cells in the human body, but they are also exposed to all body tissues during their circulation in the bloodstream. In addition, RBCs are devoid of de novo protein synthesis capacity and, as such, they represent a perfect model to investigate system-wide alterations of cellular metabolism in the context of aging and age-related oxidant stress without the confounding factor of gene expression. In the present study, we employed ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based metabolomics and proteomics to investigate RBC metabolism across age in male mice (6, 15, and 25 months old). We report that RBCs from aging mice face a progressive decline in the capacity to cope with oxidant stress through the glutathione/NADPH-dependent antioxidant systems. Oxidant stress to tryptophan and purines was accompanied by declines in late glycolysis and methyl-group donors, a potential compensatory mechanism to repair oxidatively damaged proteins. Moreover, heterochronic parabiosis experiments demonstrated that the young environment only partially rescued the alterations in one-carbon metabolism in old mice, although it had minimal to no impact on glutathione homeostasis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and oxidation of purines and tryptophan, which were instead aggravated in old heterochronic parabionts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11061337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627295PMC
June 2019