Publications by authors named "James B Strait"

16 Publications

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Sex Differences in Longitudinal Determinants of Carotid Intima Medial Thickening With Aging in a Community-Dwelling Population: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 11 7;9(22):e015396. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science National Institute on Aging NIH Biomedical Research Center Baltimore MD.

Background Common carotid intima medial thickness (IMT) increases with aging. However, the longitudinal association between IMT and other age-associated hemodynamic alterations in men and in women are not fully explored. Methods and Results We analyzed repeated measures of IMT, blood pressure, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity over a 20-year period in 1067 men and women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging; participants were ages 20 to 92 years at entry and free of overt cardiovascular disease. Linear mixed-effects models were used to calculate the individual rates of change () of IMT, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pulse wave velocity, among other covariates. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the association of IMT with baseline and rates of change of hemodynamic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. IMT increased at accelerating rates from 0.02 mm/decade at age 50 years to 0.05 mm/decade at age 80 years greater rates in men than in women. IMT was positively associated with baseline low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and baseline systolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure, but inversely with baseline diastolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. When blood pressure was expressed as pulse pressure and MAP, IMT was positively associated with baseline pulse pressure and pulse pressure and inversely with baseline mean arterial pressure and mean arterial pressure. In sex-specific analysis, these associations were observed in women, but not in men. Conclusions In summary, our analyses showed that IMT increases at accelerating rates with aging. Age-associated changes in IMT were modulated by concurrent changes of low-density lipoprotein in both sexes, and of pulsatile and mean blood pressure in women but not men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763739PMC
November 2020

Longitudinal Association Between Serum Uric Acid and Arterial Stiffness: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Hypertension 2017 02 12;69(2):228-235. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Serum uric acid (SUA) has long been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, with arterial stiffness proposed as a mediator. However, evidence on the association between SUA and arterial stiffness is limited to contradicting cross-sectional studies. In this analysis, we examined the longitudinal relationship between SUA and pulse wave velocity, a measure of arterial stiffness, in a community-dwelling population. We studied 446 women and 427 men participating in the BLSA (Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging), with 1409 and 1434 observations, respectively, over an average period of 6 years. At baseline, mean ages of women and men were 65±13 and 68±13 years; mean SUA, 4.6±1.1 and 5.7±1.3 mg/dL; mean pulse wave velocity, 8.1±1.7 and 8.6±1.9 m/s, respectively (P<0.0001). In gender-stratified models accounting for age, blood pressure, renal function, metabolic measures, and medications, there was a significant interaction between SUA and follow-up time in men (β=0.69; P=0.0002) but not in women. Men, but not women, in the highest gender-specific SUA tertile at baseline (SUA≥6.2 mg/dL in men and SUA≥4.9 mg/dL in women) had a greater rate of pulse wave velocity increase over time than those in the lowest tertiles (β=0.997; P=0.012). This gender difference was lost when the distribution of SUA in men and women was made comparable by excluding hyperuricemic men (SUA≥6.2 mg/dL). In conclusion, higher SUA was associated with greater increase in pulse wave velocity in men but not women; this association was lost when men with SUA≥6.2 mg/dL were not included, suggesting a threshold for SUA association with arterial stiffness, which is more frequently reached in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354105PMC
February 2017

Longitudinal perspective on the conundrum of central arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and aging.

Hypertension 2014 Dec 15;64(6):1219-27. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

From the Hospital San Raffaele Pisana-Istituto Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Sceintifico (IRCCS), Rome, Italy (A.S.); Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, National Institute of Aging, Baltimore, MD (C.H.M., J.B.S., K.V.T., H.S., E.G.L.); Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore (C.H.M.); Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica (IRGB), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, c/o Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy (M.O., L.A.P.F., F.L., M.G.P., A.D.); Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (M.A.); and MedStar Heart Institute, Washington, DC (S.S.N.).

The age-associated increase in arterial stiffness has long been considered to parallel or to cause the age-associated increase in blood pressure (BP). Yet, the rates at which pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and BP trajectories change over time within individuals who differ by age and sex have not been assessed and compared. This study determined the evolution of BP and aortic PWV trajectories during a 9.4-year follow-up in >4000 community-dwelling men and women of 20 to 100 years of age at entry into the SardiNIA Study. Linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that PWV accelerates with time during the observation period, at about the same rate over the entire age range in both men and women. In men, the longitudinal rate at which BP changed over time, however, did not generally parallel that of PWV acceleration: at ages>40 years the rates of change in systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) increase plateaued and then declined so that SBP, itself, also declined at older ages, whereas PP plateaued. In women, SBP, diastolic BP, and mean BP increased at constant rates across all ages, producing an increasing rate of increase in PP. Therefore, increased aortic stiffness is implicated in the age-associated increase in SBP and PP. These findings indicate that PWV is not a surrogate for BP and that arterial properties other than arterial wall stiffness that vary by age and sex also modulate the BP trajectories during aging and lead to the dissociation of PWV, PP, and SBP trajectories in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231012PMC
December 2014

Prevalence, clinical correlates, and functional impact of subaortic ventricular septal bulge (from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging).

Am J Cardiol 2014 Sep 19;114(5):796-802. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

A localized hypertrophy of the subaortic segment of the ventricular septum-ventricular septal bulge (VSB)-has been frequently described in series of elderly population, but its prevalence with age, clinical correlates, and impact on cardiac function and exercise capacity remain uncertain. We explored these associations in a cross-sectional sample without known cardiac disease from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We randomly selected 700 participants (50% men, mean age 64 ± 15, range 26 to 95 years) and reviewed their echocardiograms. We identified 28 men and 21 women with VSB (7% overall prevalence). The prevalence of VSB significantly increased with age in both genders (p <0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression including hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors, only age displayed a significant independent association with VSB (OR 1.06 per year, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, p = 0.0001). After multiple adjustments, participants with VSB compared with those without had enhanced global left ventricular contractility (fractional shortening 41 ± 1.3 vs 38 ± 0.3%, p = 0.04; ejection fraction 71 ± 1.6 vs 67 ± 0.4%, p = 0.06; systolic velocity of the mitral annulus 8.4 ± 0.1 vs 8.9 ± 0.3, p = 0.06), and larger aortic root diameters (3.3 ± 0.06 vs 3.1 ± 0.02 cm, p = 0.02). In subgroup of participants who completed a maximal treadmill test (177 women and 196 men), those with VSB (19, 5.1%) had significantly lower peak oxygen consumption than their counterparts (19.6 ± 3.8 vs 22.9 ± 6.6 ml/kg/min, p = 0.03). However, this association was no longer significant after multiple adjustments. In conclusion, the presence of VSB is independently associated with older age and determines enhanced left ventricular contractility, without any evident impact on exercise capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.05.068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495884PMC
September 2014

Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.

Nat Genet 2014 Aug 22;46(8):826-36. Epub 2014 Jun 22.

Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy (affiliated institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany).

The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124521PMC
August 2014

Role of bone mineral density in the inverse relationship between body size and aortic calcification: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Atherosclerosis 2014 Jul 8;235(1):169-75. Epub 2014 May 8.

Longitudinal Studies Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, NIA/NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: There is a J-shaped relationship between body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular outcomes in elderly patients (obesity paradox). Whether low BMI correlates with aortic calcification (AC) and whether this association is accounted for by bone demineralization is uncertain.

Methods: Presence of AC was evaluated in 687 community-dwelling individuals (49% male, mean age 67 ± 13 years) using CT images of the thoracic, upper and lower abdominal aorta, and scored from 0 to 3 according to number of sites that showed any calcification. Whole-body bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Predictors of AC were assessed by logistic regression, and the role of BMD using mediation analysis.

Results: Age and cardiovascular risk factors were positively associated while both BMI (r = -0.11, p < 0.01) and BMD (r = -0.17, p < 0.0001) were negatively associated with AC severity. In multivariate models, lower BMI (OR 0.96, 95%CI 0.92-0.99, p = 0.01), older age, higher systolic blood pressure, use of lipid-lowering drugs and smoking were independent predictors of AC. A nonlinear relationship between BMI and AC was noticed (p = 0.03), with decreased AC severity among overweight participants. After adjusting for BMD, the coefficient relating BMI to AC was reduced by 14% and was no longer significant, whereas BMD remained negatively associated with AC (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.069-0.96, p = 0.01), with a trend for a stronger relationship in older participants.

Conclusion: Low BMI is associated with increased AC, possibly through calcium mobilization from bone, resulting in low BMD. Prevention of weight loss and bone demineralization with aging may help reducing AC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.04.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4080433PMC
July 2014

Impact of central obesity on the estimation of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity.

Am J Hypertens 2014 Sep 17;27(9):1209-17. Epub 2014 Mar 17.

Longitudinal Studies Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute of Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland;

Background: Studies have found that central obesity is associated with higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). However, traveled distance (TD) measured over the body surface can be substantially overestimated with wider waist circumference (WC). We sought to investigate whether central obesity biases the estimation of PWV and whether this bias explains the association between PWV and different measures of adiposity.

Methods: Seven hundred eleven participants (49.5% men) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging with PWV, anthropometrics, and quantification of different fat depots by computed tomography and dual x-ray absorptiometry were included. TD and relative PWV were estimated with a tape measure over the body surface or linear distances taken from radiological images, unaffected by obesity.

Results: A significant association was found between wider WC and a greater difference between the 2 TD measurements and their respective PWV in both sexes (r ≥ 0.34; P < 0.001). This overestimation bias appeared to be generally higher in women than men (0.27 m/sec for each unit increase in WC; P < 0.0001). When TD estimated over the body surface was used to calculate PWV, greater WC, total body fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat were all associated with higher PWV (P < 0.05 for all). However, when PWV was calculated using TD estimated from radiological images or body height, only the association with visceral fat held significant.

Conclusions: When TD is measured over the body surface, the role of obesity on PWV is substantially overestimated. After accounting for this bias, PWV was still independently associated with visceral fat but not with other measures of adiposity, confirming its contribution to arterial stiffening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpu038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4141203PMC
September 2014

Pulse wave velocity testing in the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging.

J Vis Exp 2014 Feb 7(84):e50817. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Aging;

Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity is considered the gold standard for measurements of central arterial stiffness obtained through noninvasive methods(1). Subjects are placed in the supine position and allowed to rest quietly for at least 10 min prior to the start of the exam. The proper cuff size is selected and a blood pressure is obtained using an oscillometric device. Once a resting blood pressure has been obtained, pressure waveforms are acquired from the right femoral and right common carotid arteries. The system then automatically calculates the pulse transit time between these two sites (using the carotid artery as a surrogate for the descending aorta). Body surface measurements are used to determine the distance traveled by the pulse wave between the two sampling sites. This distance is then divided by the pulse transit time resulting in the pulse wave velocity. The measurements are performed in triplicate and the average is used for analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/50817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4117368PMC
February 2014

Relationship between inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure and arterial stiffness in community-dwelling older adults.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2013 Dec 7;15(12):880-7. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Longitudinal Studies Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, NIA/NIH, Baltimore, MD; Laboratory of Cardiovascular Sciences, Human Cardiovascular Studies Unit, NIA/NIH, Baltimore, MD; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

A significant inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure (IADSBP) has recently been associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. The authors hypothesized that part of this association is mediated by arterial stiffness, and examined the relationship between significant IADSBP and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) in a sample from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Of 1045 participants, 50 (4.8%) had an IADSBP ≥10 mm Hg at baseline, and 629 had completed data from ≥2 visits (for a total of 1704 visits during 8 years). CF-PWV was significantly higher in patients with an IADSBP ≥10 mm Hg (7.3±1.9 vs 8.2±2, P=.002). Compared with others, patients with IADSBP ≥10 mm Hg also had higher body mass index, waist circumference, and triglycerides; higher prevalence of diabetes; and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<.001 for all). A significant association with IADSBP ≥10 mm Hg was observed for CF-PWV in both cross-sectional (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.87; P=.01) and longitudinal (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.29; P=.01) multivariate analyses. Female sex, Caucasian race, high body mass index (plus diabetes and low HDL cholesterol only cross-sectionally) were other independent correlates of IADSBP ≥10 mm Hg. Significant IADSBP is associated with increased arterial stiffness in community-dwelling older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.12178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3855278PMC
December 2013

Comparison of clinical presentation, left ventricular morphology, hemodynamics, and exercise tolerance in obese versus nonobese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Am J Cardiol 2013 Oct;112(8):1182-9

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Longitudinal Studies Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Division of Cardiology, Research Center of Cardiovascular Biology, University of Genova, Italy.

Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and thus may be an important modifier of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) phenotype. We examined if obesity modifies the clinical presentation, LV morphology, outflow hemodynamics, and exercise tolerance in HC. In this cross-sectional study, 88 obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)) and 154 nonobese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)) patients from the Johns Hopkins HC clinic were compared with respect to a variety of clinical and LV echocardiographic measurements. Obese patients (36.4%) were more likely to report exertional dyspnea (p = 0.04) and chest pain (p = 0.002) and had greater prevalence of hypertension (p = 0.008). LV posterior wall thickness (p = 0.01) but not the septal wall (p ≥0.21) was significantly greater in obese patients, resulting in an increased LV mass index (p = 0.003). No significant differences in LV systolic and diastolic functions were observed, but obesity was associated with higher LV stroke volume (p = 0.03), inducible LV outflow tract gradients (p = 0.045), and chance of developing LV outflow tract obstruction during stress (p = 0.035). In multivariate analysis, BMI was associated with increased posterior (but not septal) wall thickness (β = 0.15, p = 0.02) and LV mass index (β = 0.18, p = 0.005), particularly in those with hypertension. Obesity was also associated with reduced exercise time and functional capacity, and BMI independently correlated with reduced exercise tolerance. In conclusion, obesity is associated with larger LV mass, worse symptoms, lower exercise tolerance, and labile obstructive hemodynamics in HC. The association with increased outflow tract gradients has particular importance as contribution of obesity to the pressure gradients may influence clinical decisions in labile obstructive HC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.05.070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4042005PMC
October 2013

Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Hypertension 2013 Nov 3;62(5):934-41. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Blvd, Suite 100, Room 09B116, Baltimore, MD 21224.

Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ≥140 mm Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880832PMC
November 2013

Carotid atherosclerosis and prospective risk of dementia.

Stroke 2012 Dec 25;43(12):3319-24. Epub 2012 Oct 25.

Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, NIH, 251 Bayview Blvd, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Background And Purpose: Although vascular risk factors have been implicated in the development of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD), few studies have examined the association between subclinical atherosclerosis and prospective risk of dementia.

Methods: Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n=364; age, 60-95 years; median age, 73; 60% male; 82% white) underwent initial carotid atherosclerosis assessment and subsequently were assessed for dementia and AD annually for up to 14 years (median, 7.0). Cox proportional hazards models predicting all-cause dementia and AD were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and smoking.

Results: Sixty participants developed dementia, with 53 diagnosed as AD. Raw rates of future dementia and AD among individuals initially in the upper quintile of carotid intimal medial thickness or with bilateral carotid plaque were generally double the rates of individuals with intimal medial thickness in the lower quintiles or no plaque at baseline. Adjusted proportional hazards models revealed >2.5-fold increased risk of dementia and AD among individuals in the upper quintile of carotid intimal medial thickness, and approximately 2.0-fold increased risk of dementia among individuals with bilateral plaque.

Conclusions: Multiple measures of carotid atherosclerosis are associated with prospective risk of dementia. Individuals in the upper quintile of carotid intimal medial thickness or bilateral carotid plaque were at greatest risk. These findings underscore the possibility that early intervention to reduce atherosclerosis may help delay or prevent onset of dementia and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.672527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3508298PMC
December 2012

Contribution of central adiposity to left ventricular diastolic function (from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging).

Am J Cardiol 2012 Apr 17;109(8):1171-8. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Longitudinal Studies Section, Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

We examined the relations of central adiposity with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in men and women who participated in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, a prospective community-based study of older persons. The sample for this cross-sectional analysis included 399 women and 370 men. Central adiposity was estimated using the waist circumference (WC) and global adiposity using the body mass index (BMI). Using data from a comprehensive echocardiographic study that included tissue Doppler imaging, diastolic function was graded according to 3 parameters (E/A ratio, E/Em ratio, and left atrial volume index). In the logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors, and hemodynamic parameters, WC and BMI were both independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. However, when both WC and BMI were in the same model, only WC remained significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.08, p = 0.02). In the gender-stratified analyses, WC was significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction-independently of BMI-in women (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.14, p <0.001) but not in men (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.05, p = 0.91). Additional adjustment for LV mass index failed to modify these relations. In conclusion, the adverse effect of central adiposity on LV diastolic function was independent of general adiposity and more pronounced among women. The effect of visceral adiposity on LV diastolic dysfunction would benefit from confirmation in longitudinal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.11.054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319236PMC
April 2012

Aging-associated cardiovascular changes and their relationship to heart failure.

Heart Fail Clin 2012 Jan;8(1):143-64

Human Cardiovascular Studies, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Intramural Research Program, Clinical Research Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Harbor Hospital, NM-500, 3001 South Hanover Street, Baltimore, MD 21225, USA.

Aging represents a convergence of declining cardioprotective systems and increasing disease processes that is fertile ground for the development of heart failure. Fifty percent of all heart failure diagnoses and 90% of all heart failure deaths occur in individuals older than 70. This article discusses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in cardiovascular structure, function, protective systems, and disease associated with aging. In addition to outlining important clinical considerations and conditions in older persons, the link between normal aging and the elevated risk for development of stage B heart failure is explained and potential therapeutic pathways are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hfc.2011.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3223374PMC
January 2012

COL4A1 is associated with arterial stiffness by genome-wide association scan.

Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2009 Apr 18;2(2):151-8. Epub 2009 Feb 18.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Laboratory of Genetics, Clinical Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a noninvasive index of central arterial stiffness, is a potent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Heritability and linkage studies have pointed toward a genetic component affecting PWV. We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PWV.

Methods And Results: The study cohort included participants from the SardiNIA study for whom PWV measures were available. Genotyping was performed in 4221 individuals, using either the Affymetrix 500K or the Affymetrix 10K mapping array sets (with imputation of the missing genotypes). Associations with PWV were evaluated using an additive genetic model that included age, age(2), and sex as covariates. The findings were tested for replication in an independent internal Sardinian cohort of 1828 individuals, using a custom chip designed to include the top 43 nonredundant SNPs associated with PWV. Of the loci that were tested for association with PWV, the nonsynonymous SNP rs3742207 in the COL4A1 gene on chromosome 13 and SNP rs1495448 in the MAGI1 gene on chromosome 3 were successfully replicated (P=7.08 x 10(-7) and P=1.06 x 10(-5), respectively, for the combined analyses). The association between rs3742207 and PWV was also successfully replicated (P=0.02) in an independent population, the Old-Order Amish, leading to an overall P=5.16 x 10(-8).

Conclusions: A genome-wide association study identified a SNP in the COL4A1 gene that was significantly associated with PWV in 2 populations. Collagen type 4 is the major structural component of basement membranes, suggesting that previously unrecognized cell-matrix interactions may exert an important role in regulating arterial stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.108.823245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2801872PMC
April 2009

Using new tools to define the genetic underpinnings of risky traits associated with coronary artery disease: the SardiNIA study.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2009 Apr;19(3):69-75

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Genomewide association studies are increasingly being applied to search for novel genes that might underlie cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we briefly review the principles that underlie modern genetic analyses and provide several illustrations from the SardiNIA study of genomewide association studies for cardiovascular risk factor traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2009.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744138PMC
April 2009