Publications by authors named "James A Zwiebel"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Capivasertib in Patients With an AKT1 E17K-Mutated Tumor: NCI-MATCH Subprotocol EAY131-Y Nonrandomized Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Feb;7(2):271-278

Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

Importance: In the National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial, agents targeting genetic tumor abnormalities are administered to patients. In the NCI-MATCH subprotocol EAY131-Y trial, patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated metastatic tumor received the pan-AKT inhibitor capivasertib.

Objective: To assess the objective response rate (ORR) of capivasertib in patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated tumor.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Between July 13, 2016, and August 10, 2017, patients in the NCI-MATCH trial were enrolled and assigned to the subprotocol EAY131-Y nonrandomized trial. Patients included adults with an AKT1 E17K-mutated metastatic tumor that had progressed with standard treatment, and these patients were assigned to receive capivasertib. Tumor assessments were repeated every 2 cycles. Data analysis of this evaluable population was performed from November 8, 2019, to March 12, 2020.

Interventions: The study treatment was capivasertib, 480 mg, orally twice daily for 4 days on and 3 days off weekly in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effect. If patients continued hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer, the capivasertib dose was 400 mg.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was the ORR (ie, complete response [CR] and partial response) according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria, version 1.1. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS, overall survival, and safety.

Results: In total, 35 evaluable and analyzable patients were included, of whom 30 were women (86%), and the median (range) age was 61 (32-73) years. The most prevalent cancers were breast (18 [51%]), including 15 patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive/ERBB2-negative and 3 with triple-negative disease, and gynecologic (11 [31%]) cancers. The ORR rate was 28.6% (95% CI, 15%-46%). One patient with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma achieved a CR and remained on therapy at 35.6 months. Patients with confirmed partial response had the following tumor types: 7 had HR-positive/ERBB2-negative breast cancer, 1 had uterine leiomyosarcoma, and 1 had oncocytic parotid gland carcinoma and continued receiving treatment at 28.8 months. Sixteen patients (46%) had stable disease as the best response, 2 (6%) had progressive disease, and 7 (20%) were not evaluable. With a median follow-up of 28.4 months, the overall 6-month PFS rate was 50% (95% CI, 35%-71%). Capivasertib was discontinued because of adverse events in 11 of 35 patients (31%). Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events included hyperglycemia (8 [23%]) and rash (4 [11%]). One grade 4 hyperglycemic adverse event was reported.

Conclusions And Relevance: This nonrandomized trial found that, in patients with an AKT1 E17K-mutated tumor treated with capivasertib, a clinically significant ORR was achieved, including 1 CR. Clinically meaningful activity with single-agent capivasertib was demonstrated in refractory malignant neoplasms, including rare cancers.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00700882.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.6741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774047PMC
February 2021

Molecular Landscape and Actionable Alterations in a Genomically Guided Cancer Clinical Trial: National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH).

J Clin Oncol 2020 Nov 13;38(33):3883-3894. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

Purpose: Therapeutically actionable molecular alterations are widely distributed across cancer types. The National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial was designed to evaluate targeted therapy antitumor activity in underexplored cancer types. Tumor biopsy specimens were analyzed centrally with next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a master screening protocol. Patients with a tumor molecular alteration addressed by a targeted treatment lacking established efficacy in that tumor type were assigned to 1 of 30 treatments in parallel, single-arm, phase II subprotocols.

Patients And Methods: Tumor biopsy specimens from 5,954 patients with refractory malignancies at 1,117 accrual sites were analyzed centrally with NGS and selected immunohistochemistry in a master screening protocol. The treatment-assignment rate to treatment arms was assessed. Molecular alterations in seven tumors profiled in both NCI-MATCH trial and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of primary tumors were compared.

Results: Molecular profiling was successful in 93.0% of specimens. An actionable alteration was found in 37.6%. After applying clinical and molecular exclusion criteria, 17.8% were assigned (26.4% could have been assigned if all subprotocols were available simultaneously). Eleven subprotocols reached their accrual goal as of this report. Actionability rates differed among histologies (eg, > 35% for urothelial cancers and < 6% for pancreatic and small-cell lung cancer). Multiple actionable or resistance-conferring tumor mutations were seen in 11.9% and 71.3% of specimens, respectively. Known resistance mutations to targeted therapies were numerically more frequent in NCI-MATCH than TCGA tumors, but not markedly so.

Conclusion: We demonstrated feasibility of screening large numbers of patients at numerous accruing sites in a complex trial to test investigational therapies for moderately frequent molecular targets. Co-occurring resistance mutations were common and endorse investigation of combination targeted-therapy regimens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676882PMC
November 2020

Dabrafenib and Trametinib in Patients With Tumors With Mutations: Results of the NCI-MATCH Trial Subprotocol H.

J Clin Oncol 2020 Nov 6;38(33):3895-3904. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: mutations are commonly found in melanoma and thyroid cancers and to a lesser degree in other tumor types. Subprotocol H (EAY131-H) of the NCI-MATCH platform trial sought to investigate the selective BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib in patients with solid tumors, lymphomas, or multiple myeloma whose tumors harbored a mutation.

Patients And Methods: EAY131-H is an open-label, single-arm study. Patients with melanoma, thyroid, or colorectal cancer were excluded; patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were later excluded in an amendment. Patients received dabrafenib 150 mg twice per day and trametinib 2 mg per day continuously until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary end point was centrally assessed objective response rate (ORR); secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS, and overall survival.

Results: Thirty-five patients were enrolled, and 29 were included in the primary efficacy analysis as prespecified in the protocol. Median age was 59 years, and 45% of the patients had received ≥ 3 lines of therapy. The confirmed ORR was 38% (90% CI, 22.9% to 54.9%) with < .0001 against a null rate of 5%, and PFS was 11.4 months (90% CI, 8.4 to 16.3 months); responses were seen in 7 distinct tumor types. Seven patients had a duration of response of > 12 months, including 4 patients with a duration of response of > 24 months. An additional 8 patients had a PFS > 6 months. The median overall survival was 28.6 months. Reported adverse events were comparable to those noted in previously reported profiles of dabrafenib and trametinib.

Conclusion: This study met its primary end point, with an ORR of 38% ( < .0001) in this mixed histology, pretreated cohort. This promising activity warrants additional investigations in -mutated tumors outside of currently approved indications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676884PMC
November 2020

Phase II Study of AZD4547 in Patients With Tumors Harboring Aberrations in the FGFR Pathway: Results From the NCI-MATCH Trial (EAY131) Subprotocol W.

J Clin Oncol 2020 07 28;38(21):2407-2417. Epub 2020 May 28.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: NCI-MATCH is a nationwide, histology-agnostic, signal-finding, molecular profile-driven trial for patients with refractory cancers, lymphomas, or myelomas. Patients with tumors harboring actionable aberration(s) in fibroblast growth factor receptor () were treated with AZD4547, an oral FGFR1-3 inhibitor.

Methods: Patients' tumors were screened by next-generation sequencing for predefined amplification, activating mutations, or fusions. Patients were treated with AZD4547, 80 mg orally twice daily until progression of disease or drug intolerance. A response rate of 16% was considered promising.

Results: Between July 2016 and June 2017, 70 patients were assigned and 48 received protocol therapy and are eligible for analysis. Patients' tumors harbored or amplification (n = 20), or single-nucleotide variants (n = 19), or or fusions (n = 9). The most common primary tumors were breast (33.3%), urothelial (12.5%), and cervical cancer (10.4%).Grade 3 adverse events were consistent with those described in previous clinical trials. Confirmed partial responses were seen in 8% (90% CI, 3% to 18%) and were observed only in patients whose tumors harbored point mutations or fusions. Stable disease was observed in 37.5% (90% CI, 25.8% to 50.4%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.4 months, and the 6-month PFS rate was 15% (90% CI, 8% to 31%). For patients with tumors harboring fusions, the response rate was 22% (90% CI, 4.1% to 55%), and 6-month PFS rate was 56% (90% CI, 31% to 100%).

Conclusion: Preliminary signals of activity appeared to be limited to cancers harboring activating mutations and fusions, although AZD4547 did not meet the primary end point. Different somatic alterations may confer different levels of signaling potency and/or oncogene dependence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367548PMC
July 2020

The Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) Trial: Lessons for Genomic Trial Design.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 Oct;112(10):1021-1029

Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: The proportion of tumors of various histologies that may respond to drugs targeted to molecular alterations is unknown. NCI-MATCH, a collaboration between ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group and the National Cancer Institute, was initiated to find efficacy signals by matching patients with refractory malignancies to treatment targeted to potential tumor molecular drivers regardless of cancer histology.

Methods: Trial development required assumptions about molecular target prevalence, accrual rates, treatment eligibility, and enrollment rates as well as consideration of logistical requirements. Central tumor profiling was performed with an investigational next-generation DNA-targeted sequencing assay of alterations in 143 genes, and protein expression of protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog, mutL homolog 1, mutS homolog 2, and RB transcriptional corepressor 1. Treatments were allocated with a validated computational platform (MATCHBOX). A preplanned interim analysis evaluated assumptions and feasibility in this novel trial.

Results: At interim analysis, accrual was robust, tumor biopsies were safe (<1% severe events), and profiling success was 87.3%. Actionable molecular alteration frequency met expectations, but assignment and enrollment lagged due to histology exclusions and mismatch of resources to demand. To address this lag, we revised estimates of mutation frequencies, increased screening sample size, added treatments, and improved assay throughput and efficiency (93.9% completion and 14-day turnaround).

Conclusions: The experiences in the design and implementation of the NCI-MATCH trial suggest that profiling from fresh tumor biopsies and assigning treatment can be performed efficiently in a large national network trial. The success of such trials necessitates a broad screening approach and many treatment options easily accessible to patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566320PMC
October 2020

Nivolumab Is Effective in Mismatch Repair-Deficient Noncolorectal Cancers: Results From Arm Z1D-A Subprotocol of the NCI-MATCH (EAY131) Study.

J Clin Oncol 2020 01 25;38(3):214-222. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: The National Cancer Institute Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice (NCI-MATCH) trial, the largest national precision oncology study to date (> 1,100 sites) of patients with relapsed or refractory malignancies, assigned patients to targeted therapy in parallel phase II studies based on tumor molecular alterations. The anti-programmed death receptor 1 inhibitor nivolumab previously showed activity in mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colon cancer. We hypothesized that nivolumab would have activity in patients with MMR-deficient, noncolorectal tumors.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients with relapsed or refractory tumors, good end-organ function, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≤ 1 underwent tumor biopsy for centralized screening of molecular alterations. MMR deficiency was defined by complete loss of nuclear expression of or MMR gene products by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Patients with MMR-deficient colorectal cancer were excluded. Nivolumab, 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (28-day cycles) and 480 mg every 4 weeks after cycle 4, was administered intravenously. Disease reassessment was performed every 2 cycles. The primary end point was RECIST 1.1 objective response rate (ORR).

Results: Two percent of 4,902 screened patients had an MMR-deficient cancer by IHC. Forty-two evaluable patients were enrolled, with a median age of 60 years and a median of 3 prior therapies. The most common histologies were endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 13), prostate adenocarcinoma (n = 5), and uterine carcinosarcoma (n = 4). ORR was 36% (15 of 42 patients). An additional 21% of patients had stable disease. The estimated 6-, 12-, and 18-month progression-free survival rates were 51.3% (90% CI, 38.2% to 64.5%), 46.2% (90% CI, 33.1% to 59.3%), and 31.4% (90% CI, 18.7% to 44.2%), respectively. Median overall survival was 17.3 months. Toxicity was predominantly low grade.

Conclusion: A variety of refractory cancers (2.0% of those screened) had MMR deficiency as defined in NCI-MATCH. Nivolumab has promising activity in MMR-deficient noncolorectal cancers of a wide variety of histopathologic types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968795PMC
January 2020

Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

Clin Cancer Res 2016 Nov 11;22(22):5408-5416. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5226927PMC
November 2016

Phase I study of GTI-2040, a ribonucleotide reductase antisense, with high dose cytarabine in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Jun 1;55(6):1332-6. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine.

We hypothesized that GTI-2040, a 20-mer oligonucleotide complementary to the R2 subunit mRNA of ribonucleotide reductase, combined with high dose cytarabine (HiDAC) would result in enhanced cytotoxicity by favoring Ara-CTP DNA incorporation. In a phase I dose escalation trial, adults (≥ 60 years) with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received daily HiDAC plus infusional GTI-2040. Using a novel assay, evidence of intracellular drug accumulation and target R2 down-regulation was observed. GTI-2040/HiDAC can be administered safely. However, with no complete remissions observed, alternative doses and schedules may need to be investigated to achieve clinical activity in older patients with AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.838764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4298748PMC
June 2014

Implementation of timeline reforms speeds initiation of National Cancer Institute-sponsored trials.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2013 Jul 17;105(13):954-9. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.

Background: The National Cancer Institute (NCI) organized the Operational Efficiency Working Group in 2008 to develop recommendations for improving the speed with which NCI-sponsored clinical trials move from the idea stage to a protocol open to patient enrollment.

Methods: Given the many stakeholders involved, the Operational Efficiency Working Group advised a multifaceted approach to mobilize the entire research community to improve their business processes. New staff positions to monitor progress, protocol-tracking Web sites, and strategically planned conference calls were implemented. NCI staff and clinical teams at Cooperative Groups and Cancer Centers strived to achieve new target timelines but, most important, agreed to abide by absolute deadlines. For phase I-II studies and phase III studies, the target timelines are 7 months and 10 months, whereas the absolute deadlines were set at 18 and 24 months, respectively. Trials not activated by the absolute deadline are automatically disapproved.

Results: The initial experience is encouraging and indicates a reduction in development times for phase I-II studies from the historical median of 541 days to a median of 442 days, an 18.3% decrease. The experience with phase III studies to date, although more limited (n = 25), demonstrates a 45.7% decrease in median days.

Conclusions: Based upon this progress, the NCI and the investigator community have agreed to reduce the absolute deadlines to 15 and 18 months for phase I-II and III trials, respectively. Emphasis on initiating trials rapidly is likely to help reduce the time it takes for clinical trial results to reach patients in need of new treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djt137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3699438PMC
July 2013

A phase II study of the antisense oligonucleotide GTI-2040 plus docetaxel and prednisone as first-line treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2011 Apr 3;67(4):927-33. Epub 2010 Jul 3.

Princess Margaret Hospital, Phase II Consortium, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Suite 5-222, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9, USA.

Purpose: GTI-2040 is a novel antisense oligonucleotide to the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. This phase II trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of GTI-2040 when combined with docetaxel and prednisone for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).

Methods: Chemo-naïve CRPC patients with adequate performance status and organ function were treated with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) IV on day 1 plus GTI-2040 5 mg/kg/day by continuous intravenous infusion day 1-14 on a 21 day cycle, with prednisone 5 mg orally twice daily. The primary endpoint was PSA response rate. Pharmacokinetic studies of GTI-2040 and pharmacodynamic studies on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were also performed.

Results: Twenty-two patients in total (19 from this study and 3 from a prior phase I/II study at this institution) were treated at the recommended phase II dose. A confirmed PSA response was seen in 9/22 patients (41%). Of 16 patients with measurable disease, there was 1 partial response (PR) and 12 stable disease (SD) lasting 3.6 months (median), as best response. The most common toxicities were anemia, fatigue, lymphopenia, leucopenia and neutropenia. Grade 3+ toxicities included neutropenia, lymphopenia, leucopenia, fatigue, febrile neutropenia and hypophosphatemia.

Conclusions: The PSA response rate of GTI-2040 in combination with docetaxel and prednisone just met the minimum phase II criteria for further enrollment. However, after evaluation of all the clinical data, further study of this dose and schedule of GTI-2040 in CRPC was not recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-010-1389-7DOI Listing
April 2011

A phase I, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic study of two schedules of vorinostat in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with refractory solid tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2010 Jul 12;16(14):3786-94. Epub 2010 May 12.

Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

Purpose: We conducted a phase I clinical trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of daily or twice daily vorinostat x 3 days when combined with fixed doses of 5-fluorouracil (FU) and leucovorin every 2 weeks.

Experimental Design: Vorinostat doses were escalated in a standard 3 x 3 phase I design. FU/leucovorin was started on day 2 of vorinostat and consisted of leucovorin 400 mg/m(2) i.v. over 2 hours followed by FU 400 mg/m(2) i.v. bolus and 2,400 mg/m(2) over 46 hours (sLV5FU2).

Results: Forty-three patients were enrolled. Grade 3 fatigue, and hand and foot syndrome were the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) at the 2,000 mg vorinostat once-daily dose level. Grade 3 fatigue and mucositis were DLTs at the 800 mg vorinostat twice-daily dose level. None of six patients at the 1,700 mg once daily or six patients at the 600 mg twice daily dose levels had a DLT; those dose levels represent the MTD. Twenty-one of 38 patients with FU-refractory colorectal cancer had stable disease, and one had a partial response. Vorinostat maximum serum concentrations at the MTD exceeded concentrations associated with thymidylate synthase downregulation in vitro. No pharmacokinetic interactions were noted between vorinostat and FU.

Conclusions: The MTD of vorinostat in combination with sLV5FU2 is 1,700 mg orally once daily x 3 or 600 mg orally twice daily x 3 days every 2 weeks. Clinical activity in refractory colorectal cancer supports further clinical development of this combination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2931804PMC
July 2010

A phase I study of vorinostat in combination with idarubicin in relapsed or refractory leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2010 Jul 29;150(1):72-82. Epub 2010 Apr 29.

Department of Leukemia, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect chromatin remodelling and modulate the expression of aberrantly silenced genes. HDACi have single-agent clinical activity in haematological malignancies and have synergistic anti-leukaemia activity when combined with anthracyclines in vitro. We conducted a two-arm, parallel Phase I trial to investigate two schedules of escalating doses of vorinostat (Schedule A: thrice daily (TID) for 14 d; B: TID for 3 d) in combination with a fixed dose of idarubicin in patients with refractory leukaemia. Of the 41 patients enrolled, 90% had acute myeloid leukaemia, with a median of 3 prior therapies. Seven responses (17%) were documented (two complete response (5%), one complete response without platelet recovery (2.5%), and four marrow responses). The 3-d schedule of vorinostat was better tolerated than the 14-d schedule. The maximum tolerated dose for vorinostat was defined as 400 mg TID for 3 d. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities included mucositis, fatigue and diarrhoea. Correlative studies demonstrated histone acetylation in patients on therapy and modulation of CDKN1A and TOP2A (topoisomerase II) gene expression. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed a dose-related elevation in plasma vorinostat concentrations. The combination of vorinostat and idarubicin is generally tolerable and active in patients with advanced leukaemia and should be studied in the front-line setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2010.08211.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124904PMC
July 2010

A phase I dose-finding study of 5-azacytidine in combination with sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with refractory solid tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2009 Oct 29;15(19):6241-9. Epub 2009 Sep 29.

Chemical Therapeutics Program, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

Purpose: This was a phase I trial to determine the minimal effective dose and optimal dose schedule for 5-azacytidine (5-AC) in combination with sodium phenylbutyrate in patients with refractory solid tumors. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antineoplastic effects were also studied.

Experimental Design: Three dosing regimens were studied in 27 patients with advanced solid tumors, and toxicity was recorded. The pharmacokinetics of the combination of drugs was evaluated. Repeat tumor biopsies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were analyzed to evaluate epigenetic changes in response to therapy. EBV titers were evaluated as a surrogate measure for gene re-expression of epigenetic modulation in PBMC.

Results: The three dose regimens of 5-AC and phenylbutyrate were generally well tolerated and safe. A total of 48 cycles was administrated to 27 patients. The most common toxicities were bone marrow suppression-related neutropenia and anemia, which were minor. The clinical response rate was disappointing for the combination of agents. One patient showed stable disease for 5 months whereas 26 patients showed progressive disease as the best tumor response. The administration of phenylbutyrate and 5-AC did not seem to alter the pharmacokinetics of either drug. Although there were individual cases of targeted DNA methyltransferase activity and histone H3/4 acetylation changes from paired biopsy or PBMC, no conclusive statement can be made based on these limited correlative studies.

Conclusion: The combination of 5-AC and phenylbutyrate across three dose schedules was generally well tolerated and safe, yet lacked any real evidence for clinical benefit.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2845396PMC
October 2009

A phase I/II study of GTI-2040 plus docetaxel as second-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a study of the PMH phase II consortium.

J Thorac Oncol 2009 Sep;4(9):1163-9

Princess Margaret Hospital Phase 2 Consortium, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: GTI-2040, an antisense oligonucleotide, targets the ribonucleotide reductase R2 subunit, critical for DNA synthesis. This study determined the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of docetaxel plus GTI-2040, toxicity, and response rate in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Patients And Methods: Advanced solid tumor patients, preferably with platinum-treated NSCLC, performance status 0 to 2, no symptomatic central nervous system metastases, adequate organ and bone marrow function, and >or=1 prior chemotherapy regimen were treated with escalating doses of GTI-2040 given by 14-day continuous intravenous infusion (CVI) plus docetaxel every 21 days.

Results: Twenty-nine patients were treated, (24 NSCLC, 3 hormone-refractory prostate cancer, 1 head and neck, and 1 small cell lung cancer). GTI-2040 5 mg/kg as CVI for 14 days plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) intravenously every 21days was determined as the RP2D. Dose-limiting toxicity was not seen. Two patients at RP2D developed grade 4/5 febrile neutropenia. One prostate specific antigen response was seen in phase I, but no objective tumor responses in the NSCLC patients. Median time to progression was 3.4 months, 3.2 months in the NSCLC patients treated at RP2D.

Conclusions: Activity of the combination at RP2D, GTI-2040 5 mg/kg/d x 14 days by CVI plus docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) does not seem superior to docetaxel alone in previously treated NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0b013e3181a949b2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735463PMC
September 2009

A phase I, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study on vorinostat in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin in patients with refractory colorectal cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2009 May 21;15(9):3189-95. Epub 2009 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, Pharmacology, and Radiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Purpose: We conducted a phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat in combination with fixed doses of 5-fluorouracil (FU), leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX).

Experimental Design: Vorinostat was given orally twice daily for 1 week every 2 weeks. FOLFOX was given on days 4 and 5 of vorinostat. The vorinostat starting dose was 100 mg twice daily. Escalation occurred in cohorts of three to six patients. Pharmacokinetics of vorinostat, FU, and oxaliplatin were studied.

Results: Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, gastrointestinal toxicities, and fatigue increased in frequency and severity at higher dose levels of vorinostat. Two of 4 evaluable patients at dose level 4 (vorinostat 400 mg orally twice daily) developed dose-limiting fatigue. One of 10 evaluable patients at dose level 3 (vorinostat 300 mg orally twice daily) had dose-limiting fatigue, anorexia, and dehydration. There were significant relationships between vorinostat dose and the area under the curve on days 1 and 5 (Pearson, < 0.001). The vorinostat area under the curve increased (P = 0.005) and clearance decreased (P = 0.003) on day 5 compared with day 1. The median C(max) of FU at each dose level increased significantly with increasing doses of vorinostat, suggesting a pharmacokinetic interaction between FU and vorinostat. Vorinostat-induced thymidylate synthase (TS) modulation was not consistent; only two of six patients had a decrease in intratumoral TS expression by reverse transcription-PCR.

Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat in combination with FOLFOX is 300 mg orally twice daily x 1 week every 2 weeks. Alternative vorinostat dosing schedules may be needed for optimal down-regulation of TS expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134938PMC
May 2009

G3139 (Genasense) in patients with advanced merkel cell carcinoma.

Am J Clin Oncol 2009 Apr;32(2):174-9

Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Objectives: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine malignancy of the skin. Preclinical studies have identified up-regulation of the critical antiapoptosis gene bcl-2 in MCC. We conducted a multicenter phase II trial of the novel bcl-2 antisense agent (G3139, Genasense) in patients with advanced MCC.

Methods: Twelve patients (9 men, 3 women) with histologically confirmed metastatic or regionally recurrent MCC were enrolled. Ten patients (83%) had received prior chemotherapy. Eight patients (67%) had Karnofsky performance status of 90 to 100. Patients received continuous IV infusion of G3139 (7 mg/kg/d) via central venous access in an outpatient setting for 14 days, followed by a 7-day rest period. Response was assessed at 6-week intervals. Patients were allowed to continue therapy until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression.

Results: No objective responses were observed. The best response was stable disease in 3 patients and progressive disease in 9 patients. A median of 4 doses per patient (total 46 doses) was administered. Dose delays and/or reductions were required in 6 patients. One patient developed grade 4 lymphopenia. One patient developed grade 3 renal failure characterized by grade 3-elevated creatinine and grade 4 hyperkalemia. Other grade 3 events included cytopenia (n = 5), aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotranferease elevation (n = 3), hypophosphatemia (n = 2), and pain (n = 1). The most frequent grade 1 to 2 toxicities were elevated creatinine, ALT elevation, hypokalemia, lymphopenia, and fatigue.

Conclusions: Bcl-2 antisense therapy (G3139) was well tolerated among patients with advanced MCC. Although probable antitumor activity was documented in 1 patient, no objective responses per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria were observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0b013e31817eebf8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4311264PMC
April 2009

Lack of therapeutic effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in patients with metastatic radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinoma.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009 Jan 14;94(1):164-70. Epub 2008 Oct 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Context: Aberrant histone deacetylase activity is seen in a variety of malignancies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as vorinostat have been shown to induce cell death and sensitize cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy in thyroid cancer cell lines. This phase II study was undertaken to assess objective response to vorinostat in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.

Experimental Design: A total of 19 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (n = 16) and medullary thyroid cancer (n = 3) were enrolled in the study. Patients received oral vorinostat at a starting dose of 200 mg twice daily, with dose adjustments allowed as necessary for toxicity. Patients were treated for 2 wk, followed by 1 wk off therapy (3-wk cycle) until disease progression or study withdrawal. Responses were measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria and correlated with tumor markers.

Results: No patient achieved a partial or complete response. Median duration of therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer was 17 wk, whereas in medullary thyroid cancer patients it was 25 wk. Reasons for termination included progression of disease by RECIST criteria (n = 7), clinical progression (n = 3), and adverse events (AEs) (n = 9). AEs were primarily grade 1-3; no clinical grade 4 or grade 5 events were observed. Clinical grade 3 AEs consisted of fatigue, dehydration, ataxia, pneumonia, bruises, and deep vein thrombosis. Severe thrombocytopenia was seen in seven patients (grade 3, n = 5; grade 4, n = 2) and was associated with minor bleeding or bruises.

Conclusions: Vorinostat at this dose and schedule is not an effective treatment for advanced thyroid cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2008-1631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630867PMC
January 2009

Phase I study of GTI-2040, an antisense to ribonucleotide reductase, in combination with high-dose cytarabine in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 Jun;14(12):3889-95

Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Purpose: Inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase reduces the availability of the endogenous pool of deoxycytidine and may increase cytarabine (AraC) cytotoxicity. We performed a phase I dose escalation trial of AraC combined with GTI-2040, a 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide shown in preclinical studies to decrease levels of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, to determine the maximum tolerated dose in adults with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Experimental Design: Twenty-three adults (ages 18-59 years) were enrolled in this dose escalation phase I trial, receiving high-dose AraC twice daily combined with infusional GTI-2040. An ELISA-based assay measured plasma and intracellular concentrations of GTI-2040. R2 protein changes were evaluated by immunoblotting in pretreatment and post-treatment bone marrow samples.

Results: The maximum tolerated dose was 5 mg/kg/d GTI-2040 (days 1-6) and 3 g/m2/dose AraC every 12 hours for 8 doses. Neurotoxicity was dose limiting. Eight patients (35%) achieved complete remission. Mean bone marrow intracellular concentration of GTI-2040 were higher at 120 hours than at 24 hours from the start of GTI-2040 (P = 0.002), suggesting intracellular drug accumulation over time. Reductions in bone marrow levels of R2 protein (>50%) were observed at 24 and 120 hours. Higher baseline R2 protein expression (P = 0.03) and reductions after 24 hours of GTI-2040 (P = 0.04) were associated with complete remission.

Conclusions: GTI-2040 and high-dose AraC were coadministered safely with successful reduction of the intended R2 target and encouraging clinical results. The clinical efficacy of this combination will be tested in an upcoming phase II study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2993318PMC
June 2008

Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel for advanced solid malignancies.

Clin Cancer Res 2007 Jun 17;13(12):3605-10. Epub 2007 May 17.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the recommended phase II doses of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat when administered in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel.

Experimental Design: Patients (N = 28) with advanced solid malignancies were treated with vorinostat, administered orally once daily for 2 weeks or twice daily for 1 week, every 3 weeks. Carboplatin and paclitaxel were administered i.v. once every 3 weeks. Doses of vorinostat and paclitaxel were escalated in sequential cohorts of three patients. The pharmacokinetics of vorinostat, its metabolites, and paclitaxel were characterized.

Results: Vorinostat was administered safely up to 400 mg qd or 300 mg bd with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Two of 12 patients at the 400 mg qd schedule experienced dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 emesis and grade 4 neutropenia with fever. Non-dose-limiting toxicity included nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, neuropathy, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. Of 25 patients evaluable for response, partial responses occurred in 11 (10 non-small cell lung cancer and 1 head and neck cancer) and stable disease occurred in 7. Vorinostat pharmacokinetics were linear over the dose range studied. Vorinostat area under the concentration versus time curve and half-life increased when vorinostat was coadministered with carboplatin and paclitaxel, but vorinostat did not alter paclitaxel pharmacokinetics.

Conclusions: Both schedules of vorinostat (400 mg oral qd x 14 days or 300 mg bd x 7 days) were tolerated well in combination with carboplatin (area under the concentration versus time curve = 6 mg/mL x min) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2)). Encouraging anticancer activity was noted in patients with previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0162DOI Listing
June 2007

Phase I Trial of G3139, a bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide, combined with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in children with relapsed solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group Study.

J Clin Oncol 2007 Apr;25(12):1512-8

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Purpose: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and biologic effects of G3139 when administered with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide to children with relapsed solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: Patients received a 7-day continuous infusion of 3, 5, or 7 mg/kg/d of G3139 every 21 days. Doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and dexrazoxane were administered on days 5 and 6 of the infusion. Pharmacokinetics and biology studies were performed during the first course.

Results: Thirty-seven patients, median age 14 years (range, 1 to 19 years), were enrolled, of whom 29 were fully assessable for toxicity. Because of dose-limiting neutropenia, doses of doxorubicin 30 mg/m2/d for 2 days, dexrazoxane 300 mg/m2/d for 2 days, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2/d for 2 days were reduced initially, but with the addition of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), could be re-escalated to starting doses. At the 7 mg/kg/d dose level, only one of six patients experienced DLT (neutropenia > 7 days). At this dose, the average (+/- standard deviation) steady-state G3139 concentration was 2.04 +/- 1 microg/mL, a concentration associated with biologic activity. Eleven of 15 patients had reduced bcl-2 expression in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells at the first assessable time point of G3139 exposure, and in eight of 14 patients with serial specimens this reduction persisted through day 6.

Conclusion: The recommended phase II dose of G3139 is 7 mg/kg/d as a 7-day continuous infusion, with cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2/d and doxorubicin 30 mg/m2/d on days 5 and 6, followed by GCSF. G3139 may accentuate the myelosuppressive effects of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Evidence for biologic effects of G3139 was demonstrated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.09.5125DOI Listing
April 2007

Phase I trial of a monoclonal antibody specific for alphavbeta3 integrin (MEDI-522) in patients with advanced malignancies, including an assessment of effect on tumor perfusion.

Clin Cancer Res 2005 Nov;11(21):7851-60

University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, 53792, USA.

At present, a variety of agents targeting tumor angiogenesis are under clinical investigation as new therapies for patients with cancer. Overexpression of the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin on tumor vasculature has been associated with an aggressive phenotype of several solid tumor types. Murine models have shown that antibodies targeting the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin can affect tumor vasculature and block tumor formation and metastasis. These findings suggest that antibodies directed at alpha(v)beta(3) could be investigated in the treatment of human malignancies. The current phase I dose escalation study evaluated the safety of MEDI-522, a monoclonal antibody specific for the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, in patients with advanced malignancies. Twenty-five patients with a variety of metastatic solid tumors were treated with MEDI-522 on a weekly basis with doses ranging from 2 to 10 mg/kg/wk. Adverse events were assessed weekly; pharmacokinetic studies were done; and radiographic staging was done every 8 weeks. In addition, dynamic computed tomography imaging was done at baseline and at 8 weeks in patients with suitable target lesions amenable to analysis, to potentially identify the effect of MEDI-522 on tumor perfusion. Treatment was well tolerated, and a maximum tolerated dose was not identified by traditional dose-limiting toxicities. The major adverse events observed were grade 1 and 2 infusion-related reactions (fever, rigors, flushing, injection site reactions, and tachycardia), low-grade constitutional and gastrointestinal symptoms (fatigue, myalgias, and nausea), and asymptomatic hypophosphatemia. Dynamic computed tomography imaging suggested a possible effect on tumor perfusion with an increase in contrast mean transit time from baseline to the 8-week evaluation with increasing doses of MEDI-522. No complete or partial responses were observed. Three patients with metastatic renal cell cancer experienced prolonged stable disease (34 weeks, >1 and >2 years) on treatment. With this weekly schedule of administration, and in the doses studied, MEDI-522 seems to be without significant toxicity, may have effects on tumor perfusion, and may have clinical activity in renal cell cancer. These findings suggest the MEDI-522 could be further investigated as an antiangiogenic agent for the treatment of cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0262DOI Listing
November 2005

Phase I study of oblimersen sodium, an antisense to Bcl-2, in untreated older patients with acute myeloid leukemia: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical activity.

J Clin Oncol 2005 May 11;23(15):3404-11. Epub 2005 Apr 11.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, 433A Starling-Loving Hall, 320 West 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Purposes: Pharmacologic downregulation of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein overexpressed in cancer, might increase chemosensitivity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, we investigated the feasibility of this approach in untreated elderly AML patients by administering oblimersen sodium (G3139), an 18-mer phosphorothioate antisense to Bcl-2, during induction and consolidation treatments.

Patients And Methods: Untreated patients with primary or secondary AML (stratified to cohort 1 or 2, respectively) who were > or = 60 years received induction with G3139, cytarabine, and daunorubicin at one of two different dose levels (45 and 60 mg/m2) and, on achievement of complete remission (CR), consolidation with G3139 and high-dose cytarabine. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based assay was used to measure plasma and intracellular concentrations (IC) of G3139. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively, in bone marrow samples collected before induction treatment and after 72 hours of G3139 infusion, prior to initiation of chemotherapy.

Results: Of the 29 treated patients, 14 achieved CR. With a median follow-up of 12.6 months, seven patients had relapsed. Side effects of this combination were similar to those expected with chemotherapy alone and were not dose limiting at both dose levels. After 72-hour G3139 infusion, Bcl-2/ABL mRNA copies were decreased compared with baseline (P = .03) in CR patients and increased in nonresponders (NRs; P = .05). Changes in Bcl-2 protein showed a similar trend. Although plasma pharmacokinetics did not correlate with disease response, the median IC of the antisense was higher in the CR patients compared with NRs (17.0 v 4.4 pmol/mg protein, respectively; P = .05).

Conclusion: G3139 can be administered safely in combination with intensive chemotherapy, and the degree of Bcl-2 downmodulation may correlate with response to therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.09.118DOI Listing
May 2005

Clinical trials referral resource. Current clinical trials of G3139.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2003 Sep;17(9):1244-6, 1251-3, 1258

Technical Resources International, Inc, Bethesda, MD, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2003

Phase I trial of adenovirus-mediated p53 gene therapy for recurrent glioma: biological and clinical results.

J Clin Oncol 2003 Jul;21(13):2508-18

Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.

Purpose: Advances in brain tumor biology indicate that transfer of p53 is an alternative therapy for human gliomas. Consequently, we undertook a phase I clinical trial of p53 gene therapy using an adenovirus vector (Ad-p53, INGN 201).

Materials And Methods: To obtain molecular information regarding the transfer and distribution of exogenous p53 into gliomas after intratumoral injection and to determine the toxicity of intracerebrally injected Ad-p53, patients underwent a two-stage approach. In stage 1, Ad-p53 was stereotactically injected intratumorally via an implanted catheter. In stage 2, the tumor-catheter was resected en bloc, and the postresection cavity was treated with Ad-p53. This protocol provided intact Ad-p53-treated biologic specimens that could be analyzed for molecular end points, and because the resection cavity itself was injected with Ad-p53, patients could be observed for clinical toxicity.

Results: Of fifteen patients enrolled, twelve underwent both treatment stages. In all patients, exogenous p53 protein was detected within the nuclei of astrocytic tumor cells. Exogenous p53 transactivated p21CIP/WAF and induced apoptosis. However, transfected cells resided on average within 5 mm of the injection site. Clinical toxicity was minimal and a maximum-tolerated dose was not reached. Although anti-adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) titers increased in most patients, there was no evidence of systemic viral dissemination.

Conclusion: Intratumoral injection of Ad-p53 allowed for exogenous transfer of the p53 gene and expression of functional p53 protein. However, at the dose and schedule evaluated, transduced cells were only found within a short distance of the injection site. Although toxicity was minimal, widespread distribution of this agent remains a significant goal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.21.13.2508DOI Listing
July 2003

Phase 1 and pharmacodynamic studies of G3139, a Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide, in combination with chemotherapy in refractory or relapsed acute leukemia.

Blood 2003 Jan 22;101(2):425-32. Epub 2002 Aug 22.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

Overexpression of Bcl-2 is a potential mechanism for chemoresistance in acute leukemia and has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. We hypothesized that down-regulation of Bcl-2 would restore chemosensitivity in leukemic cells. To test this hypothesis, we performed a phase 1 study of G3139 (Genasense, Genta, Berkeley Heights, NJ), an 18-mer phosphorothioate Bcl-2 antisense, with fludarabine (FL), cytarabine (ARA-C), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (FLAG) salvage chemotherapy in patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia. Twenty patients with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were enrolled. G3139 was delivered by continuous infusion on days 1 to 10. FLAG chemotherapy was administered on days 5 to 10. Common side effects of this combination included fever, nausea, emesis, electrolyte imbalance, and fluid retention that were not dose limiting. Plasma pharmacokinetics of G3139 demonstrated steady-state concentration (Css) within 24 hours. Of the 20 patients, 9 (45%) had disease response, 6 (5 AML, 1 ALL) with complete remission (CR) and 3 (2 AML and 1 ALL) with no evidence of disease but failure to recover normal neutrophil and/or platelet counts or to remain in remission for at least 30 days (incomplete remission). Bcl-2 mRNA levels were down-regulated in 9 of the 12 (75%) evaluable patients. This study demonstrates that G3139 can be administered safely with FLAG chemotherapy and down-regulate its target, Bcl-2. The encouraging clinical and laboratory results justify the current plans for a phase 3 study in previously untreated high-risk AML (ie, age at least 60 years).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-06-1899DOI Listing
January 2003

Clinical trials referral resource. Current clinical trials of molecularly targeted agents in children with cancer, Part 2.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2002 Apr;16(4):474, 479-80, 483-4 passim

National Cancer Institute, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2002