Publications by authors named "Jamal Sarvari"

45 Publications

Serosurvey of parvovirus B19 and cytomegalovirus infections among female university students in Shiraz, Southern Iran.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Mar 11;42(2):202-209. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Infection with parvovirus B19 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy might lead to fetal infection, resulting in congenital abnormalities. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 and CMV in female university students in Shiraz, in Fars province, Southern Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 370 female university students were included. Blood samples were collected from each participant and tested for anti-parvovirus B19 and CMV IgG and IgM antibodies, using commercial ELISA kits. The mean age of the participants was 24 (±7)years. Out of 370 participants, 327 (88.4%) and 9 (2.4%) were positive for IgG and IgM antibodies against CMV. Moreover, 211 (57.0%) and 4 (1.1%) of the participants were respectively positive for IgG and IgM antibodies against parvovirus B19. The difference in CMV or parvovirus B19 seropositivity between different age groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The findings of our study showed that more than 50% of the female university students are seropositive to CMV and parvovirus B19 infections. It highlights the importance of health education and also the laboratory screening of females at childbearing age to reduce the risk of congenital infections resulting from these viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2020.1862860DOI Listing
March 2021

The Inflammatory and Fibrotic Patterns of Hepatic Stellate Cells Following Coagulation Factors (VII or X)-Shielded Adenovirus Infection.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Feb 7;78(2):718-726. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The role of coagulation factors on the inflammatory effect of adenovirus (Ad) is an unresolved question that was considered herein. Adenovirus-36(Ad36) and adenovector-5-GFP(Ad5-GFP) were prepared; then, they were loaded with VII or FX factors. The size/charge parameters and transduction efficiency were evaluated using fluorescent microscopy and Zetasizer, respectively. The Ad36-coagulation factor complexes were added on the stellate cells, LX-2. Thereafter, the expression levels of inflammatory and fibrotic genes including PKR, IL-1β, TNF-α, TIMP-1, collagen, and TGF-β were measured by qPCR and ELISA assays. The loading of FVII or FX factors not only increased the size/charge of Ad5-GFP but also enhanced the transduction rate up to 60% and 75%, respectively, compared to the controls (45%). The PKR expression analysis showed an upregulation following treatment with all Ad36 forms (P = 0.0152). The IL-1β and TNF-α cytokines analyses demonstrated that the Ad36-FVII complex elicited the highest inflammatory response (P = 0.05). Similarly, the fibrosis-related expression analysis revealed a more inductive role of FVII when loaded on Ad36, compared to the FX factor. The findings suggested that adenovirus elicited the innate inflammatory and activation state in the hepatic stellate cell. In addition, adenovirus shielded by FVII exhibited more innate inflammation as well as activation of the stellate cells than the FX-loaded virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02297-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Serosurvey of HBV surface antigen and anti-HBV surface antibody among HIV-infected patients in Fars province, southern Iran.

Infez Med 2020 Dec;28(4):572-575

Depertment of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

HBV infection is a major public health issue that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current study evaluated the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBsAb among HIV/AIDS patients in Shiraz, southern Iran. The subjects in this study comprised 251 participants previously confirmed for HIV infection registered at the Shiraz HIV/AIDS center in southern Iran. Peripheral whole blood (5 ml) was obtained from each participant and evaluated for HBsAg and anti-HBs antibodies, utilizing commercial ELISA kits. The 251 participants consisted of 158 (63.5%) males and 91 (36.5%) females. HBsAg and anti-HBsAb were detected in 16 (6.4%) and 117 (46.6%) cases, respectively, while five cases (2%) were positive for both viral markers. No statistically significant association was observed between patients' age, sex, or CD4+ cell count and seropositivity to HBsAg or anti-HBsAb. The findings of the study revealed a relatively high seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBsAb among HIV patients, highlighting the importance of preventive and therapeutic programs in such patients.
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December 2020

The superior role of coagulation factor FX over FVII in adenoviral-mediated innate immune induction of the hepatocyte: an experiment.

Clin Exp Hepatol 2020 Sep 30;6(3):199-206. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aim Of The Study: To better understanding the contribution of coagulation factors to the extent of adenovirus-mediated innate toxicity on the hepatocyte.

Material And Methods: Adenovirus-36 (AD) and adenovector type 5-GFP (Ad5-GFP) were propagated and titered; then, they were loaded with coagulation factors VII or X. The complex of adenovirus with coagulation factor VII and X were for size and charge parameters. After adding AD-VII and AD-X complexes, the expression levels of innate inflammatory genes including protein kinase R (PKR), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and IL-18 were measured by Real-time PCR on a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2.

Results: The loading of coagulation factors VII and X on Ad5-GFP enhanced the transduction rate up to 50% and 60% ( < 0.05), respectively, compared to the adenovector alone (30%) ( < 0.05). The formation of the coagulation factor-virus complex leads to multimodal size distribution with an increase in average hydrodynamic size and absolute zeta potential. The qPCR results showed that PKR expression increased significantly after treatment with all adenoviruses. These findings also showed that AD had a significant ( = 0.0152) inflammatory impact on Hep-G2. However, AD which was loaded with FX (AD-X) exhibited the most inflammatory effect ( = 0.0164). Significantly, the expression of IL-1β ( = 0.0041), IL-8 ( = 0.0107) and IL-18 ( = 0.0193) were also enhanced following FX loading. On the other hand, the AD-VII complex showed the least effect of innate immune induction when compared to the negative control ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The loading of coagulation factors, particularly FX, could enhance the transduction efficiency of Ad5-GFP. Furthermore, adenovirus loaded with FX exhibited more innate toxicity on the hepatocytes, while it was not the case for FVII.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2020.99512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592097PMC
September 2020

Association of Human Papilloma Virus and Epstein-Barr Virus with Ovarian Cancer in Shiraz, Southwestern Iran.

Iran J Pathol 2020 16;15(4):292-298. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background & Objective: Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancers amongst women. The association of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with ovarian cancer is inconclusive; therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency of HPV and EBV in malignant, borderline, benign and normal ovarian tissues.

Methods: In this case-control study, 205 Paraffin-embedded ovarian tissue specimens including 68 malignant, 27 borderline, 65 benign, and 45 normal tissues were included from December 2014 to January 2018 and subjected to DNA extraction. The β-globin gene was amplified using PCR to confirm the quality of the extracted DNA. The genomes of HPV (genotypes 16 and 18) and EBV were identified, using specific primers by PCR.

Results: The mean age of participants was 43.42 ± 15.4 years. The frequency of HPV was statistically significant between malignant versus benign (=0.02) and control groups (=0.002), but not with borderline tumor group (=0.78). Amongst HPV infected samples, 1 (4.5%) and 14 (63.6%) samples were infected with types 16 and 18, respectively. Also 4 (18.2 %) samples were infected with both genotypes. Eleven samples including 7(10.3%) malignant, 1 (3.7%) borderline, 3 (4.6%) benign and none (0%) of normal control groups were infected with EBV, which was statistically different between malignant and the normal control group (=0.03).

Conclusion: The results of our study showed the possible role of high risk HPVs as well as EBV in pathogenesis of ovarian cancer, and further studies are recommended to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/ijp.2020.119681.2306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477684PMC
July 2020

Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E antibodies and antigens among HIV-infected patients in Fars Province, southern Iran.

Virol J 2020 07 17;17(1):109. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: HIV-infected patients have immunological and clinical features that might affect the pathogenesis, as well as the outcome of the HIV/HEV co-infection. The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV antigens among HIV-infected patients in Fars Province, Southwest Iran.

Methods: Blood samples (5 mL) were collected from 251 HIV-confirmed patients. Respective data, including patients' demographic information, were obtained for each patient. The presence of HEV antigens and anti-HEV antibodies (IgG) were assessed by commercial ELISA kits, based on the manufacturers' instructions.

Results: Out of 251 cases, 158 (62.9%) were male and 91 (36.3%) were female. Patients' age varied from 14 to 83 (mean: 40 ± 9.7) years. Out of 251 HIV positive cases, 26 (10.4%) were positive for anti-HEV IgG antibodies and 6 (2.4%) were positive for HEV-antigens. Also, 2 (0.8%) of the patients were positive for both anti-HEV IgG antibodies and antigens. Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between sex and seropositivity to either HEV antigen or antibodies. Moreover, no significant association was seen between age and seropositivity to HEV antigen or antibody (P = 0.622 and 0.945, respectively).

Conclusion: Our results showed a relatively low prevalence of HEV-antibodies in HIV-infected patients, indicating that HIV positive patients may not be at greater risk of HEV infection than the general population. Moreover, HEV-antigen was detected in a few cases of HIV-infected individuals which indicate an acute or chronic HEV infection in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01384-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7368745PMC
July 2020

Impact of IL28 Genotypes and Modeling the Interactions of HCV Core Protein on Treatment of Hepatitis C.

Interdiscip Sci 2020 Dec 12;12(4):424-437. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Mutations in the core CVR region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and polymorphisms of interleukin 28B (IL28B) are associated with progression toward liver disease and in response to therapy. In addition, interactions of the core protein with some cell interactors can be related to HCV liver damage.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of core mutations as well as IL28B polymorphism on clinical features, sustained virological response (SVR) in 1a and 3a HCV genotypes amongst Iranian HCV infected patients, and the impact of mutations on core protein properties, antigenic properties, and interactions with HCV inhibitors, using several bioinformatics tools.

Methods: Seventy-nine Iranian patients infected with HCV genotypes 1a and 3a and diagnosed with chronic active hepatitis were examined. Plasma viral RNA was used to amplify and sequence the HCV Core gene; also, HCV viral load, molecular genotyping, and the liver enzymes were determined for all samples. The sequencing results were analyzed by several reliable bioinformatics tools to determine the physicochemical properties, B cell epitopes, post-modification changes, and secondary/tertiary structures; and evaluate the interactions with 4 drugs by docking method.

Result: There were some substitutions in core CVR related to ALT and AST enzymes that can lead to HCV advanced liver disease. The most prevalent mutation for 3a genotypes was a substitution in aa 162 (I to V) while we did not find any mutation in 1a responder group. Polymorphism of the rs8099917 showed that the majority of patients had TG heterozygous and carried CT genotype at the rs12979860. Analysis indicated several phosphorylation sits for core protein as well as two important disulfide bonds. Immunogenic prediction showed that core protein can strongly induce the immune system. Interaction analysis, using the docking method revealed two potential interactors (Vitronectin and SETD2).

Conclusion: Generally, mutations in all core CVR regions in all patients showed a relationship between such substitutions and higher liver enzymes that can result in advanced liver disease progression in HCV infected patients. Furthermore, immunoinformatics analysis determined the possible immunodominant regions to be considered in HCV vaccine designs. Furthermore, no association between SVR and IL28B polymorphism was shown. In silico analysis determined modification sites, structures, B-cell epitopes of core protein and interactions with several interactors can lead to persistent HCV infection in the cell and the progress of liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-020-00382-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Co-existing of HSV1/2 or EBV Infection with the Presence of High-Risk HPV DNA in Cervical Lesions in the Southwest of Iran.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 May 1;21(5):1459-1464. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: While the vast majority of the cervical lesions have been attributed to the HPVs, the role of EBV and HSV1/2 as co-factors in the progression of these abnormalities needs more investigation. In this study, we aimed to determine the co-existence of EBV or HSV in cervical lesions infected with high-risk HPVs.

Methods: Totally, 102 formaline-fixed cervical lesions with different pathological grades (LSIL, HSIL, and SCC) were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted, and its integrity was examined by PCR assay. Two conventional PCRs were performed for the detection of EBV and HSV1/2 genomes in the tissue specimens. Besides, an in-house Real-Time PCR, as well as a nested PCR assays following sequencing, was performed to detect HPV genotypes in EBV or HSV positive samples.  Results: The mean age of the participants was 42.8±13 years. Out of 102 samples, 32% (n=33) were confirmed to be LSIL, 42.2% (n=43) were HSIL, 22.5% (n=23) were SCC and 2.9% (n=3) were adenocarcinoma.  EBV genome was detected in 13(12.7%) samples including 2 of LSIL, 8 of HSIL and 3 of SCC. All EBV positive samples harbored high risk HPV types 16,18 and/or 31 co-infections. However, the HSV genome was not found in any of the samples.

Conclusion: Our result revealed that the frequency of EBV infection is higher in HISL than LSIL.  Moreover, the amount of HPV load showed an elevated level among co-infected patients, which indicates that EBV might be an enhancing factor of disease progression. In contrast, HSV may not has a role as a co-factor in cervical lesions pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.5.1459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541875PMC
May 2020

Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Among College Students: A Report From Iran.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2020 Oct 26;41(1):15-23. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Globally, high-risk illnesses including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are major health problems causing considerable impact on health systems. Knowledge and awareness are very important factors for controlling these illnesses in society. Regarding the transmission routes of these viruses, young people are at the highest risk of infection. Therefore, our objectives were to determine the college students' awareness of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV/AIDS with regard to basic information, transmission, and prevention. A total of 810 students from 7 universities, from September to March 2017, were included in the study. All participants were categorized into three groups (medical, biology, and other fields). The subjects were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and results analyzed in SPSS software using the χ test. In total, 43% of respondents were male and the majority of them were 20 to 25 years old. Our results showed the suitable level of awareness about HBV and remarkable about HIV. In contrast, insufficient level of awareness was indicated about HCV. Given the low levels of awareness or knowledge about HCV, it can be suggested that educational programs for this important disease are necessary especially for university students. On the other hand, high awareness of participants about HBV and HIV/AIDS might be the results of the proper functioning of educational programs for students in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684X19896727DOI Listing
October 2020

Association of HPV16 and 18 genomic copies with histological grades of cervical lesions.

Virusdisease 2019 Sep 22;30(3):387-393. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

1Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 71348-45794, Shiraz, Iran.

The possible correlation between HPV16 and HPV18 genomic copies with the grade of cervical lesions needs more investigations. The aim of this study was to quantify genomic copies of HPV16 and 18 simultaneously and to find out the correlation between genomic copies numbers and different grades of lesions. Therefore, a total of 102 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, 33 LSILI, 43 HSIL, and 26 squamous/adenocarcinoma were subjected to DNA extraction. The β-globin gene was selected to qualify the extracted DNA as well as normalization of viral titers using Taq-Man real-time PCR. The presence HPV16 and/or 18 were screened in tissue samples by nested PCR method, then an in- house Taq-Man Duplex real-time PCR assay was employed to quantify their genomic copies. The mean age of participants was 43 ± 13. Out of 102, 80 samples were positive for HPV16 and/or 18 DNA. There was a statistically significant association between HPV16 genomic copies and progression of cervical lesions ( < 0.001). In contrast, no such an association was found in the case of HPV18 ( = 0.51). Moreover, with 95% confidence intervals, 2.3-4 genomic copies of HPV16 genome/cell could be applicable to distinguish LSIL from HSIL and SCC. In conclusion, quantification of HPV16 genomic copy number showed a close association with progression of cervical lesion. Furthermore, HPV16 genomic copies of 4 copies/cell could be a set point to differentiate LSIL from HSIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-019-00545-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6863989PMC
September 2019

Serum levels of anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies among vaccinated children aged 1 to 12 years in a rural community in Fars Province, southern Iran.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2020 7;41(1):20-27. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The present study aimed to find out the levels of anti-HBsAb among vaccinated children in a rural community in Fars Province, Southern Iran. Blood samples were taken from 550 children, aged 1-12 years (mean 6.4 ± 3.5), in 2017 from three villages in the area. A structured questionnaire was used to get the sociodemographic data of the subjects along with determinants concerning the Hepatitis B. Sera samples were examined for anti-HBsAb, using an ELISA commercial kit. Anti-HBsAb were detected in 468 (85.1%) of the subjects. Of the seropositive subjects, 37 (45.1%) were female and 45 (54.9%) were male. In the age group of 0-5 years, 88.7% of the subjects were seropositive. This rate was 84.3% and 78.1% in the age group of 6-10 years old and older than 10 years, respectively. There was a significant association ( < .05) between the anti-HBsAb and age. Findings of the current study revealed that children living in a rural community in southern Iran have appropriate protection against HBV even more than 10 years after being vaccinated. The decline in seropositivity rate of anti-HBsAb with age may further point out the need for a booster dose of HBV vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2019.1675696DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparison of pre-S1/S2 variations of hepatitis B virus between asymptomatic carriers and cirrhotic/hepatocellular carcinoma-affected individuals.

Clin Exp Hepatol 2019 May 30;5(2):161-168. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aim Of The Study: Host and viral factors can influence the clinical course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Mutations in pre-S1/S2 gene regions are among the most important viral factors determining the HBV infection outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pre-S1/S2 mutations in HBV infection outcome.

Material And Methods: A total of 52 samples from 26 asymptomatic carriers (ASCs) and 26 liver cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (LC/HCC) patients were enrolled. The HBV DNA genome was extracted from the sera, and pre-S1/S2 regions of the samples were amplified by nested-polymerase chain reaction, prior to being subjected to sequencing, sequence investigation and phylogenetic analysis.

Results: Certain deletions were detected mostly located at the boundary of the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions. These deletions were detected more frequently in ASC cases than in LC/HCC patients ( < 0.007). The rate of critical point mutations, including L11Q, N37S and K38R, was significantly higher in the ASC group, whereas the A49V substitution rate was significantly higher in the LC/HCC group ( < 0.05). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the sequences belonged to genotype D.

Conclusions: According to the results, point mutations such as L11Q, N37S, K38R and A49V, as well as certain deletions, may be associated with HBV infection outcome, among an HBV genotype D pure population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2019.84781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6728863PMC
May 2019

The Investigation of Drug Resistance Substitutions in NS3 Protease Sequence of Hepatitis C Virus from Non-Responder Patients.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 08 1;20(8):2311-2317. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Genetics and Molcular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Even with the fantastic successes of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in the treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, natural drug resistance remains a challenging obstacle for their impacts. The data regarding protease inhibitors (PIs) resistance in Iran population are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the variations in NS3 protease of HCV from non-responder patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 14 HCV infected patients with genotype 1(N=5) and 3(N=9) who have not responded to Interferon-related regime were enrolled from Liver Clinic, Shiraz. The NS3 protease region was amplified by Nested-PCR followed by product gel extraction. Besides, some amplified protease regions were cloned into a cloning vector to improve the sensitivity of mutation detection. Both crude and cloned sequences were then introduced into sequencing. The obtained sequences were compared with the NS3 reference sequences and analyzed by Geno2pheno available software to find possible substitutions. In the end, the phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results: Among variations responsible for PIs resistance, only one out of 14 (7%) sample who was infected with genotype 1a, harbored R117C+N174S double mutation, which causes reduced susceptibility to Telaprevir. Any another resistance mutation was not found among the studied population. The most frequent substitutions were determined as I52M(N=9), S102A(N=9), S166A(8) and V170I(8) for genotype 3a, and F147S/A(4) for genotype 1. However, some uncharacterized substitutions on scored position, including I132L(N=1), I170V(N=3) and N174S(N=2) were also determined among sequences. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the protease region has enough power to correctly classify enrolled samples into relevant clusters on the tree. There were 2, 3 and 9 cases of sub-genotypes 1a, 1b, and 3a, respectively. Conclusion: A low frequency of PIs resistance mutations in our HCV infected population is a hopeful point of starting these drugs in HCV infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.8.2311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852801PMC
August 2019

Signature of natural resistance in NS3 protease revealed by deep sequencing of HCV strains circulating in Iran.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 11 16;75:103966. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

KU Leuven, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Virology, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Health Policy Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Blood Transfusion Research Centre, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Hemmat Exp Way, 14665-1157 Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

A tremendous upscale of screening and treatment strategies is required to achieve elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Iran by 2030. Among treated patients, at least 5-10% is expected to experience treatment failure. To efficiently retreat cases with prior exposure to NS5A and NS5B drugs, knowledge on the natural prevalence of NS3 resistance is key. The NS3 region of 32 samples from sixteen Iranian HCV patients, among which 6 injecting drug users, was amplified and subjected to deep sequencing. Amplification and sequencing were successful in 29 samples. The reads were assembled to consensus sequences and showed that 6 patients were infected with HCV1a (37.5%), 7 with HCV1b (43.8%) and 3 with HCV3a (18.7%). Nucleotide identities were shared for >97% between intra-host sequences. Two patients were infected with natural resistant viruses, of which one solely comprising low frequency variants. Inferred phylogenies showed that Iranian sequences clustered together for HCV1a and HCV1b, while for HCV3a a potential recombination event was detected. We firstly report the use of deep sequencing for HCV in Iran, demonstrate the use of NS3 inhibitors as salvage therapy in case of retreatment and stress the importance for Iran to prioritize drug users for screening and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.103966DOI Listing
November 2019

Association of HBsAg mutation patterns with hepatitis B infection outcome: Asymptomatic carriers versus HCC/cirrhotic patients.

Ann Hepatol 2019 Jul - Aug;18(4):640-645. Epub 2019 May 11.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Gastroenterohepatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) variations suggested having some effects on infection outcome. Due to some controversial issues, the aim of this study was to compare the pattern of HBsAg variation between asymptomatic carriers and HCC/cirrhosis patients.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 19 HCC/cirrhotic and 26 asymptomatic patients were enrolled. After viral DNA extraction, HBs gene was amplified using an in-house nested-PCR. Then, PCR products were introduced into bi-directional Sanger sequencing. The retrieved sequences were compared with references, to investigate the variation of immunologic sites, major hydrophilic region (MHR) of HBsAg as well as reverse transcriptase (RT), and also to determine genotype/subtype.

Results: The analysis of MHR and epitopes on HBsAg showed dozens of substitution, which occurred more prevalently in I110, P120, Y134, G159, S193, Y206, S207, I208, L213 and P214 positions. However, Y134N/F/L (P=0.04) and P120T/S (P=0.009) were significantly detected in MHR and B-cell epitope of HCC/Cirrhotic group. A number of truncation-related mutations were higher in HCC/Cirrhotic group (P>0.001), albeit only C69* stop codon was statistically significant (P=0.003). In RT, some potentially resistant substitutions such as Q215S, V191I and V214A, were revealed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of isolates belonged to genotype D, and the major serotype was ayw1.

Conclusion: The higher frequency of substitutions in MHR and immune epitopes at positions such as Y134 and P120 as well as stop codons such as C69* in HCC/cirrhotic group might candidate them as predictive factors for infection outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aohep.2018.12.006DOI Listing
August 2020

Comparison of ISG15, IL28B and USP18 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients and healthy individuals.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019 ;12(1):38-45

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression level of Interferon-stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15), Interleukin28B (IL28B) or IFN-lambda-3 and Ubiquitin specific peptidase 18 (USP18) genes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of patients with chronic active and inactive hepatitis B in comparison with healthy individuals.

Background: Despite the presence of the vaccine for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it remains a public health challenge. The effort to uncover the immune genes attributed to infection outcome is going through.

Methods: This Cross-sectional study was conducted on hepatitis B infected patients that were admitted to the Clinic of Liver diseases, Shiraz, January-November 2016. Patients were divided into two groups including active and inactive chronic regarding relevant World Gastroenterology Organization Global Guideline. They were mono-infected with HBV, and HCV or HIV co-infection was excluded from the study. Gene expression analysis was performed on fresh PBMCs samples with the help of Real-time PCR method.

Results: Interleukin 28B gene expression showed no statistically significant difference between the three studied groups (P>0.05). The expression level of ISG15 was significantly higher in the healthy control group compared to active (P= 0.0068) and inactive chronic subjects (P<0.0001). Similarly, USP18 expression level in the control group was also significantly higher compared to the active (P= 0.0228) and inactive chronic patients (P=0. 0226).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the expression level of ISG15 and USP18 but not IL28B were higher in healthy individuals than in those infected with HBV. This difference expression may highlight the role of ISG15 and USP18 in the immune-related mechanism of HBV infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441482PMC
January 2019

No detection of EBV, BKV and JCV in breast cancer tissue samples in Iran.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Mar 25;12(1):171. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: The most common cancer amongst women is breast cancer. Reports on the role of EBV, BKV, and JCV in the development of breast cancer are controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of EBV, BKV, and JCV in malignant breast tumors in comparison with benign ones.

Results: A total of 300 breast biopsy tissues were included, of which 150 were malignant and 150 benign. After deparaffinization, tissues were subjected to DNA extraction. β-globin gene was amplified by PCR to evaluate the quality of extracted DNA. In house PCRs assay was performed to detect EBV, JCV, and BKV genome fragment. The mean age of malignant and benign groups was 45.0 ± 9.4 and 35.2 ± 12.1 years old. Out of 150 malignant samples, 146 were ductal, two lobular and two samples both invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma. In the benign group, 96, 52 and two samples were fibroadenoma, fibrocystic, and adenosis types, respectively. Genomic DNA fragment of EBV, BKV, and JCV was not found in any of the malignant and benign breast tissues.

Conclusion: According to our finding, there is the possibility that EBV, BKV, and JCV are not involved in breast cancer pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4178-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434965PMC
March 2019

Association of gene with outcome of hepatitis C virus infection.

EXCLI J 2018 24;17:935-944. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Immunology and Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Primary hepatitis C virus infection might be spontaneously cleared or become chronic. Polymorphisms in immune regulatory genes might influence the outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of genotypes and alleles of and gene loci in HCV infected patients and their association with the disease outcome. In this study 167 patients with chronic hepatic C and 42 individuals whose infection was spontaneously cleared, and a healthy control group comprising of 300 participants were included. The presence of chronic or spontaneously cleared infection amongst the participants was determined in advance by serologic and molecular methods. Genomic DNA was extracted using salting out method. gene polymorphisms assay was performed using PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of alleles of gene locus was significantly higher in the spontaneously cleared HCV infected group (P = 0.03) as well as the healthy control group (P = 0.04) in comparison to the chronic infected participants. In the case of locus, there was no association between the frequency of inherited genotype or alleles and HCV infection outcome amongst the three groups. Haplotype analysis showed no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of different haplotypes between the three studied groups. Our finding collectively inferred that individuals with A allele at locus might clear HCV infection more frequently than those with T allele. Instead, polymorphisms at locus as well as haplotypes emerged from G/A and C/T might not be significant in the HCV infection outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2018-1394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295627PMC
September 2018

The Prevalence of Bacteriospermia in Infertile Men and Association with Semen Quality in Southwestern Iran.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(2):198-202

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Infertility considered as a social and public health issue and estimated that most of these infertile couples are residents of developing countries. Infectious diseases including the history of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) may impact on male reproductive function. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of bacterial contaminants of semen and probable association with sperm quality of infertile men in Iranian population.

Methods: The study population consisted of 200 infertile men and 150 fertile men attending an infertility Center in southwestern Iran during the study period in 2015. The assessment of sperm parameters was according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The presumptive pathogens were identified using standard microbiology tests and confirmed by specific PCR primers.

Results: The prevalence of bacteriospermia in the semen of the infertile group was significantly higher than that in the fertile group (48% vs. 26.7%, P <0.001). The microbiological analysis of samples showed that the most abundant species of bacteria in semen of infertile men were Chlamydia trachomatis (12.5%) followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae (11%). On the other hand, in the control group, Lactobacillus spp. (17.3%) was the most isolated pathogen. Results showed that the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus, and Klebsiella was significantly associated with sperm abnormality.

Conclusions: Based on our findings, it seems that bacteriospermia is associated with alterations in the properties of semen which may lead to a decrease in the fertilization potential of sperm. Therefore, immediate and appropriate treatment is necessary before investigating every other possible cause of infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526519666181123182116DOI Listing
December 2020

High prevalence of vancomycin and high-level gentamicin resistance in isolates.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2019 Jun 22;66(2):203-217. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

1 Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz, Iran.

Multiple drug-resistant enterococci are major cause of healthcare-associated infections due to their antibiotic resistance traits. Among them, is an important opportunistic pathogen causing various hospital-acquired infections. A total of 53 isolates were obtained from various infections. They were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Determination of antimicrobial resistance patterns was done according to CLSI guidelines. The isolates that were non-susceptible to at least one agent in ≥3 antimicrobial categories were defined as multidrug-resistant (MDR). Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes was performed using standard procedures. According to MDR definition, all of the isolates were MDR (100%). High-level gentamicin resistance was observed among 50.9% of them (MIC ≥ 500 μg/ml). The distributions of and genes were 47.2% and 69.8%, respectively. The , and genes were not detected. Vancomycin resistance was found in 45.3% of strains. The gene was detected in 37.7% of isolates, whereas and genes were not observed in any strain. Erythromycin resistance rate was 79.2% and the frequencies of and genes were 88.6% and 69.8%, respectively. The and genes were not present in any of the isolates. Our data indicate a high rate of MDR strains. All of high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates carried at least one of or genes. Distribution of was notable among the isolates. In addition, and were accountable for resistance to erythromycin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/030.65.2018.046DOI Listing
June 2019

Recombinant NS3 Protein Induced Expression of Immune Modulatory Elements in Hepatic Stellate Cells During Its Fibrotic Activity.

Viral Immunol 2018 10 3;31(8):575-582. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

1 Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz, Iran .

There is a growing body of studies that show the important role of NS3 protein from hepatitis C virus in fibrosis. However, mechanisms of the effects of this protein on immune modulation of stellate cells remain to be investigated. Herein, the effect of NS3 protein on the expression level of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1/3 and interleukin-24 (IL-24)-related genes was investigated in hepatic stellate cell (HSC), LX-2. Recombinant NS3 protein was added to LX-2 HSC culture. Leptin and standard medium treatments were also included in experiments as positive and negative controls, respectively. Total RNA was extracted from each well at 6, 12, and 24 h after NS3 addition. The expression levels of the fibrotic (transforming growth factor beta 1 [TGF-β], alpha-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA], and COL1A1), inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-24), IL-20R, IL-22R, and immunosuppressive genes (SOCS1 and SOCS3) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Recombinant NS3 protein induced activated phenotypes of LX-2 with a significant increase in the expression level of α-SMA COL1A1 (p < 0.0001) and TGF-β. Moreover, this exposure led to a meaningful elevation in the expression of IL-6. Furthermore, compared with leptin (control), after the stellate cell treatment with NS3, SOCS1 and SOCS3 gene expression induced at a comparable level. Compared with the control sample, the NS3 protein significantly increased the expression level of IL-24 and its related receptors, IL-20R and IL-22R. This study not only confirmed the previously proved inflammatory and fibrotic effect of this protein but also indicated that high expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS3, and IL-24 have a significant effect on HSC activation. Therefore, these two molecules can be used as a potential therapeutic target candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2018.0018DOI Listing
October 2018

The Very Low Frequency of Epstein-Barr JC and BK Viruses DNA in Colorectal Cancer Tissues in Shiraz, Southwest Iran.

Pol J Microbiol 2018 Mar;67(1):73-79

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,Shiraz,Iran.

Viruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), JCV and BKV have been reported to be associated with some cancers. The association of these viruses with colorectal cancers remains controversial. Our objective was to investigate their infections association with adenocarcinoma and adenomatous polyps of the colon. Totally, 210 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens encompassing 70 colorectal adenocarcinoma, 70 colorectal adenomatous and 70 colorectal normal tissues were included. The total DNA was extracted, then qualified samples introduced to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The EBV, JCV and BKV genome sequences were detected using specific primers by 3 different in-house PCR assays. Out of 210 subjects, 98 cases were female and the rest were male. The mean age of the participants was 52 ± 1.64 years. EBV and JCV DNA was detected just in one (1.42%) out of seventy adenocarcinoma colorectal tissues. All adenomatous polyp and normal colorectal tissues were negative for EBV and JCV DNA sequences. Moreover, all the patients and healthy subjects were negative for BKV DNA sequences. The results suggested that EBV and JCV genomes were not detectable in the colorectal tissue of patients with colorectal cancer in our population. Hence, BKV might not be necessitated for the development of colorectal cancer. The findings merit more investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0011.6146DOI Listing
March 2018

A survey of the frequency of cytomegalovirus-associated diarrhea in immunocompromised patients using a non-invasive method.

Iran J Microbiol 2018 Apr;10(2):143-150

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: infection is the most common viral opportunistic infection causing gastrointestinal diseases such diarrhea and colitis in immunocompromised patients. The development and performance of a robust and sensitive PCR assay are usually evaluated to detect CMV DNA in human fecal specimens. In this study, our aim was to detect CMV DNA in stool samples taken from patients with HIV/AIDS, cancer, and transplant recipient patients with chronic and persistent diarrhea using a non-invasive method.

Materials And Methods: A total of 633 immunocompromised patients (451 males and 182 females) suffering from persistent or chronic diarrhea were included in this study. Among them, 392 were HIV/AIDS patients, 151 had cancer and were receiving chemotherapy, and 90 were recipients of a solid organ or bone marrow transplant. CMV genome was extracted from the stool samples using phenol: chloroform: isoamyl alcohol method. CMV DNA was identified by polymerase chain reaction using sequence specific primers on genomic DNA.

Results: Looking at the frequency of CMV DNA in 392 HIV/AIDS patients, we found that only 5 patients (1.27%) were positive for CMV genome, while this frequency was 4.63% (7/151) and 5.5% (5/90) in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy and in those with solid organ or bone marrow transplant, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the cause of chronic or persistent diarrhea in HIV/AIDS, cancer, and graft recipient patients might be related to CMV infection. Accordingly, we recommend a non-invasive method, such as stool sample, as a first line of diagnosis of enteritis when the physician suspects that a patient has CMV infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039454PMC
April 2018

Analysis of TLR7, SOCS1 and ISG15 immune genes expression in the peripheral blood of responder and non-responder patients with chronic Hepatitis C.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2017 ;10(4):272-277

Department of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aim: To evaluate the baseline expression of the immune genes in PBMCs of responder and non-responder patients with chronic Hepatitis C.

Background: Although the contribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression in treatment outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is supposed, it has remained to be distinctly delineated. The baseline expression of the immune genes inside PBMCs may reflect the responsiveness status following IFN treatment.

Methods: Totally, 22 chronic HCV encompasses 10 responders and 12 non-responsive cases enrolled randomly regarding medical records. The PBMCs from the peripheral blood samples were isolated and then incubated for 6 hours in the culture media. The baseline expression of TLR7, SOCS1 and ISG15 was measured by Real time PCR.

Results: The gene expression pattern in PBMCs of both groups showed a similar trend. The expression of SOCS1 and TLR7 genes showed higher levels in non-responder group (P>0.05). The result of ISG15 showed a higher but non-significant expression in the responder group (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The similar pattern of TLR7, SOCS1 and ISG15 expression in the responder and non-responder patients indicated their poor discriminating and predictive value in PBMCs sample.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758734PMC
January 2017

Almost Complete Lack of Human Cytomegalovirus and Human papillomaviruses Genome in Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 Dec 29;18(12):3319-3324. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Email:

Breast cancer ranks as the most common cancer among women worldwide. There have been controversial reports regarding contributions of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to its development. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of HPV and HCMV positivity in benign and malignant breast tumors. Materials and Methods: Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 150 breast cancers (invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and 150 non-malignant breast lesions (fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease and adenosis) were examined. All samples were first deparafinized then subjected to commercial DNA extraction. The β-globin gene fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The presence of HPV and HCMV genomic DNA was determined using PCR and Real time PCR techniques, respectively. Results: The mean ages of the test and control groups were 35.2 and 45 years, respectively. For HCMV, none of the malignant lesions were positive and only 2 of the 150 benign samples demonstrated presence of the virus. No HPV genomic DNA was found in either malignant or benign cases. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated no relationship between HCMV or HPV infection with breast cancer development. Whether investigations in larger populations with longer follow-up might demonstrate any role remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.12.3319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5980890PMC
December 2017

Emerge of bla and bla harboring carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from hospitalized patients in southwestern Iran.

J Chin Med Assoc 2018 Jun 10;81(6):536-540. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: One of the most important emerging carbapenem-resistant bacteria is Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The present study aimed to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of K. pneumoniae isolates and detection of carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae obtained from Iranian hospitalized patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 211 K. pneumoniae isolates which were recovered from different clinical specimens from 2014 to 2015. Modified Hodge test (MHT) and double disk synergy test (DDST) were done for detection of carbapenemase and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing K. pneumoniae. The presence of antibiotic resistance determinants was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

Results: The results of antibiotic susceptibility showed that all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and then mostly resistant to piperacillin and ceftazidime with 76.3% and 66.8%, respectively. On the other hand, the highest sensitivity was toward polymyxin B, followed by carbapenems. Of 29 carbapenem-resistant isolates, all were high-level imipenem-resistant isolates (Minimum inhibitory concentration ≥4), except 4 isolates. The results of MHT and DDST showed that 93.1% (27/29) of carbapenem-resistant isolates were carbapenemase and MBL producing isolates, respectively. The presence of bla and bla genes was detected in 27 (10.9%) and 2 (0.9%) isolates, respectively.

Conclusion: This is the first identification of bla and bla in K. pneumoniae in Southwestern Iran and the highest reported prevalence of bla in this bacterium from Iran. Since carbapenem-resistant isolates containing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) were almost resistant to all the tested antibiotics, the resistance due to this gene may be increased in the near future as a potential health threat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2017.08.015DOI Listing
June 2018

Presence of different hepatitis C virus genotypes in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples of Iranian patients with HIV infection.

J Med Virol 2018 08 23;90(8):1343-1351. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Due to the similar routes of transmission, individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may become infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of HCV co-infection in Iranian individuals with HIV infection, and to genotype HCV in plasma and PBMC specimens of these patients. From September 2015 to October 2016, a total of 140 Iranian individuals with HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The RNA from plasma and PBMC specimens was extracted, and genomic HCV-RNA was amplified using RT-nested PCR with primers that target 5'-UTR. The HCV genotyping used the RFLP technique. To confirm HCV genotype, 10 randomly selected HCV-positive samples were also submitted for sequencing. The mean age of patients was 35.7 ± 13.5 years (range: 1-66). Out of 140 patients, 62 (44.3 %) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies; among these, viral genomic RNA was detected in 34 (24.3%) and 39 (27.9%) of the plasma and PBMC specimens, respectively. The HCV genotyping showed a similar pattern of subtypes 1a (44% vs 46.2%), 3a (32.4% vs 33.3%), and 1b (17.6% vs 17.9%) in all sera and PBMC samples. It is noteworthy that the HCV genotypes in plasma and PBMC specimens of 6 HCV co-infected patients were not the same. This study reveals that HIV/HCV co-infection is high in Iranian patients (44.3%), especially in people who have high-risk factors (83.9%). Also, HIV/HCV co-infected individuals may have dissimilar HCV genotypes in their plasma and PBMC specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24925DOI Listing
August 2018

Frequency of human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) viremia among HBV-infected patients and healthy donors in Shiraz, Iran.

Turk J Med Sci 2017 Jun 12;47(3):868-873. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Deparment of Bacteriology & Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background/aim: PARV4, a small DNA virus belonging to the family , was first isolated in an HBV injecting drug user. Several studies have investigated PARV4 co-infection with HBV and HCV and its effect on the progression of liver disease. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PARV4 among HBV-infected patients and healthy individuals.

Materials And Methods: A group of 90 HBV patients and a group of 90 healthy subjects were included in this study. Samples were selected after screening tests such as HBsAg ELISA, anti-HCV ELISA, and anti-HIV ELISA. Nested-PCRs were conducted to detect the PARV4 genome. Positive samples were then subjected to DNA sequencing.

Results: PARV4 DNA was detected in 4.4% of HBV patients in comparison with 1.1% of healthy individuals (P-value: 0.36). DNA sequencing results revealed that PARV4 in all five positive samples was genotype I.Conclusions: Although this pilot study showed no significant difference between the frequency of PARV4 among HBV patients and healthy donors, further studies with a larger sample size are suggested to determine the association of PARV4 with HBV co-infection and the impact of this virus on the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-1603-83DOI Listing
June 2017

Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and identification of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from Shiraz, Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2016 Feb;8(1):55-61

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Klebsiella pneumoniae, one of the important causes of nosocomial infections, is the most common extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing organism. ESBLs are defined as the enzymes capable of hydrolyzing oxyimino-cephalosporins, monobactams and carbapenems. The aims of this study were to identify ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and detect their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to May 2013 in teaching hospitals in Shiraz. Clinical specimens from the urine, sputum, wound, blood, throat, and body fluids were isolated and identified as K. pneumoniae. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was performed for 14 antibiotics using disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Isolates showing resistant to at least one of the β-lactam antibiotics were then evaluated for production of β-lactamase enzymes using E-test ESBL and combined disk Method. Also, MICs for ceftazidime and imipenem were determined using E-test. The presence of the bla SHV, bla TEM, bla PER and bla CTX-M genes was assessed by PCR.

Results: Of 144 K. pneumoniae isolates from different specimens, 38 (26.3 %) was identified as ESBL producer by phenotypic confirmatory test. All ESBL producing isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem and resistant to aztreonam. The highest rate of resistance belonged to amoxicillin (100%), cefotaxime (50%) and gentamicin (42.3%) and the lowest rates were seen for meropenem (11.8%), imipenem and amikacin (both 15.9%). Sixty-two isolates had MICs≥ 4 μg/mL for ceftazidime, of which 38 were positive for ESBLs in phenotypic confirmatory tests (PCT). The prevalence of bla SHV, bla CTX-M, and bla TEM genes among these isolates were 22.2%, 19% and 16%. bla PER was not detected in the studied isolates.

Conclusions: Due to the relatively high prevalence of ESBLs-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in the studied population, it seems that screening of infections caused by ESBL producers can lead to the most effective antibiotics therapies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833741PMC
February 2016

Presence of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Colorectal Cancer Tissues in Shiraz, Southwest Iran.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(17):7883-7

Department of Bacteriology and Virology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran E-mail :

Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Viruses including human papillomavirus (HPV) have been reported to be associated with different cancers but any association with colorectal cancers remains controversial.

Aim: To evaluate any association between HPV infection and adenocarcinoma of the colon and adenomatous polyps.

Materials And Methods: Paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 70 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 70 colorectal adenomatous polyps, and 70 colorectal normal tissues were subjected to DNA extraction. The quality of the extracted DNA was confirmed by amplification of a β-globin fragment using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR using specific primers were performed to detect HPV DNA. Specific primers targeting the E6 region of the HPVs 16 and 18 were used for genotyping.

Results: HPV DNA was detected in 2 (2.85%) out of 70 adenocarcinoma colorectal tissues and 4 (5.71%) out of 70 adenomatous colorectal tissues. All normal colorectal tissues were negative for HPV DNA. HPV-16 was the most predominant genotype (5 sample) followed by HPV-18 (4 sample). Despite the above observations, statistical analyses indicated no significant differences in the frequencies of HPV positive subjects between the cancerous and normal samples.

Conclusions: Although the differences observed in the frequencies of HPV positive cases in our study was not significant relative to those of control subjects, the fact of 6 positive samples among cancerous tissues, may still suggest a role of HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis. The study collectively indicated that some colorectal cancerous tissues are infected with high risk HPV genotype. The findings merit more investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.17.7883DOI Listing
September 2016