Publications by authors named "Jakob L Vingren"

92 Publications

Sex Dimorphism in Muscle Damage-induced Inflammation.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Aug;53(8):1595-1605

Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, TX.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of resistance exercise (RE)-induced hormonal changes on intramuscular cytokine gene expression after muscle damage in untrained men and women.

Methods: Men (n = 8, 22 ± 3 yr) and women (n = 8, 19 ± 1 yr) completed two sessions of 80 unilateral maximal eccentric knee extensions followed by either an upper body RE bout (EX) or a time-matched period (CON). Muscle samples (vastus laterals) were analyzed for mRNA expression of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, IL-15, TNFA, TGFB, CCL2, and CD68 at PRE, 12 h, and 24 h after the session.

Results: A significant time-sex-condition interaction was found for TGFB with an increase for EX in men at 12 h from PRE. For EX, TGFB was also greater in men than in women at 12 and 24 h. Significant time-sex and condition-sex interactions were found for IL-10 with an increase for men that was greater than for women at 12 and 24 h. IL-10 was lower in EX than CON for men. A significant time-sex interaction was found for TNFA with an increase for men that was greater than for women at 24 h. A significant time-condition interaction was found for CD68 with an increase at 12 h and decrease at 24 h for EX and CON. CD68 was lower in EX than CON at 12 h. A significant time effect was found for IL6 and CCL2 with an increase at 12 and 24 h.

Conclusions: Results suggest that women seem to have a muted intramuscular cytokine (i.e., IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β) response to muscle damage compared with men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002628DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of Previous-Day Alcohol Ingestion on Muscle Function and Performance of Severe-Intensity Exercise.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Jul 5:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Purpose: Many athletes report consuming alcohol the day before their event, which might negatively affect their performance. However, the effects of previous-day alcohol ingestion on performance are equivocal, in part, due to no standardization of alcohol dose in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a standardized previous-day alcohol dose and its corresponding impact on morning-after muscular strength, muscular power, and muscular fatigue in a short-duration test and on performance of severe-intensity exercise.

Methods: On 2 occasions, 12 recreationally active individuals reported to the Applied Physiology Laboratory in the evening and ingested a beverage containing either 1.09 g ethanol·kg-1 fat-free body mass (ALC condition) or water (PLA condition). The following morning, they completed a hangover symptom questionnaire, vertical jumps, isometric midthigh pulls, biceps curls, and a constant-power cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. The responses from ALC and PLA were compared using paired-means t tests.

Results: Time to exhaustion in the cycle ergometer tests was less (P = .03) in the ALC condition (181 [39] s vs 203 [34] s; -11%, Cohen d = 0.61). There was no difference in performance in vertical jump test, isometric midthigh pulls, and biceps curls tests between the ALC and PLA conditions.

Conclusions: Previous-day alcohol consumption significantly reduces morning-after performance of severe-intensity exercise. Practitioners should educate their athletes, especially those whose events rely on anaerobic capacity and/or a rapid response of the aerobic pathways, of the adverse effect of previous-day alcohol consumption on performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2020-0790DOI Listing
July 2021

Hormonal stress responses of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in highly resistance trained women and men.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Aug 6;59:101407. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI) to intense heavy resistance exercise in highly trained men and women to determine what sex-dependent responses may exist. Subjects were highly resistance trained men (N = 8, Mean ± SD; age, yrs., 21 ± 1, height, cm, 175.3 ± 6.7, body mass, kg, 87.0 ± 18.5, % body fat, 15.2 ± 5.4, squat X body mass, 2.1 ± 0.4; and women (N = 7; Mean ± SD, age, yrs. 24 ± 5, height, cm 164.6 ± 6.7, body mass, kg 76.4 ± 8.8, % body fat, 26.9 ± 5.3, squat X body mass, 1.7 ± 0.6). An acute resistance exercise test protocol (ARET) consisted of 6 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of the 1 RM with 2 min rest between sets was used as the stressor. Blood samples were obtained pre-exercise, after 3 sets, and then immediately after exercise (IP), 5, 15, 30, and 70 min post-exercise for determination of blood lactate (HLa), and plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, and GH. Determination of plasma concentrations of IGFI, IGF binding proteins 1, 2, and 3 along with molecular weight isoform factions were determined at pre, IP and 70 min. GH significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased at all time points with resting concentrations significantly higher in women. Significant increases were observed for HLa, glucose, insulin, and cortisol with exercise and into recovery with no sex-dependent observations. Women showed IGF-I values that were higher than men at all times points with both seeing exercise increases. IGFBP-1 and 2 showed increase with exercise with no sex-dependent differences. IGFBP-3 concentrations were higher in women at all-time points with no exercise induced changes. Both women and men saw an exercise induced increase with significantly higher values in GH in only the mid-range (30-60 kD) isoform.  Only women saw an exercise induced increase with significantly higher values for IGF fractions only in the mid-range (30-60 kD) isoform, which were significantly greater than the men at the IP and 70 min post-exercise time points. In conclusion, the salient findings of this investigation were that in highly resistance trained men and women, sexual dimorphisms exist but appear different from our prior work in untrained men and women and appear to support a sexual dimorphism related to compensatory aspects in women for anabolic mediating mechanisms in cellular interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2021.101407DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of wearing a cloth face mask on performance, physiological and perceptual responses during a graded treadmill running exercise test.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Orthopedics, Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Objectives: To (1) determine if wearing a cloth face mask significantly affected exercise performance and associated physiological responses, and (2) describe perceptual measures of effort and participants' experiences while wearing a face mask during a maximal treadmill test.

Methods: Randomised controlled trial of healthy adults aged 18-29 years. Participants completed two (with and without a cloth face mask) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) on a treadmill following the Bruce protocol. Blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, exertion and shortness of breath were measured. Descriptive data and physical activity history were collected pretrial; perceptions of wearing face masks and experiential data were gathered immediately following the masked trial.

Results: The final sample included 31 adults (age=23.2±3.1 years; 14 women/17 men). Data indicated that wearing a cloth face mask led to a significant reduction in exercise time (-01:39±01:19 min/sec, p<0.001), maximal oxygen consumption (VOmax) (-818±552 mL/min, p<0.001), minute ventilation (-45.2±20.3 L/min), maximal heart rate (-8.4±17.0 beats per minute, p<0.01) and increased dyspnoea (1.7±2.9, p<0.001). Our data also suggest that differences in SpO and rating of perceived exertion existed between the different stages of the CPET as participant's exercise intensity increased. No significant differences were found between conditions after the 7-minute recovery period.

Conclusion: Cloth face masks led to a 14% reduction in exercise time and 29% decrease in VOmax, attributed to perceived discomfort associated with mask-wearing. Compared with no mask, participants reported feeling increasingly short of breath and claustrophobic at higher exercise intensities while wearing a cloth face mask. Coaches, trainers and athletes should consider modifying the frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise when wearing a cloth face mask.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050876PMC
April 2021

Effect of rest period configurations on systemic inflammatory response in resistance-trained women.

J Sports Sci 2021 Jul 26;39(13):1504-1511. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas.

This investigation examined the effect of rest- redistribution (RR) on the circulating cytokine response to resistance exercise in resistance- trained women. Participants (n = 13; 24 ± 4y; 65.0 ± 10.6 kg; 160.5 ± 5.1 cm) completed two sessions of back squats at 70% of 1- repetition maximum: Traditional sets (TS: 4x10, 120-s inter- set rest) and RR (4x 2x5) with 30-s intra- set rest after 5 repetitions and 90-s inter- set rest. Serum creatine kinase (CK), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, and IL-6/IL-10 were determined before (PRE), immediately- post (IP), and 5, 15, 30, 60 min, 24 h, and 48 h post- exercise. CK increased significantly ( < 0.05) from PRE through 24 h for TS and through 48 h for RR. IL-15 was greater for RR than TS at 48 h. A condition effect was found for IL-10 and IL-6/IL-10 with a lower IL-10 and a greater IL-6/IL-10 for RR. A time effect demonstrated that IL-1β and IL-10 peaked at IP. IL-8 was increased from 5 min to 60 min and 24 h. IL-6/IL-10 was increased from PRE to 30 min, 60 min, and 24 h. These results suggested that rest period configuration- specific differences exist for the inflammatory response in trained women during intramuscular homoeostatic disruption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2021.1882725DOI Listing
July 2021

Erratum.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 10;34(10):e272

College of Physical Education and Sports, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003823DOI Listing
October 2020

Exercise above the maximal lactate steady state does not elicit a O slow component that leads to attainment of O.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 Feb 11;46(2):133-140. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-5017, USA.

There is a pervasive belief that the severe-intensity domain is defined as work rates above the power associated with a maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) and by a oxygen uptake (O) response that demonstrates a rapid increase (primary phase) followed by a slower increase (slow component), which leads to maximal oxygen uptake (O) if exercise is continued long enough. Fifteen university students performed 5 to 7 tests to calculate power at MLSS (154 ± 29 W). The tests included 30 min of exercise at each of 3 work rates: () below (-2 ± 1 W) power at MLSS, () above (+4 ± 1 W) the power at MLSS, and () well above (+19 ± 8 W) power at MLSS. The O response in each test was described using mathematical modeling. Contrary to expectation, the response at the supra-MLSS work rates had not 2, but 3, distinct phases: the primary phase and the slow component, plus a "delayed" third phase, which emerged after ∼15 min. O was not attained at supra-MLSS work rates. These results challenge commonly held beliefs about definitions and descriptions of exercise intensity domains. The O response at work rates that are too high to sustain a lactate steady state but not high enough to elicit O features not 2, but 3, distinct phases. There is no consensus on whether intensity domains should be defined by their boundaries or by the responses they engender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0261DOI Listing
February 2021

Determining MAOD Using a Single Exhaustive Severe Intensity Test.

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(4):702-713. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA.

Maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) provides a measure of anaerobic capacity. However, its measurement is a time-consuming process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a measure of anaerobic capacity that avoids contentious assumptions and demands of the MAOD method. Twelve women and eight men volunteered for the study and completed cycle ergometer tests that resulted in exhaustion after ~4 min and ~8 min. In each test, anaerobic capacity was determined as (i) the MAOD and (ii) the sum of the phosphocreatine and glycolytic contributions (). MAOD was determined by subtraction of the accumulated oxygen uptake from the total oxygen cost. Phosphocreatine and glycolytic contributions were calculated from post-exercise VO and blood lactate responses. MAOD in the 4-min and 8-min tests (79.1 ± 7.6 mL·kg and 79.6 ± 7.4 mL·kg) and in these tests (80.0 ± 7.3 mL·kg and 79.0 ± 6.9 mL·kg) were correlated ( ≥ 0.91) and not significantly different. These results support the use of postexercise measures to quantify the phosphocreatine and glycolytic contributions and to provide an alternative to MAOD for measurement of anaerobic capacity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241637PMC
May 2020

The Increase in Oxygen Demand During Severe Intensity Exercise Must be Included in Calculation of Oxygen Deficit.

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(4):645-655. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA.

A contentious element in the traditional method of calculating accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) is the assumption that the oxygen demand remains constant throughout a bout of exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriateness of this assumption. Twelve women and eight men volunteered for the study and completed cycle ergometer tests that resulted in exhaustion after ~4 min and ~8 min. In each test, AOD was calculated by subtracting accumulated oxygen uptake (in mL·kg) from estimated total oxygen cost (in mL·kg), which was estimating two ways: (i) assuming that oxygen demand (in mL·kg·min) increases over the course of the exercise bout and (ii) assuming it remains constant. Values for AOD in the 4-min and 8-min tests were expected to be the same (maximal). Mean values for AOD in the 4-min and 8-min tests were similar (79.1 ± 7.6 mL·kg and 79.6 ± 8.3 mL·kg) when calculated assuming an increase in oxygen demand, but different (71.0 ± 7.9 mL·kg and 42.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg) when the demand was kept constant. These results support the hypothesis that oxygen demand increases during exhaustive severe intensity cycling exercise. This increase must be included in calculation of AOD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241621PMC
May 2020

Ischemic Preconditioning Improves Resistance Training Session Performance.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Mar 27. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

College of Physical Education and Sports, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

da Silva Novaes, J, da Silva Telles, LG, Monteiro, ER, da Silva Araujo, G, Vingren, JL, Silva Panza, P, Reis, VM, Laterza, MC, and Vianna, JM. Ischemic preconditioning improves resistance training session performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in a resistance exercise (RE) training session on the number of repetitions performed, total volume, and rating of perceived exertion in recreationally trained and normotensive men. Sixteen recreationally trained and normotensive men completed 3 RE sessions in a counterbalanced and randomized order: (a) IPC protocol using 220 mm Hg followed by RE (IPC), (b) IPC cuff control protocol with 20 mm Hg followed by RE (CUFF), and (c) no IPC (control) followed by RE (CON). RE was performed with 3 sets of each exercise (bench press, leg press, lateral pulldown, hack machine squat, shoulder press, and Smith back squat) until concentric muscular failure, at 80% of one repetition maximum, with 90 seconds of rest between sets and 2 minutes of rest between exercises. Ischemic preconditioning and CUFF consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion/low pressure alternating with 5 minutes of no occlusion (0 mm Hg) using a pneumatic tourniquet applied around the subaxillary region of the upper arm. For each condition, the number of repetitions completed, total volume of work performed, and rating of perceived exertion were determined. No significant difference was found for rating of perceived exertion between any experimental protocol. Ischemic preconditioning significantly (p < 0.05) increased the number of repetitions across exercises. Consequently, total volume performed (sum of total number of repetitions x load for each exercise) was significantly higher in IPC (46,170 kg) compared with CON (34,069 kg) and CUFF (36,590 kg) across all exercises. This work may have important implications for athletic populations because it demonstrates increase in muscle performance outcomes during a single RE session. Therefore, performing IPC before RE could be an important exercise prescription recommendation to increase maximum repetition performance and total volume of work performed and thus potentially increase desired training adaptations (i.e., strength and hypertrophy).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003532DOI Listing
March 2020

Quadriceps foam rolling and rolling massage increases hip flexion and extension passive range-of-motion.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2019 Jul 29;23(3):575-580. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK. Electronic address:

Increases in joint range-of-motion may be beneficial for improving performance and reducing injury risk. This study investigated the effects of different self-massage volumes and modalities on passive hip range-of-motion. Twenty-five recreationally resistance-trained men performed four experimental protocols using a counterbalanced, randomized, and within-subjects design; foam rolling (FR) or roller massage (RM) for 60 or 120-s. Passive hip flexion and extension range-of-motion were measured in a counterbalanced and randomized order via manual goniometry before self-massage (baseline) and immediately, 10-, 20-, and 30-min following each self-massage intervention. Following FR or RM of quadriceps, there was an increase in hip flexion range-of-motion at Post-0 (FR: Δ = 19.28°; RM: Δ = 14.96°), Post-10 (FR: Δ = 13.03°; RM: Δ = 10.40°), and Post-20 (FR: Δ = 6.00°; RM: Δ = 4.64°) for all protocols, but these did not exceed the minimum detectable change at Post-10 for RM60 and RM120, and Post-20 for FR60, FR120, RM60, and RM120. Similarly, hip extension range-of-motion increased at Post-0 (FR: Δ = 8.56°; RM: Δ = 6.56°), Post-10 (FR: Δ = 4.64°; RM: Δ = 3.92°), and Post-20 (FR: Δ = 2.80°; RM: Δ = 1.92°), but did not exceed the minimum detectable change at Post-10 for FR60, RM60, and RM120, and Post-20 for FR60, FR120, RM60, and RM120. In conclusion, both FR and RM increased hip range-of-motion but larger volumes (120- vs. 60-second) and FR produced the greatest increases. These findings have implications for self-massage prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2019.01.008DOI Listing
July 2019

Effects of Different Between Test Rest Intervals in Reproducibility of the 10-Repetition Maximum Load Test: A Pilot Study with Recreationally Resistance Trained Men.

Int J Exerc Sci 2019 1;12(4):932-940. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Gymnastics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, BR.

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 24-, 36-, 48-, 72- and 96-hours between-test rest intervals on the reproducibility of the 10-RM smith machine back squat (BS), bench press (BP) and leg press at 45 degrees (LP45) exercises. Twelve resistance trained men (26.6 ± 4.5 yrs; 179.0 ± 5.5 cm; 92.2 ± 24.6 kg) performed five sets of identical 10-repetition maximum (10-RM) tests for the BS, BP, LP45 exercises, each set with a different interval between tests: 1) twenty-four hours (Post-24), 2) thirty-six hours (Post-36), 3) forty-eight hours (Post-48), 4) seventy-two (Post-72), and 5) ninety-six hours (Post-96). Significant differences in 10-RM from pretest to posttest were observed for BS in Post-24 ( < 0.001; Δ% = -12.62), Post-36 ( < 0.001; Δ% = -6.57), and Post-96 ( = 0.015; Δ% = 6.84). Similarly, significant differences in 10-RM from pretest to posttest were observed for BP in Post-24 ( < 0.001; Δ% = -9.22), Post-36 ( = 0.032; Δ% = -3.04), and Post-96 ( < 0.001; Δ% = 5.37). Finally, significant differences in 10-RM from pretest to posttest were observed for LP45 in Post-24 ( < 0.001; Δ% = -16.55), Post-36 ( = 0.032; Δ% = -5.09), and Post-96 ( < 0.001; Δ% = 5.54). The reproducibility of 10-RM was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients; BS: 0.944, 0.977, 0.988, 0.986, and 0.954 for Post-24, Post-36, Post-48, Post-72, and Post-96, respectively; BP: 0.894, 0.966, 0.966, 0.960, and 0.976; and LP45: 0.832, 0.957, 0.984, 0.974, and 0.977 5. Based on the findings, the optimal between test rest interval duration for 10-RM testing, to provide the best reproducibility, in resistance trained men appears to be 48 to 72 hours for the BS, BP, and LP45 exercises.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6719818PMC
August 2019

Resistance exercise-induced hormonal response promotes satellite cell proliferation in untrained men but not in women.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 08 25;317(2):E421-E432. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

University of North Texas, Denton, Texas.

The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of resistance exercise (RE)-induced hormonal changes on the satellite cell (SC) myogenic state in response to muscle damage. Untrained men ( = 10, 22 ± 3 yr) and women ( = 9, 21 ± 4 yr) completed 2 sessions of 80 unilateral maximal eccentric knee extensions followed by either an upper body RE protocol (EX) or a 20-min rest (CON). Muscle samples were collected and analyzed for protein content of Pax7, MyoD, myogenin, cyclin D1, and p21 before (PRE), 12 h, and 24 h after the session was completed. Serum testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol, and myoglobin concentrations were analyzed at PRE, post-damage, immediately after (IP), and 15, 30, and 60 min after the session was completed. Testosterone was significantly ( < 0.05) higher immediately after the session in EX vs. CON for men. A significant time  × sex × condition interaction was found for MyoD with an increase in EX (men) and CON (women) at 12 h. A significant time × condition interaction was found for Pax7, with a decrease in EX and increase in CON at 24 h. A significant time effect was found for myogenin, p21, and cyclin D1. Myogenin and p21 were increased at 12 and 24 h, and cyclin D1 was increased at 12 h. These results suggest that the acute RE-induced hormonal response can be important for men to promote SC proliferation after muscle damage but had no effect in women. Markers of SC differentiation appeared unaffected by the hormonal response but increased in response to muscle damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00473.2018DOI Listing
August 2019

Renal stress and kidney injury biomarkers in response to endurance cycling in the heat with and without ibuprofen.

J Sci Med Sport 2018 Dec 16;21(12):1180-1184. Epub 2018 May 16.

Human Performance Laboratory, University of Connecticut, United States.

Exercise, especially in the heat, can contribute to acute kidney injury, which can expedite chronic kidney disease onset. The additional stress of ibuprofen use is hypothesized to increase renal stress.

Objectives: To observe the effects of endurance cycling in the heat on renal function. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of ibuprofen ingestion on kidney stress.

Design: Randomized, placebo controlled and observational methods were utilized.

Methods: Forty cyclists (52±9y, 21.7±6.5% body fat) volunteered and completed an endurance cycling event (5.7±1.2h) in the heat (33.2±5.0°C, 38.4±10.7% RH). Thirty-five participants were randomized to ingest a placebo (n=17) or 600mg ibuprofen (n=18) pre-event. A blood sample was drawn before and following the event. Serum creatinine was assessed by colorimetric assay. An ELISA was used to measure serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Fractional excretion of sodium was calculated after urinary and serum electrolyte analyses.

Results: Placebo versus ibuprofen groups contributed no significant difference in any variable (p>0.05). Serum creatinine significantly increased from pre- (0.52±0.14mg/dL) to post-event (0.88±0.21mg/dL; p<0.001). Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin significantly increased (pre: 68.51±17.54ng/mL; post: 139.12±36.52ng/mL; p<0.001) and fractional excretion of sodium was significantly reduced from pre- (0.52±0.24%) to post-event (0.27±0.18%; p<0.001).

Conclusions: Changes in renal biomarkers suggest mild acute kidney injury and reduced kidney function during a single bout of endurance cycling in the heat, without influence from moderate ibuprofen ingestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.05.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Resistance Training Is Associated With Higher Bone Mineral Density Among Young Adult Male Distance Runners Independent of Physiological Factors.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Jun;32(6):1594-1600

Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas.

Duplanty, AA, Levitt, DE, Hill, DW, McFarlin, BK, DiMarco, NM, and Vingren, JL. Resistance training is associated with higher bone mineral density among young adult male distance runners independent of physiological factors. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1594-1600, 2018-Low bone mineral density (BMD) in male distance runners is common and could be modulated by a host of biomarkers involved in the dynamic balance of bone tissue. In contrast, resistance training can increase BMD; however, the efficacy of resistance training in protecting BMD in distance runners has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between resistance training, testosterone and bone metabolism biomarker concentrations, and BMD in young adult male distance runners. Twenty-five apparently healthy men (23-32 years; mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 2.9 years; 1.77 ± 0.04 m; 75.4 ± 8.5 kg) were categorized into 1 of 3 groups: untrained control participants (CON; n = 8); nonresistance-trained runners (NRT; n = 8); or resistance-trained runners (RT; n = 9). Blood was collected and analyzed for concentrations of free and total testosterone and 14 bone metabolism biomarkers. Bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At all measured sites, BMD was greater (p ≤ 0.05) for RT compared with NRT and CON. Vitamin D concentration was greater (p ≤ 0.05) in RT and NRT compared with CON. Concentrations of testosterone and remaining bone biomarkers did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). Resistance-trained runners had greater BMD than nonresistance-trained runners and untrained peers. This difference did not seem to be modulated by biomarkers that contribute to bone formation or resorption, indicating that differences in BMD are associated with habitual load-bearing exercise using external resistance. Runners should perform resistance exercise at least once per week because this is associated with greater BMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002504DOI Listing
June 2018

Alcohol After Resistance Exercise Does Not Affect Muscle Power Recovery.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Jul;34(7):1938-1944

Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas.

Levitt, DE, Idemudia, NO, Cregar, CM, Duplanty, AA, Hill, DW, and Vingren, JL. Alcohol after resistance exercise does not affect muscle power recovery. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1938-1944, 2020-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol consumed after heavy eccentric resistance exercise on measures of muscle power. After familiarization and an initial eccentric exercise bout to control for the "repeated-bout effect," 10 recreationally resistance-trained men completed 2 identical heavy eccentric squat bouts (4 sets of 10 repetitions at 110% of concentric 1-repetition maximum) 1 week apart. Each exercise bout was followed by ingestion of a beverage containing either alcohol (1.09 g ethanol·kg fat-free body mass) or no alcohol (placebo; volume of alcohol replaced with water). Vertical jump (VJ) peak power, VJ peak force, VJ jump height, change-of-direction ability (shuttle run), sprint acceleration (sprint test), and muscle soreness were measured before (PRE), 24 hours after (24H), and 48 hours after (48H) each eccentric exercise bout. Although the exercise bout resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased VJ peak power at 24H, significantly decreased VJ jump height at 24H, and significantly increased muscle soreness at 24H and 48H, consuming alcohol after the exercise bout did not affect any of the performance outcome measures. When consumed after a non-novel heavy eccentric resistance exercise bout, alcohol did not affect soreness or recovery of muscular power. Practitioners can use this information to advise their athletes with regard to responsible alcohol use after non-novel exercise. Although short-term anaerobic performance does not seem compromised as a result of acute postexercise alcohol ingestion, practitioners and athletes should be aware of potential long-term effects of such alcohol use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002455DOI Listing
July 2020

Adding Resistance Training to the Standard of Care for Inpatient Substance Abuse Treatment in Men With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Improves Skeletal Muscle Health Without Altering Cytokine Concentrations.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Jan;32(1):76-82

1Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas;2Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas;3Department of Kinesiology, Texas Woman's University, Denton, Texas; and4Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.

Vingren, JL, Curtis, JH, Levitt, DE, Duplanty, AA, Lee, EC, McFarlin, BK, and Hill, DW. Adding resistance training to the standard of care for inpatient substance abuse treatment in men with human immunodeficiency virus improves skeletal muscle health without altering cytokine concentrations. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 76-82, 2018-Substance abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can independently lead to myopathy and related inflammatory alterations; importantly, these effects seem to be additive. Resistance training (RT) can improve muscle health in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the efficacy of this intervention has not been examined for PLWH recovering from substance abuse. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of RT on muscle health markers (mass, strength, and power) and basal circulating biomarkers for men living with HIV undergoing substance abuse treatment. Men living with HIV undergoing 60-day inpatient substance abuse treatment completed either RT (3×/wk) or no exercise training (control) for 6 weeks. Muscle mass, strength, and power, and fasting circulating cytokines (interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, and cortisol were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the 6-week period. Both groups received the standard of care for HIV and substance abuse treatment determined by the inpatient facility. Muscle mass, strength, and power increased (p ≤ 0.05) from PRE to POST for RT but were unchanged for control. No differences were found for circulating biomarkers. Adding RT to the standard of care for substance abuse treatment improved aspects of muscle health (mass, strength, and power) in men living with HIV. These improvements are associated with a lower risk of a number of health conditions. Therefore, practitioners should consider implementing RT interventions as part of substance abuse treatment programs in this population to help manage long-term health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002289DOI Listing
January 2018

Men exhibit greater fatigue resistance than women in alternated bench press and leg press exercises.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2019 Feb 17;59(2):238-245. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of sex, exercise order, and rest interval on neuromuscular fatigue resistance for an alternated strength training sequence of bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises.

Methods: Twelve women and 16 men, both recreationally trained, performed four sessions in a random order: 1) BP followed by LP with three-minutes rest (BP+LP with rest); 2) LP followed by BP with three-minutes rest (LP+BP with rest); 3) BP followed by LP without rest interval (BP+LP no rest), and 4) LP followed by BP without rest interval (LP+BP no rest). Participants performed four sets with 100% of 10RM load to concentric failure with the goal of completing the maximum number of repetitions in both exercises. The FI was analyzed from the first and last sets of each exercise bout.

Results: A main effect for sex showed that women exhibited 25.5% (P=0.001) and 24.5% (P=0.001) greater BP and LP fatigue than men respectively when performing 10RM. Men exhibited greater BP (P<0.0001; 34.1%) and LP (P<0.0001; 30.5%) fatigue resistance when a rest period was provided. Men did not show an exercise order effect for BP fatigue and exhibited greater (P=0.0003; 14.5%) LP fatigue resistance when BP was performed first.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated the greater fatigue resistance of men when performing 10RM BP and LP exercises. Since men tend to experience less fatigue with the second exercise in the exercise pairing, women's training programs should be adjusted to ensure they do not parallel men's resistance training programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.08062-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Blood Hemostatic Changes During an Ultraendurance Road Cycling Event in a Hot Environment.

Wilderness Environ Med 2017 Sep 22;28(3):197-206. Epub 2017 Jul 22.

Department of Military & Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (Drs Kupchak and Deuster, Mr Kazman).

Objective: This study aims to examine blood hemostatic responses to completing a 164-km road cycling event in a hot environment.

Methods: Thirty-seven subjects (28 men and 9 women; 51.8±9.5 [mean±SD] y) completed the ride in 6.6±1.1 hours. Anthropometrics (height, body mass [taken also during morning of the ride], percent body fat [%]) were collected the day before the ride. Blood samples were collected on the morning of the ride (PRE) and immediately after (IP) the subject completed the ride. Concentrations of platelet, platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolytic markers (platelet factor 4, β-thromboglobulin, von Willebrand factor antigen, thrombin-antithrombin complex, thrombomodulin, and D-Dimer) were measured. Associations between changes from PRE- to IP-ride were examined as a function of event completion time and subject characteristics (demographics and anthropometrics).

Results: All blood hemostatic markers increased significantly (P < .001) from PRE to IP. After controlling for PRE values, finishing time was negatively correlated with platelet factor 4 (r = 0.40; P = .017), while percent body fat (%BF) was negatively correlated with thrombin-antithrombin complex (r = -0.35; P = .038) and to thrombomodulin (r = -0.36; P = .036). In addition, male subjects had greater concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complex (d = 0.63; P < .05) and natural logarithm thrombomodulin (d = 6.42; P < .05) than female subjects.

Conclusion: Completing the 164-km road cycling event in hot conditions resulted in increased concentrations of platelet, platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolytic markers in both men and women. Although platelet activation and coagulation occurred, the fibrinolytic system markers also increased, which appears to balance blood hemostasis and may prevent clot formation during exercise in a hot environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2017.05.002DOI Listing
September 2017

Effect of alcohol after muscle-damaging resistance exercise on muscular performance recovery and inflammatory capacity in women.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2017 Jun 6;117(6):1195-1206. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #310769, Denton, TX, 76203, USA.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of acute alcohol consumption on muscular performance recovery, assessed by maximal torque production, and on inflammatory capacity, assessed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production, following muscle-damaging resistance exercise in women.

Methods: Thirteen recreationally resistance-trained women completed two identical exercise bouts (300 maximal single-leg eccentric leg extensions) followed by alcohol (1.09 g ethanol kg fat-free body mass) or placebo ingestion. Blood was collected before (PRE), and 5 (5 h-POST), 24 (24 h-POST), and 48 (48 h-POST) hours after exercise and analyzed for LPS-stimulated cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 and IL-10). Maximal torque production (concentric, eccentric, isometric) was measured for each leg at PRE, 24 h-POST, and 48 h-POST.

Results: Although the exercise bout increased LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α (%change from PRE: 5 h-POST 109%; 24 h-POST 49%; 48 h-POST 40%) and decreased LPS-stimulated production of IL-8 (5 h-POST -40%; 24 h-POST -50%; 48 h-POST: -43%) and IL-10 (5 h-POST: -37%; 24 h-POST -32%; 48 h-POST -31%), consuming alcohol after exercise did not affect this response. Regardless of drink condition, concentric, eccentric, and isometric torque produced by the exercised leg were lower at 24 h-POST (concentric 106 ± 6 Nm, eccentric 144 ± 9 Nm, isometric 128 ± 8 Nm; M ± SE) compared to PRE (concentric 127 ± 7 Nm, eccentric 175 ± 11 Nm, isometric 148 ± 8 Nm). Eccentric torque production was partially recovered and isometric torque production was fully recovered by 48 h-POST.

Conclusions: Alcohol consumed after muscle-damaging resistance exercise does not appear to affect inflammatory capacity or muscular performance recovery in resistance-trained women. Combined with previous findings in men, these results suggest a gender difference regarding effects of alcohol on exercise recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3606-0DOI Listing
June 2017

Measurement of T-Cell Telomere Length Using Amplified-Signal FISH Staining and Flow Cytometry.

Curr Protoc Cytom 2017 01 5;79:7.47.1-7.47.10. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Applied Physiology Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas.

Exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS), and physiologically challenging stimuli either positively or negatively affect leukocyte maturity. Cellular maturity has implications for the effectiveness of host response to bacterial or viral infection and/or tissue injury. Thus, the ability to accurately assess cellular maturity and health is important to fully understand immune status and function. The most common technique for measuring cellular maturity is to measure telomere length; however, existing techniques are not optimized for single-cell measurements using flow cytometry. Specifically, existing methods used to measure telomere length are PCR-based, making it difficult for a researcher to measure maturity within specific leukocyte subsets (e.g., T cells). In this report, we describe a new approach for the measurement of telomere length within individual T cells using an amplified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (PrimeFlow RNA Assay). The unique aspect of this technique is that it amplifies the fluorescent signal rather than the target up to 3000-fold, resulting in the detection of as few as 1 copy of the target nucleic acid. While the current technique focuses on human T cells, this method can be broadly applied to a variety of cell types and disease models. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpcy.11DOI Listing
January 2017

Hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors are associated with vitamin D deficiency in an urban Chinese population: A short report.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 10 16;173:286-291. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

There is debate concerning the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. As both hypertension and vitamin D deficiency are increasingly important public health concerns in China, we investigated these associations in 566 Macao residents. The aim was to investigate the association of serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations with CVD risk factors (hypertension, high pulse rate, abnormal blood lipids). The data were stratified by age, sex, and blood pressure (BP) medication use. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess associations, adjusting for appropriate confounders. Lower 25OHD concentrations were significantly associated with higher systolic BP (SBP) mmHg (β=-0.07), diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg (β=-0.06) and pulse rate beats/min (β=-0.12), lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations nmol/L (β=10.51) and higher triglycerides (TG) nmol/L (β=-2.38). However, the inverse associations with lower 25OHD for higher SBP, DBP, pulse rate and TG were much stronger in those using BP medications, in those who were older, and in females. Higher PTH concentrations were significantly associated with higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nmol/L (β=0.77) in the total population and with higher SBP mmHg (β=0.08) in males and those who were older (β=0.09). In conclusion, our major new finding is that lower 25OHD is associated with higher BP especially in those who use BP medications. These results might explain past discrepancies in findings regarding the association of BP and vitamin D and suggest that prospective studies and randomized control trials, in otherwise healthy Chinese populations taking blood pressure medications, are needed to confirm these cross-sectional results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.11.011DOI Listing
October 2017

Exertional Hyponatremia and Serum Sodium Change During Ultraendurance Cycling.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2017 Apr 6;27(2):139-147. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Introduction: Exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise involves all avenues of fluid-electrolyte gain and loss. Although previous research implicates retention of excess fluid, EH may involve either loss, gain, or no change of body mass. Thus, the etiology, predisposing factors, and recommendations for prevention are vague-except for advice to avoid excessive drinking.

Purpose: This retrospective field study presents case reports of two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39 years) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L.

Methods: To clarify the etiology of EH, their pre- and post-exercise measurements were compared to a control group (CON) of 31 normonatremic cyclists (mean ± SD; 37±6 years; 141±3 mmol Na+/L).

Results: Anthropomorphic characteristics, exercise time, and post-exercise ratings of thermal sensation, perceived exertion and muscle cramp were similar for LC, AM and CON. These two hyponatremic cyclists consumed a large and similar volume of fluid (191 and 189 ml/kg), experienced an 11 mmol/L decrease of serum [Na+], reported low thirst sensations; however, LC gained 3.1 kg (+4.3% of body mass) during 8.9 hr of exercise and AM maintained body mass (+0.1kg, +0.1%, 10.6h). In the entire cohort (n = 33), post-event serum [Na+] was strongly correlated with total fluid intake (R = 0.45, p < .0001), and correlated moderately with dietary sodium intake (R=0.28, p = .004) and body mass change (R = 0.22, p = .02). Linear regression analyses predicted the threshold of EH onset (<135 mmol Na+/L) as 168 ml fluid/kg.

Conclusions: The wide range of serum [Na+] changes (+6 to -11 mmol/L) led us to recommend an individualized rehydration plan to athletes because the interactions of factors were complex and idiosyncratic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0135DOI Listing
April 2017

Effect of Caffeine on Perceived Soreness and Functionality Following an Endurance Cycling Event.

J Strength Cond Res 2017 Mar;31(3):638-643

1Human Performance Laboratory, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas; 2Applied Physiology Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas; 3EXOS, Phoenix, Arizona; 4Human Performance Lab, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut; 5University of Hartford, West Hartford, Connecticut; and 6Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, Texas.

Caldwell, AR, Tucker, MA, Butts, CL, McDermott, BP, Vingren, JL, Kunces, LJ, Lee, EC, Munoz, CX, Williamson, KH, Armstrong, LE, and Ganio, MS. Effect of caffeine on perceived soreness and functionality following an endurance cycling event. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 638-643, 2017-Caffeine can reduce muscle pain during exercise; however, the efficacy of caffeine in improving muscle soreness and recovery from a demanding long-duration exercise bout has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine intake on ratings of perceived muscle soreness (RPMS) and perceived lower extremity functionality (LEF) following the completion of a 164-km endurance cycling event. Before and after cycling RPMS (1-to-6; 6 = severe soreness) and LEF (0-to-80; 80 = full functionality) were assessed by questionnaires. Subjects ingested 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or placebo pills in a randomized, double-blind fashion immediately after the ride and for the next 4 mornings (i.e., ∼800 hours) and 3 afternoons (i.e., ∼1200 hours). Before each ingestion, RPMS and LEF were assessed. Afternoon ratings of LEF were greater with caffeine ingestion the first day postride (65.0 ± 6.1 vs. 72.3 ± 6.7; for placebo and caffeine, respectively; p = 0.04), but at no other time points (p > 0.05). The caffeine group tended to have lower overall RPMS in the afternoon versus placebo (i.e., main effect of group; 1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2; p = 0.09). Afternoon RPMS for the legs was significantly lower in the caffeine group (main effect of caffeine; 1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.05). In conclusion, ingesting caffeine improved RPMS for the legs, but not LEF in the days following an endurance cycling event. Athletes may benefit from ingesting caffeine in the days following an arduous exercise bout to relieve feelings of soreness and reduced functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001608DOI Listing
March 2017

Using image-based flow cytometry to monitor satellite cells proliferation and differentiation in vitro.

Methods 2017 01 11;112:175-181. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #310769, Denton, TX 76203-5017, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #305220, Denton, TX 76203-5017, United States. Electronic address:

Muscle satellite cells can proliferate and differentiate into myocytes; this biological function has important implications for muscle development, aging, repair, and wasting diseases. Established analytical methods, including western blotting, PCR, and immunohistochemistry, has been used to characterize the stages of satellite cells growth and development but there is currently a lack of methods to simultaneously monitor cell proliferation and identify changes in cell properties (i.e., expression of myogenic regulatory factors) for each individual cell during the progression to become myocytes. Image-based flow cytometry has the capability to simultaneously obtain morphometric data, monitor cell division, and detect expression of multiple proteins of interest. In this article we demonstrate the use of image-based flow cytometry and cell-trace dye to monitor satellite cells proliferation and to identify different stages of satellite cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2016.08.005DOI Listing
January 2017

Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses to a 164-km road cycle ride in a hot environment.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2016 Oct 13;116(10):2007-15. Epub 2016 Aug 13.

Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #310769, Denton, TX, 76203-5017, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the circulating cytokine response to a recreational 164-km road cycling event in a high ambient temperature and to determine if this response was affected by self-paced exercise time to completion.

Methods: Thirty-five men and five women were divided into tertiles based on time to complete the cycling event: slowest (SLOW), moderate (MOD), and fastest (FAST) finishers. Plasma samples were obtained 1-2 h before (PRE) and immediately after (IP) the event. A high-sensitivity multiplex assay kit was used to determine the concentration of plasma anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α).

Results: The concentration of plasma IL-10 increased significantly (p < 0.05) in FAST and MOD groups and had no change in the SLOW group in response to a 164-km cycling event in the hot environment. Other cytokine responses were not influenced by the Time to completion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, GM-CSF, and TNF-α decreased; whereas, IL-6 and IL-8 increased from PRE to IP. Additionally, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 decreased.

Conclusions: Completion of a 164-km cycling event induced substantial changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Time to completion appears to have a greater influence on the systemic IL-10 response than the environmental condition; however, it is possible that a threshold for absolute intensity must be reached for environmental conditions to affect the IL-10 response to exercise. Thus, cyclists from the FAST/MOD groups appear more likely to experience an acute transient immune suppression than cyclists from the SLOW group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3452-5DOI Listing
October 2016

Acute Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Warm-up on Footspeed Quickness.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Aug;30(8):2286-91

1Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut; 2Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion and Recreation, Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas; and 3Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Donahue, RB, Vingren, JL, Duplanty, AA, Levitt, DE, Luk, H-Y, and Kraemer, WJ. Acute effect of whole-body vibration warm-up on footspeed quickness. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2286-2291, 2016-The warm-up routine preceding a training or athletic event can affect the performance during that event. Whole-body vibration (WBV) can increase muscle performance, and thus the inclusion of WBV to the warm-up routine might provide additional performance improvements. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effect of a WBV warm-up, using a vertical oscillating platform and a more traditional warm-up protocol on feet quickness in physically active men. Twenty healthy and physically active men (18-25 years, 22 ± 3 years, 176.8 ± 6.4 cm, 84.4 ± 11.5 kg, 10.8 ± 1.4% body fat) volunteered for this study. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to examine the effect of 4 warm-up scenarios (no warm-up, traditional warm-up only, WBV warm-up only, and combined traditional and WBV warm-up) on subsequent 3-second Quick feet count test (QFT) performance. The traditional warm-up consisted of static and dynamic exercises and stretches. The WBV warm-up consisted of 60 seconds of vertical sinusoidal vibration at a frequency of 35 Hz and amplitude of 4 mm on a vibration platform. The WBV protocol significantly (p ≤ 0.0005, η = 0.581) augmented QFT performance (WBV: 37.1 ± 3.4 touches; no-WBV: 35.7 ± 3.4 touches). The results demonstrate that WBV can enhance the performance score on the QFT. The findings of this study suggest that WBV warm-up should be included in warm-up routines preceding training and athletic events which include very fast foot movements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001014DOI Listing
August 2016

Leukocyte Subset Changes in Response to a 164-km Road Cycle Ride in a Hot Environment.

Int J Exerc Sci 2016;9(1):34-46. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion and Recreation, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA.

The purpose of this observational study was to determine the circulating leukocyte subset response to completing the 2013 Hotter'N Hell Hundred recreational 164-km road cycle event in a hot and humid environmental condition. Twenty-eight men and four women were included in this study. Whole blood samples were obtained 1-2 hours before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the event. Electronic sizing/sorting and cytometry were used to determine complete blood counts (CBC) including neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte subsets. The concentration of circulating total leukocytes (10·μL) increased 134% from PRE to POST with the greatest increase in neutrophils (319%, <0.0001). Circulating monocytes (including macrophages) increased 24% (=0.004) and circulating lymphocytes including B and T cells increased 53% (<0.0001). No association was observed between rolling time or relative intensity and leukocyte subset. Completing the Hotter n' Hell Hundred (HHH), a 100 mile recreational cycling race in extreme (hot and humid) environmental conditions, induces a substantial increase in total leukocytes in circulation. The contribution of increases in specific immune cell subsets is not equal, with neutrophils increasing to greater than 4-fold starting values from PRE to POST race. It is likely that exercise in stressful environmental conditions affects the complement of circulating immune cells, although activational state and characterization of specific leukocyte subsets remains unclear. The observed increase in circulating cell sub-populations suggests that the circulating immune surveillance system may be acutely affected by exercise in hot and humid conditions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4882474PMC
January 2016

The effects of a roundtrip trans-American jet travel on physiological stress, neuromuscular performance, and recovery.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2016 08 9;121(2):438-48. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Human Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;

The purpose was to examine the effects of a round trip trans-American jet travel on performance, hormonal alterations, and recovery. Ten matched pairs of recreationally trained men were randomized to either a compression group (COMP) (n = 10; age: 23.1 ± 2.4 yr; height: 174.8 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 84.9 ± 10.16 kg; body fat: 15.3 ± 6.0%) or control group (CONT) (n = 9; age: 23.2 ± 2.3 yr; height: 177.5 ± 6.3 cm; weight: 84.3 ± 8.99 kg; body fat: 15.1 ± 6.4%). Subjects flew directly from Hartford, CT to Los Angeles, CA 1 day before a simulated sport competition (SSC) designed to create muscle damage and returned the next morning on an overnight flight back home. Both groups demonstrated jet lag symptoms and associated decreases in sleep quality at all time points. Melatonin significantly (P < 0.05) increased over the first 2 days and then remained constant until after the SSC. Epinephrine, testosterone, and cortisol values significantly increased above resting values before and after the SSC with norepinephrine increases only after the SSC. Physical performances significantly decreased from control values on each day for the CONT group with COMP group exhibiting no significant declines. Muscle damage markers were significantly elevated following the SSC with the COMP group having significantly lower values while maintaining neuromuscular performance measures that were not different from baseline testing. Trans-American jet travel has a significant impact on parameters related to jet lag, sleep quality, hormonal responses, muscle tissue damage markers, and physical performance with an attenuation observed with extended wear compression garments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00429.2016DOI Listing
August 2016