Publications by authors named "Jakob Grove"

77 Publications

Polygenic Heterogeneity Across Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Subgroups Defined by a Comorbid Diagnosis.

Front Genet 2021 31;12:711624. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 65-85% manifest another psychiatric disorder concomitantly or at some other time point during their life. OCD is highly heritable, as are many of its comorbidities. A possible genetic heterogeneity of OCD in relation to its comorbid conditions, however, has not yet been exhaustively explored. We used a framework of different approaches to study the genetic relationship of OCD with three commonly observed comorbidities, namely major depressive disorder (MDD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). First, using publicly available summary statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies, we compared genetic correlation patterns for OCD, MDD, ADHD, and ASD with 861 somatic and mental health phenotypes. Secondly, we examined how polygenic risk scores (PRS) of eight traits that showed heterogeneous correlation patterns with OCD, MDD, ADHD, and ASD partitioned across comorbid subgroups in OCD using independent unpublished data from the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH). The comorbid subgroups comprised of patients with only OCD ( = 366), OCD and MDD ( = 1,052), OCD and ADHD ( = 443), OCD and ASD ( = 388), and OCD with more than 1 comorbidity ( = 429). We found that PRS of all traits but BMI were significantly associated with OCD across all subgroups (neuroticism: = 1.19 × 10, bipolar disorder: = 7.51 × 10, anorexia nervosa: = 3.52 × 10, age at first birth: = 9.38 × 10, educational attainment: = 1.56 × 10, OCD: = 1.87 × 10, insomnia: = 2.61 × 10, BMI: = 0.15). For age at first birth, educational attainment, and insomnia PRS estimates significantly differed across comorbid subgroups ( = 2.29 × 10, = 1.63 × 10, and = 0.045, respectively). Especially for anorexia nervosa, age at first birth, educational attainment, insomnia, and neuroticism the correlation patterns that emerged from genetic correlation analysis of OCD, MDD, ADHD, and ASD were mirrored in the PRS associations with the respective comorbid OCD groups. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across OCD comorbid subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.711624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438210PMC
August 2021

Sex-Dependent Shared and Nonshared Genetic Architecture Across Mood and Psychotic Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, Illinois.

Background: Sex differences in incidence and/or presentation of schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BIP) are pervasive. Previous evidence for shared genetic risk and sex differences in brain abnormalities across disorders suggest possible shared sex-dependent genetic risk.

Methods: We conducted the largest to date genome-wide genotype-by-sex (G×S) interaction of risk for these disorders using 85,735 cases (33,403 SCZ, 19,924 BIP, and 32,408 MDD) and 109,946 controls from the PGC (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium) and iPSYCH.

Results: Across disorders, genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphism-by-sex interaction was detected for a locus encompassing NKAIN2 (rs117780815, p = 3.2 × 10), which interacts with sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) enzymes, implicating neuronal excitability. Three additional loci showed evidence (p < 1 × 10) for cross-disorder G×S interaction (rs7302529, p = 1.6 × 10; rs73033497, p = 8.8 × 10; rs7914279, p = 6.4 × 10), implicating various functions. Gene-based analyses identified G×S interaction across disorders (p = 8.97 × 10) with transcriptional inhibitor SLTM. Most significant in SCZ was a MOCOS gene locus (rs11665282, p = 1.5 × 10), implicating vascular endothelial cells. Secondary analysis of the PGC-SCZ dataset detected an interaction (rs13265509, p = 1.1 × 10) in a locus containing IDO2, a kynurenine pathway enzyme with immunoregulatory functions implicated in SCZ, BIP, and MDD. Pathway enrichment analysis detected significant G×S interaction of genes regulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling in MDD (false discovery rate-corrected p < .05).

Conclusions: In the largest genome-wide G×S analysis of mood and psychotic disorders to date, there was substantial genetic overlap between the sexes. However, significant sex-dependent effects were enriched for genes related to neuronal development and immune and vascular functions across and within SCZ, BIP, and MDD at the variant, gene, and pathway levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.972DOI Listing
March 2021

Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology.

Nat Genet 2021 06 17;53(6):817-829. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00857-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192451PMC
June 2021

Leveraging both individual-level genetic data and GWAS summary statistics increases polygenic prediction.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 06 7;108(6):1001-1011. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, 8210 Aarhus V, Denmark; National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, 8210 Aarhus V, Denmark; Bioinformatics Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:

The accuracy of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) to predict complex diseases increases with the training sample size. PRSs are generally derived based on summary statistics from large meta-analyses of multiple genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, it is now common for researchers to have access to large individual-level data as well, such as the UK Biobank data. To the best of our knowledge, it has not yet been explored how best to combine both types of data (summary statistics and individual-level data) to optimize polygenic prediction. The most widely used approach to combine data is the meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics (meta-GWAS), but we show that it does not always provide the most accurate PRS. Through simulations and using 12 real case-control and quantitative traits from both iPSYCH and UK Biobank along with external GWAS summary statistics, we compare meta-GWAS with two alternative data-combining approaches, stacked clumping and thresholding (SCT) and meta-PRS. We find that, when large individual-level data are available, the linear combination of PRSs (meta-PRS) is both a simple alternative to meta-GWAS and often more accurate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206385PMC
June 2021

Polygenic liability, stressful life events and risk for secondary-treated depression in early life: a nationwide register-based case-cohort study.

Psychol Med 2021 May 5:1-10. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: In this study, we examined the relationship between polygenic liability for depression and number of stressful life events (SLEs) as risk factors for early-onset depression treated in inpatient, outpatient or emergency room settings at psychiatric hospitals in Denmark.

Methods: Data were drawn from the iPSYCH2012 case-cohort sample, a population-based sample of individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2005. The sample included 18 532 individuals who were diagnosed with depression by a psychiatrist by age 31 years, and a comparison group of 20 184 individuals. Information on SLEs was obtained from nationwide registers and operationalized as a time-varying count variable. Hazard ratios and cumulative incidence rates were estimated using Cox regressions.

Results: Risk for depression increased by 35% with each standard deviation increase in polygenic liability (p < 0.0001), and 36% (p < 0.0001) with each additional SLE. There was a small interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs (β = -0.04, p = 0.0009). The probability of being diagnosed with depression in a hospital-based setting between ages 15 and 31 years ranged from 1.5% among males in the lowest quartile of polygenic liability with 0 events by age 15, to 18.8% among females in the highest quartile of polygenic liability with 4+ events by age 15.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that although there is minimal interaction between polygenic liability and SLEs as risk factors for hospital-treated depression, combining information on these two important risk factors could potentially be useful for identifying high-risk individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721001410DOI Listing
May 2021

The Eating Disorders Genetics Initiative (EDGI): study protocol.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 05 4;21(1):234. Epub 2021 May 4.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Locked Bag 2000, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston, QLD, 4029, Australia.

Background: The Eating Disorders Genetics Initiative (EDGI) is an international investigation exploring the role of genes and environment in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.

Methods: A total of 14,500 individuals with eating disorders and 1500 controls will be included from the United States (US), Australia (AU), New Zealand (NZ), and Denmark (DK). In the US, AU, and NZ, participants will complete comprehensive online phenotyping and will submit a saliva sample for genotyping. In DK, individuals with eating disorders will be identified by the National Patient Register, and genotyping will occur using bloodspots archived from birth. A genome-wide association study will be conducted within EDGI and via meta-analysis with other data from the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED).

Discussion: EDGI represents the largest genetic study of eating disorders ever to be conducted and is designed to rapidly advance the study of the genetics of the three major eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder). We will explicate the genetic architecture of eating disorders relative to each other and to other psychiatric and metabolic disorders and traits. Our goal is for EDGI to deliver "actionable" findings that can be transformed into clinically meaningful insights.

Trial Registration: EDGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.gov NCT04378101 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03212-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097919PMC
May 2021

Co-occurring hydrocephalus in autism spectrum disorder: a Danish population-based cohort study.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 04 28;13(1):19. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department for Congenital Disorders, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The association between autism spectrum disorder and hydrocephalus is not well understood, despite demonstrated links between autism spectrum disorder and cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities. Based on the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorder and hydrocephalus may, at least in some cases, be two manifestations of a shared congenital brain pathology, we investigated the potential association between autism spectrum disorder and hydrocephalus in a large Danish population-based cohort.

Methods: Patients and controls were obtained from the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research iPSYCH2012 case-cohort, which includes all patients with selected psychiatric disorders born in Denmark 1981-2005 along with randomly selected population controls (end of follow-up, December 31, 2016). The associations between individual psychiatric disorders and hydrocephalus were estimated using binary logistic regression with adjustment for age and sex.

Results: The cohort consisted of 86,571 individuals, of which 14,654 were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, 28,606 were population controls, and the remaining were diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders. We identified 201 hydrocephalus cases; 68 among autism spectrum disorder patients and 40 among controls (OR 3.77, 95% CI 2.48-5.78), which corresponds to an absolute risk of 0.46 % (i.e. approximately one in 217 children with autism spectrum disorder had co-occurring hydrocephalus). The autism spectrum disorder-hydrocephalus association was significant over the entire subgroup spectrum of autism spectrum disorder.

Conclusions: Given the considerable risk of hydrocephalus among patients with autism spectrum disorder, we suggest that patients with autism spectrum disorder should be evaluated for co-occurring hydrocephalus on a routine basis as timely neurosurgical intervention is important. Likewise, attention must be paid to traits of autism spectrum disorder in children with hydrocephalus. The results of this study call for future investigations on a potential shared aetiology between hydrocephalus and autism spectrum disorder, including the role abnormal CSF dynamics in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11689-021-09367-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082886PMC
April 2021

Birth characteristics and risk of febrile seizures.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Jul 6;144(1):51-57. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Economics and Business Economics, National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objective: Febrile seizure is a common childhood disorder that affects 2-5% of all children, and is associated with later development of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. This study determines how the incidence of febrile seizures correlates with birth characteristics, age, sex and brain development.

Methods: This is a cohort study of all children born Denmark between 1977 and 2011 who were alive at 3 months of age (N = 2,103,232). The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify children with febrile seizures up to 5 years of age. Follow-up ended on 31 December 2016 when all cohort members had potentially reached 5 years of age.

Results: In total, 75,593 (3.59%, 95% CI: 3.57-3.62%) were diagnosed with febrile seizures. Incidence peaked at 16.7 months of age (median: 16.7 months, interquartile range: 12.5-24.0). The 5-year cumulative incidence of febrile seizures increased with decreasing birth weight (<1500 g; 5.42% (95% CI: 4.98-5.88% vs. 3,000-4,000 g; 3.53% (95% CI: 3.50-3.56%)) and with decreasing gestational age at birth (31-32 weeks; 5.90% (95% CI: 5.40-6.44%) vs. 39-40 weeks; 3.56% (95% CI: 3.53-3.60)). Lower gestational age at birth was associated with higher age at onset of a first febrile seizure; an association that essentially disappeared when correcting for age from conception.

Conclusions: The risk of febrile seizures increased with decreasing birth weight and gestational age at birth. The association between low gestational age at birth and age at first febrile seizure suggests that onset of febrile seizures is associated with the stage of brain development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.13420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178233PMC
July 2021

Maternal health around pregnancy and autism risk: a diagnosis-wide, population-based study.

Psychol Med 2021 Mar 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Many studies have reported an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) associated with some maternal diagnoses in pregnancy. However, such associations have not been studied systematically, accounting for comorbidity between maternal disorders. Therefore our aim was to comprehensively test the associations between maternal diagnoses around pregnancy and ASD risk in offspring.

Methods: This exploratory case-cohort study included children born in Israel from 1997 to 2008, and followed up until 2015. We used information on all ICD-9 codes received by their mothers during pregnancy and the preceding year. ASD risk associated with each of those conditions was calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for the confounders (birth year, maternal age, socioeconomic status and number of ICD-9 diagnoses during the exposure period).

Results: The analytic sample consisted of 80 187 individuals (1132 cases, 79 055 controls), with 822 unique ICD-9 codes recorded in their mothers. After extensive quality control, 22 maternal diagnoses were nominally significantly associated with offspring ASD, with 16 of those surviving subsequent filtering steps (permutation testing, multiple testing correction, multiple regression). Among those, we recorded an increased risk of ASD associated with metabolic [e.g. hypertension; HR = 2.74 (1.92-3.90), p = 2.43 × 10-8], genitourinary [e.g. non-inflammatory disorders of cervix; HR = 1.88 (1.38-2.57), p = 7.06 × 10-5] and psychiatric [depressive disorder; HR = 2.11 (1.32-3.35), p = 1.70 × 10-3] diagnoses. Meanwhile, mothers of children with ASD were less likely to attend prenatal care appointment [HR = 0.62 (0.54-0.71), p = 1.80 × 10-11].

Conclusions: Sixteen maternal diagnoses were associated with ASD in the offspring, after rigorous filtering of potential false-positive associations. Replication in other cohorts and further research to understand the mechanisms underlying the observed associations with ASD are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721001021DOI Listing
March 2021

Examining Sex-Differentiated Genetic Effects Across Neuropsychiatric and Behavioral Traits.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 06 9;89(12):1127-1137. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Psychiatric & Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The origin of sex differences in prevalence and presentation of neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits is largely unknown. Given established genetic contributions and correlations, we tested for a sex-differentiated genetic architecture within and between traits.

Methods: Using European ancestry genome-wide association summary statistics for 20 neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits, we tested for sex differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlation (r < 1). For each trait, we computed per-SNP z scores from sex-stratified regression coefficients and identified genes with sex-differentiated effects using a gene-based approach. We calculated correlation coefficients between z scores to test for shared sex-differentiated effects. Finally, we tested for sex differences in across-trait genetic correlations.

Results: We observed no consistent sex differences in SNP-based heritability. Between-sex, within-trait genetic correlations were high, although <1 for educational attainment and risk-taking behavior. We identified 4 genes with significant sex-differentiated effects across 3 traits. Several trait pairs shared sex-differentiated effects. The top genes with sex-differentiated effects were enriched for multiple gene sets, including neuron- and synapse-related sets. Most between-trait genetic correlation estimates were not significantly different between sexes, with exceptions (educational attainment and risk-taking behavior).

Conclusions: Sex differences in the common autosomal genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric and behavioral phenotypes are small and polygenic and unlikely to fully account for observed sex-differentiated attributes. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify sex-differentiated effects for most traits. For well-powered studies, we identified genes with sex-differentiated effects that were enriched for neuron-related and other biological functions. This work motivates further investigation of genetic and environmental influences on sex differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.12.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163257PMC
June 2021

Risk variants and polygenic architecture of disruptive behavior disorders in the context of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Nat Commun 2021 01 25;12(1):576. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric disorder often comorbid with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Here, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD comorbid with DBDs (ADHD + DBDs) including 3802 cases and 31,305 controls. We identify three genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 1, 7, and 11. A meta-analysis including a Chinese cohort supports that the locus on chromosome 11 is a strong risk locus for ADHD + DBDs across European and Chinese ancestries (rs7118422, P = 3.15×10, OR = 1.17). We find a higher SNP heritability for ADHD + DBDs (h = 0.34) when compared to ADHD without DBDs (h = 0.20), high genetic correlations between ADHD + DBDs and aggressive (r = 0.81) and anti-social behaviors (r = 0.82), and an increased burden (polygenic score) of variants associated with ADHD and aggression in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs. Our results suggest an increased load of common risk variants in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs, which in part can be explained by variants associated with aggressive behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20443-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835232PMC
January 2021

Identification of genetic loci associated with nocturnal enuresis: a genome-wide association study.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 03 15;5(3):201-209. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Denmark; Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Centre for Integrative Sequencing (iSEQ), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Centre for Genomics and Personalized Medicine (CGPM), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a common disorder affecting 10-16% of 7-year-old children globally. Nocturnal enuresis is highly heritable, but its genetic determinants remain unknown. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with nocturnal enuresis and explore its genetic architecture and underlying biology.

Methods: We did a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of nocturnal enuresis. Nocturnal enuresis cases were identified in iPSYCH2012, a large Danish population-based case cohort established to investigate mental disorders, on the basis of 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnoses and redeemed desmopressin prescriptions in Danish registers. The GWAS was done in a genetically homogeneous sample of unrelated individuals using logistic regression with relevant covariates. All genome-wide significant variants were analysed for their association with nocturnal enuresis in an independent Icelandic sample from deCODE genetics. Standardised polygenic risk scores for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder were constructed from summary statistics of large GWASs and analysed for association with nocturnal enuresis.

Findings: The GWAS included 3882 nocturnal enuresis cases and 31 073 controls. We found two loci at chromosome 6 and chromosome 13 significantly associated with nocturnal enuresis. Six genetic variants at the two loci (five variants at chromosome 6q16.2 and one variant at chromosome 13q22.3) surpassed the threshold for genome-wide significance (p<5 × 10). There were two lead variants: rs9376454 (chromosome 6q16.2), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1·199 (95% CI 1·135-1·267; p=9·91 × 10), and rs60721117 (chromosome 13q22.3), with an OR of 1·149 (1·095-1·205; p=1·21 × 10). All associated variants in the chromosome 6 locus were replicated (p<8 × 10) in the independent Icelandic cohort of 5475 nocturnal enuresis cases and 303 996 controls, whereas the associated variant in the chromosome 13 locus showed nominal significant association (p=0·031). The percentage of nocturnal enuresis phenotypic variance explained by the common genetic variants was 23·9-30·4%. Polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with nocturnal enuresis (OR 1·06, 95% CI, 1·01-1·10; p=0·011). Among the potential nocturnal enuresis risk genes mapped, PRDM13 and EDNRB have biological functions associated with known pathophysiological mechanisms in nocturnal enuresis, and SIM1 regulates the formation of the hypothalamic neuroendocrine lineage that produces arginine vasopressin, a well known nocturnal enuresis drug target.

Interpretation: This study shows that common genetic variants contribute considerably to nocturnal enuresis, and it identifies potential nocturnal enuresis risk genes with roles in sleep, urine production, and bladder function. Given that available treatments target these mechanisms, any of the identified genes and their functional gene networks are potential drug targets.

Funding: The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Stanley Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30350-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Risk of Early-Onset Depression Associated With Polygenic Liability, Parental Psychiatric History, and Socioeconomic Status.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Apr;78(4):387-397

Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Aarhus, Denmark.

Importance: Combining information on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) with other known risk factors could potentially improve the identification of risk of depression in the general population. However, to our knowledge, no study has estimated the association of PRS with the absolute risk of depression, and few have examined combinations of the PRS and other important risk factors, including parental history of psychiatric disorders and socioeconomic status (SES), in the identification of depression risk.

Objective: To assess the individual and joint associations of PRS, parental history, and SES with relative and absolute risk of early-onset depression.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case-cohort study included participants from the iPSYCH2012 sample, a case-cohort sample of all singletons born in Denmark between May 1, 1981, and December 31, 2005. Hazard ratios (HRs) and absolute risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for case-cohort designs.

Exposures: The PRS for depression; SES measured using maternal educational level, maternal marital status, and paternal employment; and parental history of psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar disorder, other mood or psychotic disorders, and other psychiatric diagnoses).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Hospital-based diagnosis of depression from inpatient, outpatient, or emergency settings.

Results: Participants included 17 098 patients with depression (11 748 [68.7%] female) and 18 582 (9429 [50.7%] male) individuals randomly selected from the base population. The PRS, parental history, and lower SES were all significantly associated with increased risk of depression, with HRs ranging from 1.32 (95% CI, 1.29-1.35) per 1-SD increase in PRS to 2.23 (95% CI, 1.81-2.64) for maternal history of mood or psychotic disorders. Fully adjusted models had similar effect sizes, suggesting that these risk factors do not confound one another. Absolute risk of depression by the age of 30 years differed substantially, depending on an individual's combination of risk factors, ranging from 1.0% (95% CI, 0.1%-2.0%) among men with high SES in the bottom 2% of the PRS distribution to 23.7% (95% CI, 16.6%-30.2%) among women in the top 2% of PRS distribution with a parental history of psychiatric disorders.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggests that current PRSs for depression are not more likely to be associated with major depressive disorder than are other known risk factors; however, they may be useful for the identification of risk in conjunction with other risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.4172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807393PMC
April 2021

Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies.

Addict Biol 2021 01 16;26(1):e12880. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429266PMC
January 2021

Large-Scale Exome Sequencing Study Implicates Both Developmental and Functional Changes in the Neurobiology of Autism.

Cell 2020 02 23;180(3):568-584.e23. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

We present the largest exome sequencing study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to date (n = 35,584 total samples, 11,986 with ASD). Using an enhanced analytical framework to integrate de novo and case-control rare variation, we identify 102 risk genes at a false discovery rate of 0.1 or less. Of these genes, 49 show higher frequencies of disruptive de novo variants in individuals ascertained to have severe neurodevelopmental delay, whereas 53 show higher frequencies in individuals ascertained to have ASD; comparing ASD cases with mutations in these groups reveals phenotypic differences. Expressed early in brain development, most risk genes have roles in regulation of gene expression or neuronal communication (i.e., mutations effect neurodevelopmental and neurophysiological changes), and 13 fall within loci recurrently hit by copy number variants. In cells from the human cortex, expression of risk genes is enriched in excitatory and inhibitory neuronal lineages, consistent with multiple paths to an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance underlying ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.12.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250485PMC
February 2020

Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have a similar burden of rare protein-truncating variants.

Nat Neurosci 2019 12 25;22(12):1961-1965. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The exome sequences of approximately 8,000 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 5,000 controls were analyzed, finding that individuals with ASD and individuals with ADHD had a similar burden of rare protein-truncating variants in evolutionarily constrained genes, both significantly higher than controls. This motivated a combined analysis across ASD and ADHD, identifying microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) as a new exome-wide significant gene conferring risk for childhood psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0527-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884695PMC
December 2019

Genetic risk scores for major psychiatric disorders and the risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 11 11;9(1):288. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Postpartum psychiatric disorders are heritable, but how genetic liability varies by other significant risk factors is unknown. We aimed to (1) estimate associations of genetic risk scores (GRS) for major depression (MD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SCZ) with postpartum psychiatric disorders, (2) examine differences by prior psychiatric history, and (3) compare genetic and familial risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders. We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers of all women in the iPSYCH2012 cohort who had given birth before December 31, 2015 (n = 8850). Cases were women with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder or a filled psychotropic prescription within one year after delivery (n = 5829 cases, 3021 controls). Association analyses were conducted between GRS calculated from Psychiatric Genomics Consortium discovery meta-analyses for MD, BD, and SCZ and case-control status of a postpartum psychiatric disorder. Parental psychiatric history was associated with postpartum psychiatric disorders among women with previous psychiatric history (OR, 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.28) but not without psychiatric history (OR, 1.08; 95% CI: 0.81-1.43). GRS for MD was associated with an increased risk of postpartum psychiatric disorders in both women with (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.19-1.74) and without (OR, 1.88; 95% CI: 1.26-2.81) personal psychiatric history. SCZ GRS was only minimally associated with postpartum disorders and BD GRS was not. Results suggest GRS of lifetime psychiatric illness can be applied to the postpartum period, which may provide clues about distinct environmental or genetic elements of postpartum psychiatric disorders and ultimately help identify vulnerable groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0629-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848186PMC
November 2019

Association of Childhood Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Polygenic Risk Score for Schizophrenia With the Risk of Developing Schizophrenia.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 11 1;2(11):e1914401. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Economics and Business Economics, National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Importance: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder, and recent studies have suggested that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during childhood is associated with an elevated risk of subsequently developing schizophrenia. However, it is not known whether the increased risk associated with NO2 exposure is owing to a greater genetic liability among those exposed to highest NO2 levels.

Objective: To examine the associations between childhood NO2 exposure and genetic liability for schizophrenia (as measured by a polygenic risk score), and risk of developing schizophrenia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Population-based cohort study including individuals with schizophrenia (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision code F20) and a randomly selected subcohort. Using national registry data, all individuals born in Denmark between May 1, 1981, and December 31, 2002, were followed up from their 10th birthday until the first occurrence of schizophrenia, emigration, death, or December 31, 2012, whichever came first. Statistical analyses were conducted between October 24, 2018, and June 17, 2019.

Exposures: Individual exposure to NO2 during childhood estimated as mean daily exposure to NO2 at residential addresses from birth to the 10th birthday. Polygenic risk scores were calculated as the weighted sum of risk alleles at selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms based on genetic material obtained from dried blood spot samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank and on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association study summary statistics file.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was schizophrenia. Weighted Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for schizophrenia with 95% CIs according to the exposures.

Results: Of a total of 23 355 individuals, 11 976 (51.3%) were male and all had Danish-born parents. During the period of the study, 3531 were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Higher polygenic risk scores were correlated with higher childhood NO2 exposure (ρ = 0.0782; 95% CI, 0.065-0.091; P < .001). A 10-μg/m3 increase in childhood daily NO2 exposure (AHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.15-1.32) and a 1-SD increase in polygenic risk score (AHR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.23-1.35) were independently associated with increased schizophrenia risk.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that the apparent association between NO2 exposure and schizophrenia is only slightly confounded by a higher polygenic risk score for schizophrenia among individuals living in areas with greater NO2. The findings demonstrate the utility of including polygenic risk scores in epidemiologic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827271PMC
November 2019

Social and non-social autism symptoms and trait domains are genetically dissociable.

Commun Biol 2019 3;2:328. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

1Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK.

The core diagnostic criteria for autism comprise two symptom domains - social and communication difficulties, and unusually repetitive and restricted behaviour, interests and activities. There is some evidence to suggest that these two domains are dissociable, though this hypothesis has not yet been tested using molecular genetics. We test this using a genome-wide association study ( = 51,564) of a non-social trait related to autism, systemising, defined as the drive to analyse and build systems. We demonstrate that systemising is heritable and genetically correlated with autism. In contrast, we do not identify significant genetic correlations between social autistic traits and systemising. Supporting this, polygenic scores for systemising are significantly and positively associated with restricted and repetitive behaviour but not with social difficulties in autistic individuals. These findings strongly suggest that the two core domains of autism are genetically dissociable, and point at how to fractionate the genetics of autism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0558-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722082PMC
April 2020

A polygenic resilience score moderates the genetic risk for schizophrenia.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 03 6;26(3):800-815. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Psychiatric Genetic Epidemiology & Neurobiology Laboratory (PsychGENe Lab), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531-538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally viewed as a psychological construct, although our use of the term resilience refers to a different construct that directly relates to the Resilience Project, namely: heritable variation that promotes resistance to disease by reducing the penetrance of risk loci, wherein resilience and risk loci operate orthogonal to one another. In this study, we established a procedure to identify unaffected individuals with relatively high polygenic risk for schizophrenia, and contrasted them with risk-matched schizophrenia cases to generate the first known "polygenic resilience score" that represents the additive contributions to SZ resistance by variants that are distinct from risk loci. The resilience score was derived from data compiled by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and replicated in three independent samples. This work establishes a generalizable framework for finding resilience variants for any complex, heritable disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0463-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058518PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa.

Nat Genet 2019 08 15;51(8):1207-1214. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders, and outcomes are unacceptably poor. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI) and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0439-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779477PMC
August 2019

Genome-wide association study implicates CHRNA2 in cannabis use disorder.

Nat Neurosci 2019 07 17;22(7):1066-1074. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Biomedicine-Human Genetics and Centre for Integrative Sequencing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10) that replicates in an independent population (P = 3.27 × 10, P = 9.09 × 10). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0416-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596896PMC
July 2019

Genetic Variants Associated With Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders: A Genome-Wide Association Study and Mouse-Model Study.

JAMA Psychiatry 2019 09;76(9):924-932

Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, Denmark.

Importance: Anxiety and stress-related disorders are among the most common mental disorders. Although family and twin studies indicate that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role underlying their etiology, the genetic underpinnings of anxiety and stress-related disorders are poorly understood.

Objectives: To estimate the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of anxiety and stress-related disorders; to identify novel genetic risk variants, genes, or biological pathways; to test for pleiotropic associations with other psychiatric traits; and to evaluate the association of psychiatric comorbidities with genetic findings.

Design, Setting, Participants: This genome-wide association study included individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and controls derived from the population-based Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH) study. Lifetime diagnoses of anxiety and stress-related disorders were obtained through the national Danish registers. Genes of interest were further evaluated in mice exposed to chronic social defeat. The study was conducted between June 2016 and November 2018.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Diagnoses of a relatively broad diagnostic spectrum of anxiety and stress-related disorders.

Results: The study sample included 12 655 individuals with various anxiety and stress-related diagnoses and 19 225 controls. Overall, 17 740 study participants (55.6%) were women. A total of 7308 participants (22.9%) were born between 1981-1985, 8840 (27.7%) between 1986-1990, 8157 (25.6%) between 1991-1995, 5918 (18.6%) between 1996-2000, and 1657 (5.2%) between 2001-2005. Standard association analysis revealed variants in PDE4B to be associated with anxiety and stress-related disorder (rs7528604; P = 5.39 × 10-11; odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.92). A framework of sensitivity analyses adjusting for mental comorbidity supported this result showing consistent association of PDE4B variants with anxiety and stress-related disorder across analytical scenarios. In mouse models, alterations in Pde4b expression were observed in those mice displaying anxiety-like behavior after exposure to chronic stress in the prefrontal cortex (P = .002; t = -3.33) and the hippocampus (P = .001; t = -3.72). We also found a single-nucleotide polymorphism heritability of 28% (standard error = 0.027) and that the genetic signature of anxiety and stress-related overlapped with psychiatric traits, educational outcomes, obesity-related phenotypes, smoking, and reproductive success.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study highlights anxiety and stress-related disorders as complex heritable phenotypes with intriguing genetic correlations not only with psychiatric traits, but also with educational outcomes and multiple obesity-related phenotypes. Furthermore, we highlight the candidate gene PDE4B as a robust risk locus pointing to the potential of PDE4B inhibitors in treatment of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.1119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537792PMC
September 2019

Genome-wide association study identifies 30 loci associated with bipolar disorder.

Nat Genet 2019 05 1;51(5):793-803. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0397-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956732PMC
May 2019

Variable DNA methylation in neonates mediates the association between prenatal smoking and birth weight.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 04;374(1770):20180120

1 University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter , Exeter , UK.

There is great interest in the role epigenetic variation induced by non-genetic exposures may play in the context of health and disease. In particular, DNA methylation has previously been shown to be highly dynamic during the earliest stages of development and is influenced by in utero exposures such as maternal smoking and medication. In this study we sought to identify the specific DNA methylation differences in blood associated with prenatal and birth factors, including birth weight, gestational age and maternal smoking. We quantified neonatal methylomic variation in 1263 infants using DNA isolated from a unique collection of archived blood spots taken shortly after birth (mean = 6.08 days; s.d. = 3.24 days). An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of gestational age and birth weight identified 4299 and 18 differentially methylated positions (DMPs) respectively, at an experiment-wide significance threshold of p < 1 × 10. Our EWAS of maternal smoking during pregnancy identified 110 DMPs in neonatal blood, replicating previously reported genomic loci, including AHRR. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the relationship between maternal smoking and lower birth weight, finding evidence that methylomic variation at three DMPs may link exposure to outcome. These findings complement an expanding literature on the epigenomic consequences of prenatal exposures and obstetric factors, confirming a link between the maternal environment and gene regulation in neonates. This article is part of the theme issue 'Developing differences: early-life effects and evolutionary medicine'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460077PMC
April 2019

Identification of common genetic risk variants for autism spectrum disorder.

Nat Genet 2019 03 25;51(3):431-444. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0344-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454898PMC
March 2019

Brain proteome changes in female Brd1 mice unmask dendritic spine pathology and show enrichment for schizophrenia risk.

Neurobiol Dis 2019 04 24;124:479-488. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark; Centre for Integrative Sequencing, iSEQ, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Genetic and molecular studies have implicated the Bromodomain containing 1 (BRD1) gene in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Accordingly, mice heterozygous for a targeted deletion of Brd1 (Brd1 mice) show behavioral phenotypes with broad translational relevance to psychiatric disorders. BRD1 encodes a scaffold protein that affects the expression of many genes through modulation of histone acetylation. BRD1 target genes have been identified in cell lines; however the impact of reduced Brd1 levels on the brain proteome is largely unknown. In this study, we applied label-based quantitative mass spectrometry to profile the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum proteome and synaptosomal proteome of female Brd1 mice. We successfully quantified between 1537 and 2196 proteins and show widespread changes in protein abundancies and compartmentalization. By integrative analysis of human genetic data, we find that the differentially abundant proteins in frontal cortex and hippocampus are enriched for schizophrenia risk further linking the actions of BRD1 to psychiatric disorders. Affected proteins were further enriched for proteins involved in processes known to influence neuronal and dendritic spine morphology e.g. regulation of cytoskeleton dynamics and mitochondrial function. Directly prompted in these findings, we investigated dendritic spine morphology of pyramidal neurons in anterior cingulate cortex and found them significantly altered, including reduced size of small dendritic spines and decreased number of the mature mushroom type. Collectively, our study describes known as well as new mechanisms related to BRD1 dysfunction and its role in psychiatric disorders, and provides evidence for the molecular and cellular dysfunctions underlying altered neurosignalling and cognition in Brd1 mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2018.12.011DOI Listing
April 2019

Discovery of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Nat Genet 2019 01 26;51(1):63-75. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0269-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481311PMC
January 2019
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