Publications by authors named "Jake M Najman"

207 Publications

A comparison of psychosis-like symptoms following self-reported and agency-notified child abuse in a population-based birth cohort at 30-year-follow-up.

Schizophr Res 2022 Jan 5;239:116-122. Epub 2021 Dec 5.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston Road, Herston, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

There is a strong association between self-reported child abuse and subsequent psychosis in retrospective data. Prospective studies of reports to statutory agencies are less common with limited information on people in their 30s. There have also been no comparisons of the influence of self- and agency-reported abuse on psychosis in adulthood. We therefore compared the prevalence of delusions and hallucinations in 30-year-olds who had experienced either self- or agency-reported childhood maltreatment with that in the remainder of a birth cohort. There were 2427 participants with data on psychosis and child abuse at 30-year follow-up. Information on self-reported abuse came from the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and was linked to notifications of child maltreatment reported to statutory agencies. We measured psychotic-like experiences using the Peter's Delusions Inventory (PDI) and screening questions from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The prevalence of self- and agency-reported maltreatment was 599 (24.7%) and 141 (5.8%) respectively. At 30-year follow-up, 556 participants had PDI scores in the top two deciles, while 232 had experienced visual hallucinations and 134 auditory phenomena. On adjusted analyses, self-reported maltreatment, apart from sexual abuse, showed a strong association with all three outcomes. Associations were less strong for agency-notified child maltreatment and largely restricted to physical and emotional abuse. These findings suggest that people presenting with psychosis should be screened for child maltreatment, particularly physical and emotional abuse, as well as the possibility of psychosis considered in survivors of child maltreatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.11.029DOI Listing
January 2022

The Relationship between Cannabis and Tobacco Co-administration and Long-Term Patterns of Cannabis Use in Young Adults Who Use Stimulants: A Prospective Population-Based Study.

Subst Use Misuse 2022 19;57(1):11-20. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre, School of Population Health, Level 1 Public Health Building, University of Queensland, Herston, Australia.

Background: Co-administering cannabis with tobacco (i.e. co-administration of the substances mixed together) is a common practice among cannabis users, but the consequences of this practice are not well understood. This study examines the relationship between co-administering cannabis with tobacco and the long-term frequency of cannabis use in a young adult population group with high rates of cannabis and tobacco use.

Methods: The data are from an Australian prospective population-based study of young adults who recurrently used amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). The mean age of participants was 20.8 years at baseline, sample size ( = 277), and 47% were female. We examined the frequency and quantity of cannabis consumption over 4 ½ years. Negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to examine the frequency of cannabis use at 12-month follow-up and at 4 ½ years, with co-administering practices as the predictor.

Results: At every time interval, participants who always co-administered their cannabis with tobacco used cannabis on more days in the last month than those who only sometimes co-administered, rarely co-administered, or never co-administered these substances ( < 0.001). Sometimes co-administering cannabis with tobacco at baseline predicted more frequent cannabis use at 12-month follow-up (adjusted IRR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.78), independently of the baseline frequency of cannabis use. However, levels of co-administering cannabis with tobacco at 12-month follow-up (rarely, sometimes, and always) did not predict high levels of cannabis use at 4 ½ years follow-up after adjusting for cannabis use at 12-month follow-up.

Conclusions: Among people who use ATS and cannabis, frequent cannabis use may be a marker of the practice of co-administering cannabis with tobacco, and can be used to target tobacco cessation interventions in these populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2021.1975744DOI Listing
November 2021

Lifestyle correlates of dietary patterns among young adults: evidence from an Australian birth cohort.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Sep 6:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Objective: Previous studies of sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of dietary patterns among young adults have primarily focused on physical activity and smoking, with inconclusive results. This study aims to examine the associations between a broader range of lifestyles of young adults and their patterns of food consumption.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Brisbane, Australia.

Participants: The data set are from a long running birth cohort study which commenced in 1981. Details of dietary intake and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were from the 21-year follow-up of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) birth cohort. The effective cohort (n 2665, 57 % women) is of young adult offspring. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were obtained from self-reports.

Results: Western and prudent dietary patterns were identified for the combined cohort of women and men using principal components analysis. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the associations between lifestyle variables and dietary patterns adjusting for potential confounders. Results from multivariable adjusted models showed that physical activity, watching TV and smoking were strongly associated with each dietary pattern; alcohol consumption and BMI showed weaker associations (P < 0·05 for all).

Conclusions: Our study describes a clustering of unhealthy lifestyles in young adults. Young adults with unhealthy lifestyles less often adhere to a healthy prudent dietary pattern and more often an unhealthy Western pattern. Dietary preferences are enmeshed in a lifestyle matrix which includes physical activity, sedentary activity, smoking and alcohol consumption of young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021003864DOI Listing
September 2021

Does the millennial generation of women experience more mental illness than their mothers?

BMC Psychiatry 2021 07 17;21(1):359. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Mental Health Research Programme, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Australia.

Background: There is concern that rates of mental disorders may be increasing although findings disagree. Using an innovative design with a daughter-mother data set we assess whether there has been a generational increase in lifetime ever rates of major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced prior to 30 years of age.

Methods: Pregnant women were recruited during 1981-1983 and administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at the 27-year follow-up (2008-11). Offspring were administered the CIDI at the 30-year follow-up (2010-2014). Comparisons for onset of diagnosis are restricted to daughter and mother dyads up to 30 years of age. To address recall bias, disorders were stratified into more (≥12 months duration) and less persistent episodes (< 12 months duration) for the purposes of comparison. Sensitivity analyses with inflation were used to account for possible maternal failure to differentially recall past episodes.

Results: When comparing life time ever diagnoses before 30 years, daughters had higher rates of persistent generalised anxiety disorder, and less persistent major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and PTSD.

Conclusions: In the context of conflicting findings concerning generational changes in mental disorders we find an increase in generational rates of persistent generalised anxiety disorders and a range of less persistent disorders. It is not clear whether this finding reflects actual changes in symptom levels over a generation or whether there has been a generational change in recognition of and willingness to report symptoms of mental illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03361-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285825PMC
July 2021

The association between birth by caesarean section at term and offspring cognitive and academic performance: A birth cohort study.

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Child and Youth Mental Health Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Caesarean section (CS) is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. The evidence for an association between CS and reduced offspring cognitive and academic performance has been inconsistent, with considerable limitations.

Aim: The aim of this study is to compare cognitive and academic performance in childhood and early adulthood in offspring delivered by CS with those delivered vaginally at term.

Materials And Methods: Data on 4327 mothers and offspring from a longitudinal birth cohort study were analysed. Offspring cognitive performance was measured by the Picture Peabody Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at ages five and 21 and the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices at age 14. Academic achievement was assessed using the Wide Range Achievement Test at age 14.

Results: After adjustment for confounding factors, there was no statistically significant association between cognitive performance and offspring birth mode at age five (P = 0.11). The adjusted difference of mean scores at five years on the PPVT-R for elective CS birth compared to those born by vaginal delivery was -2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) -4.3 to -0.2), whereas for emergency CS it was 0.0 (95% CI -2.0 to 2.0). There were no differences in cognitive or academic performance at ages 14 and 21.

Conclusion: Birth mode was not significantly associated with offspring cognitive or academic performance. Our study does not support concerns that CS is associated with a reduction in cognitive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajo.13403DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk Factors for Maltreatment in Siblings of Abused Children.

Pediatrics 2021 05 5;147(5). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: To examine the association between child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) in one sibling and that in another as well as associated risk factors.

Methods: The participants were 520 sibling pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Brisbane, Australia ( = 1040). Exposure to suspected child maltreatment was measured by linkage with state child protection agency data. Self-reports of childhood sexual abuse were also collected at the 21-year follow-up.

Results: There were notifications in both children for 8.5% of the sibling pairs ( = 44). A notification in the first sibling was associated with a 60-fold increase in the likelihood of a notification in the second sibling (95% confidence interval: 29.3-125.1), resulting in nearly three-quarters being the subject of a report. In terms of the subtypes, neglect revealed the strongest association, followed by sexual abuse. At the 21-year follow-up, 58% of second siblings reported sexual abuse when the first sibling disclosed similar experiences. On adjusted analyses, maternal age of <20 years was the strongest and most consistent predictor of abuse, with indigenous status, maternal depression, parental relationship, and familial poverty playing a lesser role.

Conclusions: Our results highlight the close association between child abuse in one sibling and maltreatment in a second sibling as well as possible risk factors. Greater awareness of these factors may inform interventions, particularly primary and secondary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-036004DOI Listing
May 2021

Predicting Child Maltreatment over the Early Life Course: A Prospective Study.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, 176 Messines Ridge Road, Mount Gravatt, QLD, 4122, Australia.

A large number of early life exposures predict child maltreatment. Using data from a 30-year birth cohort study we examine 12 early life course risk factors of four types of self-reported childhood maltreatment recalled at the 30-year follow-up. Of the 7223 children in the sample at birth, 2425 responded to the Child Trauma Questionnaire at the 30-year follow-up. On adjusted analysis being a teenage mother predicts childhood physical and sexual abuse, as well as child neglect. More numerous maternal marital partner changes in the 5 years after the birth predict offspring experiences of emotional abuse, sexual abuse and childhood neglect. Policy responses should focus on the broad social context in which children are reared as the most effective approach to reducing the high level of childhood abuse and neglect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01164-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Co-using drugs-what do we need to know?

Authors:
Jake M Najman

Addiction 2021 07 8;116(7):1634-1635. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15419DOI Listing
July 2021

The prevalence of mental health disorders among young adults who use amphetamine-type stimulants, compared to young adults who do not.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2021 05 19;40(4):557-566. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre, School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: There is a lack of evidence regarding mental health disorder prevalence in people who use amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS). This study compares prevalence in Australian young adults who used ATS and young adults who had never used, and examines potential predictors.

Design And Methods: Population-based sampling was used to recruit young adults who used ATS (n = 224) and young adults who had never used ATS (n = 125). Thirty-day prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mania/hypomania were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Scale. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) of mental disorders in people who used ATS and the comparison group were examined, and a prediction model was developed for people who used ATS.

Results: We found higher prevalence of PD (APR 4.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-19.07, P = 0.032) and PTSD (APR 1.68, 95% CI 1.10-2.55, P = 0.016) in people who used ATS, compared to the comparison group, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Baseline methamphetamine use was positively associated with MDD (ARR 6.45, 95% CI 1.51-27.59, P = 0.012) and GAD (ARR 2.76, 95% CI 1.52-5.02, P = 0.001). Baseline ecstasy use was negatively associated with GAD (ARR 0.52, 95% CI 0.30-0.92, P = 0.025) and PD (ARR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05-0.48, P = 0.001).

Discussion And Conclusion: PTSD and PD appear to be more common in young adults who use ATS. However, the relationship between ATS use and mental disorders is complex, with divergent patterns of association for ecstasy and methamphetamine use. Mental health screening in people using ATS may improve treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.13196DOI Listing
May 2021

The contribution of methamphetamine use to crime: Evidence from Australian longitudinal data.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 11 30;216:108262. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background: To quantify the extent to which methamphetamine use is associated with increases in crime net of any premorbid risk of criminality among people who use the drug.

Methods: Four one-month data panels from 469 participants dependent on methamphetamine were drawn from the MATES cohort (N = 501). Odds ratios for within-person effects were extracted from a random intercept logistic regression model for crime during periods of methamphetamine use compared to no use. Effects were adjusted for time-varying measures of age, other substance use, and socio-economic disadvantage (income, unemployment and unstable accommodation). Involvement in crime (property crime, drug dealing, fraud, violent crime) and days of methamphetamine in the past month were assessed using the Opiate Treatment Index.

Results: Crime was more likely during months when participants used methamphetamine compared to when they did not (OR 13.2 95% CI 8.5-20.6; AOR 4.7 95% CI 2.8-8.0), this reflecting more property crime (OR 10.6 95% CI 6.3-18.0; AOR 5.5 95% CI 2.8-10.8), violent crime (OR 8.2 95% CI 4.2-15.9; AOR 3.4 95% CI 1.5-8.0), fraud (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.8; AOR 1.7 95% CI 0.8-3.3) and dealing drugs (OR 18.2 95% CI 10.2-32.5; AOR 5.9 95% CI 3.0-11.9), although the adjusted relationship for fraud was not significant. Effects were dose related.

Conclusions: The use of methamphetamine was associated with significant increases in crime beyond premorbid risk for criminality. Crime is a likely social consequence of methamphetamine use and efforts are needed to reduce this impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108262DOI Listing
November 2020

Poverty over the early life course and young adult cardio-metabolic risk.

Int J Public Health 2020 Jul 15;65(6):759-768. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia.

Objectives: There is little known about whether exposure to family poverty at specific periods of the early life course independently contributes to coronary heart disease risk beyond the contribution of concurrent poverty.

Methods: Children were recruited in early pregnancy and additional survey data obtained during the pregnancy and at the 5-, 14- and 30-year follow-ups. Fasting blood samples were also obtained at the 30-year follow-up. Analyses are multinominal logistic regressions stratified by gender and with adjustments for confounding.

Results: For male offspring, family poverty at different stages of the early life course was not associated with measures of cardio-metabolic risk. For females early life course, poverty predicted obesity, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C), as well as concurrent family poverty associated with obesity, HOMA-IR, TC/HDL-C, HDL-C and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Conclusions: Family poverty in the early life course independently predicts increased levels of cardio-metabolic risk of females. The primary finding, however, is that concurrent poverty is independently and strongly associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk levels in young adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-020-01423-1DOI Listing
July 2020

Generational changes in young adults' sleep duration: a prospective analysis of mother-offspring dyads.

Sleep Health 2020 04 8;6(2):240-245. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Centre for Rural & Remote Health (Mount Isa), James Cook University, Mount Isa, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: To quantify the changes in sleep duration over two generations of young adults.

Methods: We used data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort to compare sleep duration in mother and offspring. The analyses were restricted to 1,731 mothers who were young adults (mean age 21.96 years; SD±1.90) at the baseline measurement, and their offspring who were about the same age (mean age 20.6 years; SD±0.86) when assessed 21 years later. Maternal sleep was explored by asking the mother, during the first trimester, about her typical sleep duration prior to pregnancy, while offspring participants were asked about the sleep duration in the last month at the time assessed. Multinomial logistic regression for correlated responses was used to assess generational changes.

Results: We found that offspring had 3.2 (2.7, 3.9) times the odds of sleeping for short duration (≤6 hours/night) and 1.7 (1.5, 1.9) times the odds of sleeping for a longer duration (≥9 hours/night) compared with their mothers. Gender-based analysis found that daughters had 3.0 (2.3, 5.0) times the odds of sleeping for a short duration, while sons had 3.4 (2.6, 6.4) times the odds of sleeping for a short duration compared with their mothers.

Conclusions: There is a significant decline in sleep duration below recommendations as well as a substantial increase in long-duration above the recommendations over two generations of young adults. Therefore, the focus of sleep health should not be limited to short sleep, but on the need for achieving optimal sleep recommended for the age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2019.12.007DOI Listing
April 2020

Social Drinking Contexts and Their Influence on Problematic Drinking at Age 30.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 13;55(2):188-199. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

: Understanding the social contexts in which problematic drinking occurs can inform prevention strategies. In this article, we investigate gender-specific social contexts associated with problematic drinking and depression among adults aged 30 years. Because depression has been consistently linked with harmful alcohol consumption, we will also examine its association with drinking contexts. : We used data from 2490 young adults who completed the 30-year follow-up phase of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy and its Outcomes, a prospective study commenced in 1981. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to identify latent constructs of drinking contexts stratified by gender, with subsequent regression analysis to assess the role of these contexts in problematic drinking (measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). : Six distinct drinking contexts were identified, which differed by gender, three for men and three for women. For both men and women, "social drinking", was associated with problematic drinking. "Home drinking" was also common to men and women but associations with problematic drinking differed, being risky only among men. "Daytime drinking" (women) was associated with risk but "work-related drinking" (men) was not. Both "home drinking" (men) and "daytime drinking" (women) were linked to depression symptoms. : Specific contexts appeared to be associated with problematic drinking for both sexes. Among both men and women, "social drinking" was associated with problematic drinking. Both "home drinking" (men) and "daytime drinking" (women) contexts, were associated with problematic drinking and depressive symptoms. Targeted alcohol-focused interventions need to address co-occurring mental health issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2019.1660679DOI Listing
October 2020

Does child maltreatment predict alcohol use disorders in young adulthood? A cohort study of linked notifications and survey data.

Addiction 2020 01 18;115(1):61-68. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre, School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background And Aims: Most studies of the association between child maltreatment and subsequent problem alcohol use are retrospective. We studied the association of prospectively substantiated child maltreatment with problem alcohol use in adulthood.

Design: We used a prospective cohort record linkage correlational design using data from a statutory child protection agency of prospectively substantiated child maltreatment linked to a birth cohort from a major metropolitan maternity hospital.

Setting: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy in Brisbane, Australia.

Participants: Of the 3762 young people at the 21-year follow-up, 169 (4.5%) had a history of substantiated maltreatment by 16 years. This was most commonly emotional abuse (n = 90).

Measurements: The main outcome was heavy alcohol use at the 21-year follow-up, defined as four or more standard drinks per day. Secondary outcomes were life-time and 12-month diagnoses of alcohol use disorders in  2531 participants who completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-auto (CIDI-auto) version. Predictor variables were physical, sexual and emotional abuse, as well as neglect.

Findings: At follow-up, 407 of the 3762 participants reported heavy alcohol use (10.8%). On adjusted analyses, participants who had experienced emotional abuse were significantly more likely to report heavy alcohol use at the time of interview (adjusted odds ratio = 1.856; 95% confidence interval = 1.038-3.319; P = 0.037). Neglect was associated with a life-time CIDI diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder. Other types of child maltreatment were not significantly associated with any of the outcomes.

Conclusions: Prospectively identified experience of childhood emotional abuse and neglect appears to be positively associated with problem alcohol use at age 21.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14794DOI Listing
January 2020

Does adolescent heavier alcohol use predict young adult aggression and delinquency? Parallel analyses from four Australasian cohort studies.

Aggress Behav 2019 07 18;45(4):427-436. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia.

While the association between heavy alcohol consumption and aggression has been well documented, the causal direction of this association, particularly at a population level, is disputed. A number of causal sequences have been proposed. First, that aggression leads to heavy alcohol use. Second, that heavy alcohol use leads to aggression. Third, that the association between alcohol use and aggression is due to confounding by (a) sociodemographic variables or (b) delinquency. We report here data from four Australasian prospective longitudinal studies of adolescents, to assess the temporal sequence of heavy drinking and aggression over the period from adolescence to young adulthood. The four cohort studies provide a total sample of 6,706 persons (Australian Temperament Project, n = 1701; Christchurch Health and Development Study, n = 931; Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, n = 2437; Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, n = 1637). We use multinomial logistic regression to determine whether early adolescent aggression predicts subsequent age of onset of heavy episodic drinking (HED), after adjustment for concurrent sociodemographic factors and delinquency. We then consider whether HED predicts subsequent aggression, after adjusting for past aggression, concurrent delinquency, and a range of confounders. There are broadly consistent findings across the four cohort studies. Early aggression strongly predicts subsequent HED. HED predicts later aggression after adjustment for prior aggression and other confounders. Policies that alter population levels of alcohol consumption are likely to impact on levels of aggression in societies where HED linked to aggression is more common.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21828DOI Listing
July 2019

Alcohol and parenthood: An integrative analysis of the effects of transition to parenthood in three Australasian cohorts.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 04 13;197:326-334. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Aims: To determine the extent to which the transition to parenthood protects against heavy and problematic alcohol consumption in young men and women.

Design: Integrated participant-level data analysis from three population-based prospective Australasian cohort studies.

Setting: General community; participants from the Australian Temperament Study, the Christchurch Health and Development Study, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

Measurements: Recent binge drinking, alcohol abuse/dependence and number of standard drinks consumed per occasion.

Findings: 4015 participants (2151 females; 54%) were assessed on four occasions between ages 21 and 35. Compared to women with children aged <12 months, women who had not transitioned to parenthood were more likely to meet the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (fully adjusted risk ratio [RR] 3.5; 95% CI 1.5-7.9) and to report recent binge drinking (RR 3.0; 95% CI 2.1-4.3). The proportion of women meeting the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence and/or binge drinking increased with the age of participants' youngest child, as did the mean number of standard drinks consumed on each occasion (1.8 if the youngest child was <1 year of age vs. 3.6 for 5+ years of age). Associations between parenthood and male drinking behaviour were considerably weaker.

Conclusions: For most women in their twenties and thirties, parenting a child <1 year of age was associated with reduced alcohol consumption. However, this protective effect diminished after 12 months with drinking levels close to pre-parenthood levels after five years. There was little change in male drinking with the transition to parenthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.02.004DOI Listing
April 2019

The association between the longitudinal course of common mental disorders and subsequent physical activity status in young adults: A 30-year birth cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2019 02 6;109:173-177. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia; School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.

Low physical activity is a major public health concern. There has been extensive research examining the role of physical activity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the onset of mental illness. However, fewer studies have reported how mental disorders affect future physical activity. Using data from a large birth cohort, the current study explored the association between the longitudinal course of common mental disorders (affective disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, as well as any common mental disorder) and subsequent physical activity status among young adults living in Australia. Prospective data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, consisting of 1611 young adults, were analyzed. The longitudinal course of mental disorder diagnoses between ages 21 and 30 was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical activity status at age 30 was estimated using International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the longitudinal course of common mental disorders between 21 and 30 years and subsequent physical activity status at age 30. After adjusting for confounding factors, there was no association between the longitudinal course of affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, or any common mental disorder at ages 21 and 30 and physical activity status at age 30. Our findings suggest that there is no longitudinal association between the common mental disorder diagnoses and physical activity status among young adults living in Australia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2018.12.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Hepatitis C viral infection and imprisonment among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2018 11 15;37(7):831-836. Epub 2018 Jul 15.

Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre, School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Introduction And Aims: An understanding of the relationship between hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection and contextual factors such as imprisonment may contribute to the development of targeted treatment and prevention programs. We examine the associations of imprisonment and drug dependence with lifetime exposure to HCV, and whether these associations differ for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs.

Design And Methods: Respondent-driven sampling was used in major cities and 'peer recruitment' in regional towns of Queensland to obtain a community sample of people who injected drugs, which comprised 243 Indigenous and 227 non-Indigenous participants who had ever been tested for HCV. Data are cross-sectional. Two binary Poisson models were developed to examine associations for variables relating to imprisonment, Indigeneity and drug use history.

Results: Sharing needles and syringes in prison (adjusted risk ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.53) remained significantly associated with HCV infection after adjustment for Indigeneity, injecting drug use history and drug dependence. Opioid dependence and concurrent dependence on opioids and methamphetamine was also independently associated with HCV infection.

Discussion And Conclusions: Sharing needles and syringes in prison is linked with HCV infection, for both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people who inject drugs. Further development of treatment and prevention programs in prisons is required, with consideration of the role of opioid and methamphetamine dependence in HCV exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12845DOI Listing
November 2018

Predictors of Aggressive Behavior While under the Influence of Illicit Drugs among Young Adult Methamphetamine Users.

Subst Use Misuse 2018 12 6;53(14):2439-2443. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

a School of Social Science , The University of Queensland , Brisbane , Australia.

Background: Prior research indicates that patterns of combined alcohol and methamphetamine use may be associated with experiencing subjective feelings of aggression or hostility during methamphetamine use episodes.

Objectives: This study examines whether subjective effects of methamphetamine use (i.e., aggression or hostility and paranoia) are associated with aggressive behavior while under the influence of any illicit drugs, controlling for combined alcohol and methamphetamine use and a number of other potential predictors.

Methods: Data from a population-based sample of Australian young adult methamphetamine users (n = 101) collected in 2010 was analyzed. A prediction model of aggressive behavior under the influence of illicit drugs was developed using penalized maximum likelihood logistic regression.

Results: Over one-third (34.7%) of methamphetamine users had engaged in verbal and/or physical aggression under the influence of illicit drugs in the last 12 months. In the prediction model, recurrent feelings of aggression or hostility attributed to methamphetamine use (≥3 times in the last 12 months) were associated with aggressive behavior (adjusted odds ratio 4.95, 95% confidence interval 1.67, 14.69). This association was independent of methamphetamine-attributed paranoia, combined alcohol and methamphetamine use, methamphetamine, ecstasy, cocaine, and cannabis use patterns, heavy episodic drinking, gender, and age. No association was found for combined alcohol and methamphetamine use.

Conclusions: These findings indicate a link between methamphetamine-related subjective feelings of aggression or hostility and self-reported aggressive behavior while under the influence of illicit drugs. This suggests that subjective feelings of aggression or hostility may distinguish those who are involved in aggression from other methamphetamine users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2018.1473434DOI Listing
December 2018

Adverse adult consequences of different alcohol use patterns in adolescence: an integrative analysis of data to age 30 years from four Australasian cohorts.

Addiction 2018 10 19;113(10):1811-1825. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background And Aims: Studies have linked adolescent alcohol use with adverse consequences in adulthood, yet it is unclear how strong the associations are and to what extent they may be due to confounding. Our aim was to estimate the strength of association between different patterns of adolescent drinking and longer-term psychosocial harms taking into account individual, family and peer factors.

Design: Participant-level data were integrated from four long-running longitudinal studies: Australian Temperament Project, Christchurch Health and Development Study, Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy and Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

Setting: Australia and New Zealand.

Participants: Participants were assessed on multiple occasions between ages 13 and 30 years (from 1991 to 2012). Number of participants varied (up to n = 9453) by analysis.

Measurements: Three patterns of alcohol use (frequent, heavy episodic and problem drinking) were assessed prior to age 17. Thirty outcomes were assessed to age 30 spanning substance use and related problems, antisocial behaviour, sexual risk-taking, accidents, socio-economic functioning, mental health and partner relationships.

Findings: After covariate adjustment, weekly drinking prior to age 17 was associated with a two- to threefold increase in the odds of binge drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57-2.90], drink driving (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.84-4.19), alcohol-related problems (OR = 3.04; 95% CI = 1.90-4.84) and alcohol dependence (OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.69-6.47) in adulthood. Frequency of drinking accounted for a greater proportion of the rate of most adverse outcomes than the other measures of alcohol use. Associations between frequent, heavy episodic and problem drinking in adolescence and most non-alcohol outcomes were largely explained by shared risk factors for adolescent alcohol use and poor psychosocial functioning.

Conclusions: Frequency of adolescent drinking predicts substance use problems in adulthood as much as, and possibly more than, heavy episodic and problem drinking independent of individual, family and peer predictors of those outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14263DOI Listing
October 2018

Cognitive and educational outcomes of maltreated and non-maltreated youth: A birth cohort study.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2019 03 26;53(3):248-255. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

5 Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre, School of Public Health and School of Social Sciences, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, Australia.

Objectives: Previous research suggests that child maltreatment is associated with adverse outcomes, but the potential impact on cognitive and educational outcomes into adulthood has rarely been studied using a birth cohort design. The aim of this study is to investigate whether child maltreatment is associated with adverse outcomes in cognitive function, high school completion and employment by the age of 21.

Methods: Longitudinal birth cohort study commencing in the prenatal period, with mothers and infants followed up to age 21. Of the original birth cohort of 7223, 3778 (52.3%) young people participated at age 21. Child maltreatment was identified by linkage with prospectively collected data from the relevant government agency. Associations between child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) and the outcomes were adjusted for relevant sociodemographic and perinatal variables.

Results: After full adjustment, young people who had been notified as cases of child maltreatment had reduced performance on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test by over a quarter of a standard deviation (coefficient = -2.85, p = 0.004). Maltreated young people also had three times the odds of failing to complete high school (odds ratio = 3.12, p < 0.001) and more than twice the odds of not being engaged in either study or employment at age 21 (odds ratio = 2.38, p < 0.001). Both abuse and neglect were similarly associated with adverse outcomes.

Conclusion: Child maltreatment, including both abuse and neglect, is associated with adverse cognitive, educational and employment outcomes in young adulthood. This adds further impetus to efforts to prevent child maltreatment and assist young people who have experienced it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867418768432DOI Listing
March 2019

Experiences of police contact among young adult recreational drug users: A qualitative study.

Int J Drug Policy 2018 06 30;56:64-72. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre, School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston Rd., Herston, Queensland 4006, Australia.

Background: While young adults who engage in recreational drug use are at increased risk of contact with police, their experiences of police contact have been largely overlooked.

Method: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 70 young adult amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS; i.e., ecstasy [MDMA] and methamphetamine) users who had experienced intensive alcohol and other drug-related police contact (e.g., being arrested, charged, or raided by police). These interviews focused on perceptions of personal experiences of alcohol and other drug-related police contact and general perceptions of police and policing and were conducted as part of a larger longitudinal study of drug use among a population-based sample of young adults from South-East Queensland, Australia.

Results: ATS users' perceptions of their personal interactions with police and general perceptions of police and policing were influenced by a number of factors, including police behaviour, prior contact with police, friends and family members' contact with police, and perceptions of their own behaviour leading to their contact with police. While a majority of ATS users reported that their contact with police had either a neutral or negative impact on their general perceptions of police and policing, some ATS users reported that police contact had a positive impact. For 70% of ATS users, police contact was reported to have had an impact on their substance use behaviours, resulting in either modification of their substance use behaviours to avoid further police contact or reduction in their substance use.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that police contact among young adult ATS users can impact on both perceptions of police and policing and substance use behaviours, emphasising the importance of the quality and nature of police contact and its potential role in harm reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.03.010DOI Listing
June 2018

Commentary on De Genna et al. (2017): Why Should We Be Concerned About Adolescent Mothers and Their Risks for Long-Term Risky Alcohol Consumption Over the Life Course?

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2018 05 2;42(5):849-850. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Queensland Alcohol and Drug Research and Education Centre , Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.13632DOI Listing
May 2018

The inter- and intra- generational transmission of family poverty and hardship (adversity): A prospective 30 year study.

PLoS One 2018 23;13(1):e0190504. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

School of Pharmacy, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Children exposed to family poverty have been found to have higher morbidity and mortality rates, poorer mental health and cognitive outcomes and reduced life chances across a wide range of life domains. There is, however, very little known about the extent to which poverty is experienced by children over their early life course, particularly in community samples. This study tracks changes in family poverty and the main factors that predict family poverty (adverse life experiences) over a 30-year period since the birth of the study child.

Methods: Data are from a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Consecutive families were recruited at the mothers' first obstetrical visit at one of two major obstetrical hospitals in Brisbane. Data are available for 2087 families with complete data at the 30-year follow-up. Poverty was measured using family income at each time point (adjusted for inflation).

Findings: Poverty affects about 20% of families at any time point. It is common for families to move in and out of poverty, as their circumstances are affected by such adversities as unemployment and marital breakdown. Over the period of the study about half the families in the study experienced poverty on at least one occasion. Only a very small minority of families experienced persistent poverty over the 30-year duration of the study. Logistic regressions with time lag show that family poverty predicts subsequent adversities and adverse events predict subsequent poverty.

Conclusions: Experiences of poverty and adversity are common and may vary greatly over the child's early life course. In assessing the health consequences of poverty, it is important to distinguish the timing and chronicity of early life course experiences of poverty and adversity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190504PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779648PMC
February 2018

Risky Sexual Behaviors and Pregnancy Outcomes in Young Adulthood Following Substantiated Childhood Maltreatment: Findings From a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

J Sex Res 2018 01 3;55(1):106-119. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

a Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health , The University of Queensland.

Childhood maltreatment is associated with a range of adverse mental and physical health outcomes, including increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) later in life. However, the impact on risky sexual behaviors and pregnancy outcomes has not been adequately studied. This is particularly true for physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. We examined associations between prospectively substantiated childhood maltreatment and reports of risky sexual behaviors by men and women, as well as selected pregnancy outcomes in women. We followed up 3,081 (45.7% female) participants from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a prospective Australian birth cohort study. Using logistic regression, we examined the association between substantiated childhood maltreatment from birth to 14 years, and self-reported risky sexual behaviors and youth pregnancy outcomes at the 21-year follow-up. In adjusted analyses, children who had experienced multiple childhood maltreatment exhibited more risky sexual behaviors than their nonmaltreated counterparts. In specific models, those exposed to each form of childhood maltreatment, independent of co-occurring forms of childhood maltreatment, had an increased likelihood of risky sexual behaviors, particularly an early sexual debut and, for women, youth pregnancy. Neglect was also associated with multiple sexual partners, and emotional abuse with higher rates of miscarriage. There was no difference between men and women in how different forms of childhood maltreatment predicted risky sexual behaviors in young adulthood. All forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment, including multiple substantiations, were associated with risky sexual behavior in both sexes as well as higher rates of youth pregnancy in women. Moreover, emotional abuse persistently predicted miscarriages in young adult women. Understanding the association between childhood maltreatment and risky sexual behaviors and youth pregnancy outcomes may help suggest preventive strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2017.1368975DOI Listing
January 2018

Gender Difference in Offspring's Alcohol Use Disorder by 21 Years: A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Influences.

Subst Use Misuse 2018 04 29;53(5):705-715. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

a ARC Centre of Excellence for Children and Families over the Life Course (Life Course Centre), Institute for Social Science Research , The University of Queensland , Brisbane , Queensland , Australia.

Aims: There is little known about the extent to which maternal alcohol consumption influences offspring's alcohol use disorder. This study aims to examine whether different maternal alcohol consumption trajectories predict gender difference in adolescent alcohol use disorder at child age 21 years.

Methods: Data are from a prospective cohort, the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes. The study involves 2531 mother-child pairs for whom data are available at the 21-year follow-up survey. Maternal alcohol consumption trajectories were determined by group-based trajectory modelling. Offspring's lifetime ever alcohol use disorder was assessed using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria.

Results: Over 14 years of follow-up after the birth of a child, three distinct alcohol consumption trajectories were identified (abstainer, low-stable. and moderate-escalating drinker). A maternal trajectory of moderate-escalating alcohol consumption independently predicted offspring's lifetime ever alcohol use disorder at 21 years after adjustment for a range of potential confounders. "Cross-gender influence" is observed in the study.

Conclusions: A maternal life course pattern of alcohol consumption may have an independent effect on offspring alcohol consumption, with male offspring being more vulnerable to the effects of maternal alcohol use than are female offspring. Programs intended to address alcohol consumption by adolescents and young adults need to focus on the behaviors of both parents but acknowledging that maternal patterns of alcohol consumption may be particularly important for male offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2017.1363233DOI Listing
April 2018

Social adversity in pregnancy and trajectories of women's depressive symptoms: A longitudinal study.

Women Birth 2018 Feb 12;31(1):52-58. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

The University of Queensland, Schools of Public Health and Social Sciences, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Sound evidence has linked the experience of adversity with depression. Less is known about this association over time.

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine whether or not social adversity experienced by pregnant women is associated with their patterns of depressive symptoms over their reproductive life course.

Methods: Data were obtained from a cohort of women collected at their first obstetrical clinic visit of an index pregnancy (time-point 1) and at a further six time-points to 27 years following the birth. Latent Class Growth Modelling was used to estimate trajectories of women's depressive symptoms over this time period. Logistic regression modelling determined the prospective association between measures of adversity in pregnancy and 27-year postpartum depression trajectories, controlling for potential confounders.

Findings: Experiencing financial problems, housing problems, serious disagreements with partners and with others, and experiencing serious health problems in pregnancy were associated with membership of high and middle depression trajectories over the 27 years. Having someone close die or have a serious illness was associated with the high depression trajectory only. Younger maternal age and low family-income at first clinic visit were also associated with an increased risk of women's membership of both high and middle depression trajectories.

Conclusions: Experiencing adversity during pregnancy predicts subsequent patterns of maternal depression over an extended period of women's reproductive life course. It is not clear whether women's experiences of adversity during pregnancy were causally associated with subsequent depression or whether there are other explanations of the observed association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2017.06.016DOI Listing
February 2018

Continuity of sleep problems from adolescence to young adulthood: results from a longitudinal study.

Sleep Health 2017 08 9;3(4):290-295. Epub 2017 May 9.

Institute for Social Science Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Considering the lack of evidence on incidence and continuity of sleep problems from adolescence to young adulthood, this study explores sleep problems' incidence and their continuation rates from 14 to 21 years.

Methods: Sleep data from the 14-year (n = 4,924) and 21-year (n = 3660) follow-up of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort were used. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and psychological conditions were explored for their role in sleep problems. Modified Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to identify predictors. Inverse probability weights were used to account for attrition.

Results: Of all subjects, 26.0% of the subjects at 14 years and 28.3% of the subjects at 21 years reported "often" sleep problems, with 41.7% of adolescent sleep problems persisting at 21 years. Perinatal and early-life maternal factors, for example, drug abuse (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.71), smoking, depression, and anxiety, were significant predictors of adolescent sleep problems. Female sex (IRR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.55-2.94), advanced pubertal stages, and smoking were the important predictors of sleep problems at 21 years. Adolescent depression/anxiety supported the continuity of sleep problems (IRR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.40), whereas exercise was seen to exert a protective effect.

Conclusion: This study indicates high rates of sleep problems in young subjects, with around half of sleep problems originating in adolescence persisting in young adulthood. Therefore, early interventions are needed to manage sleep problems in young subjects and prevent further progression to other life stages. Future studies should explore if sleep problems in young adults also persist in later life stages and identify the factors supporting the continuity of sleep problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2017.04.004DOI Listing
August 2017

Longitudinal association between physical activity engagement during adolescence and mental health outcomes in young adults: A 21-year birth cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2017 11 1;94:116-123. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, The Park Centre for Mental Health, Wacol, Australia; University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Herston, Australia; Metro North Mental Health, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Australia.

Objective: Previous studies provide mixed evidence that physical activity engagement (PAE) in adolescence is associated with later mental health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between PAE at age 14 and mental health outcomes at age 21 using a large birth cohort study.

Material And Methods: Prospective data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, consisting of 3493 young adults, were analyzed. PAE at age 14 was estimated using self-report, and participants were categorized into; (1) frequent, (2) infrequent, or (3) no PAE group. Mental health outcomes at age 21 consisted of; (1) common mental disorders, (2) psychosis-related outcomes, and, (3) emotional and behavioral problems. The association between PAE in adolescence and later mental health outcomes in young adulthood was examined using logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and adolescent psychopathology.

Results: No PAE at age 14 was associated with the increased likelihood of lifetime diagnosis of any affective disorder, elevated delusional ideation, and endorsement of visual perceptual disturbance at age 21. Conversely, infrequent PAE at age 14 was associated with the decreased likelihood of subsequent lifetime diagnosis of any substance use disorder.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that lack of PAE in adolescence influences some, but not all, later mental health outcomes. Interventions to increase PAE in adolescence may represent an opportunity to prevent future mental health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.06.013DOI Listing
November 2017

Childhood maltreatment and adulthood poor sleep quality: a longitudinal study.

Intern Med J 2017 Aug;47(8):879-888

Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Available evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that childhood maltreatment may be associated with a range of sleep disorders. However, these studies have not controlled for potential individual-, familial- and environmental-level confounders.

Aim: To determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lower sleep quality after adjusting for potential confounders.

Methods: Data for the present study were obtained from a pre-birth cohort study of 3778 young adults (52.6% female) of the Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy follow up at a mean age of 20.6 years. The Mater Hospital-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy is a prospective Australian pre-birth cohort study of mothers consecutively recruited during their first obstetric clinic visit at Brisbane's Mater Hospital in 1981-1983. Participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at the 21-year follow up. We linked this dataset to agency-recorded substantiated cases of childhood maltreatment. A series of separate logistic regression models was used to test whether childhood maltreatment predicted lower sleep quality after adjustment for selected confounders.

Results: Substantiated physical abuse significantly predicted lower sleep quality in males. Single and multiple forms of childhood maltreatment, including age of maltreatment and number of substantiations, did not predict lower sleep quality in either gender in both crude and adjusted models. Not being married, living in a residential problem area, cigarette smoking and internalising were significantly associated with lower sleep quality in a fully adjusted model for the male-female combined sample.

Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict young adult poor sleep quality, with the exception of physical abuse for males. While childhood maltreatment has been found to predict a range of mental health problems, childhood maltreatment does not appear to predict sleep problems occurring in young adults. Poor sleep quality was accounted for by concurrent social disadvantage, cigarette smoking and internalising.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imj.13459DOI Listing
August 2017
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