Publications by authors named "Jainendra Tiwari"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

An Automated Wavelet-Based Sleep Scoring Model Using EEG, EMG, and EOG Signals with More Than 8000 Subjects.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 06 11;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

Human life necessitates high-quality sleep. However, humans suffer from a lower quality of life because of sleep disorders. The identification of sleep stages is necessary to predict the quality of sleep. Manual sleep-stage scoring is frequently conducted through sleep experts' visually evaluations of a patient's neurophysiological data, gathered in sleep laboratories. Manually scoring sleep is a tough, time-intensive, tiresome, and highly subjective activity. Hence, the need of creating automatic sleep-stage classification has risen due to the limitations imposed by manual sleep-stage scoring methods. In this study, a novel machine learning model is developed using dual-channel unipolar electroencephalogram (EEG), chin electromyogram (EMG), and dual-channel electrooculgram (EOG) signals. Using an optimum orthogonal filter bank, sub-bands are obtained by decomposing 30 s epochs of signals. Tsallis entropies are then calculated from the coefficients of these sub-bands. Then, these features are fed an ensemble bagged tree (EBT) classifier for automated sleep classification. We developed our automated sleep classification model using the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database, which contains two parts, SHHS-1 and SHHS-2, containing more than 8455 subjects with more than 75,000 h of recordings. The proposed model separated three classes if sleep: rapid eye movement (REM), non-REM, and wake, with a classification accuracy of 90.70% and 91.80% using the SHHS-1 and SHHS-2 datasets, respectively. For the five-class problem, the model produces a classification accuracy of 84.3% and 86.3%, corresponding to the SHHS-1 and SHHS-2 databases, respectively, to classify wake, N1, N2, N3, and REM sleep stages. The model acquired Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficients as 0.838 with SHHS-1 and 0.86 with SHHS-2 for the three-class classification problem. Similarly, the model achieved Cohen's κ of 0.7746 for SHHS-1 and 0.8007 for SHHS-2 in five-class classification tasks. The model proposed in this study has achieved better performance than the best existing methods. Moreover, the model that has been proposed has been developed to classify sleep stages for both good sleepers as well as patients suffering from sleep disorders. Thus, the proposed wavelet Tsallis entropy-based model is robust and accurate and may help clinicians to comprehend and interpret sleep stages efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9223057PMC
June 2022

Automated detection of obstructive sleep apnea in more than 8000 subjects using frequency optimized orthogonal wavelet filter bank with respiratory and oximetry signals.

Comput Biol Med 2022 05 5;144:105364. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 599489, Singapore; Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, SUSS University, Singapore. Electronic address:

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common respiratory disorder marked by interruption of the respiratory tract and difficulty in breathing. The risk of serious health damage can be reduced if OSA is diagnosed and treated at an early stage. OSA is primarily diagnosed using polysomnography (PSG) monitoring performed for overnight sleep; furthermore, capturing PSG signals during the night is expensive, time-consuming, complex and highly inconvenient to patients. Hence, we are proposing to detect OSA automatically using respiratory and oximetry signals. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and computationally efficient wavelet-based automated system based on these signals to detect OSA in elderly subjects. In this study, we proposed an accurate, reliable, and less complex OSA automated detection system by using pulse oximetry (SpO) and respiratory signals including thoracic (ThorRes) movement, abdominal (AbdoRes) movement, and airflow (AF). These signals are collected from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database from the National Sleep Research Resource (NSRR), which is one of the largest repositories of publicly available sleep databases. The database comprises of two groups SHHS-1 and SHHS-2, which involves 5,793 and 2,651 subjects, respectively with an average age of ≥60 years. The 30-s epochs of the signals are decomposed into sub-bands using frequency optimized orthogonal wavelet filter bank. Tsallis entropies are extracted from the sub-band coefficients of wavelet filter bank. A total 4,415,229 epochs of respiratory and oximetry signals are used to develop the model. The proposed model is developed using GentleBoost and Random under-sampling Boosting (RUSBoosted Tree) algorithms with 10-fold cross-validation technique. Our developed model has obtained the highest classification accuracy of 89.39% and 84.64% for the imbalanced and balanced datasets, respectively using 10-fold cross-validation technique. Using the 20% hold-out validation, the model yielded an accuracy of 88.26% and 84.31% for the imbalanced and balanced datasets, respectively. Hence, the respiratory and SpO2 signals-based model can be used for automated OSA detection. The results obtained from the proposed model are better than the state-of-the-art models and can be used in-home for screening the OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105364DOI Listing
May 2022

Automated Characterization of Cyclic Alternating Pattern Using Wavelet-Based Features and Ensemble Learning Techniques with EEG Signals.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jul 30;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

Sleep is highly essential for maintaining metabolism of the body and mental balance for increased productivity and concentration. Often, sleep is analyzed using macrostructure sleep stages which alone cannot provide information about the functional structure and stability of sleep. The cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is a physiological recurring electroencephalogram (EEG) activity occurring in the brain during sleep and captures microstructure of the sleep and can be used to identify sleep instability. The CAP can also be associated with various sleep-related pathologies, and can be useful in identifying various sleep disorders. Conventionally, sleep is analyzed using polysomnogram (PSG) in various sleep laboratories by trained physicians and medical practitioners. However, PSG-based manual sleep analysis by trained medical practitioners is onerous, tedious and unfavourable for patients. Hence, a computerized, simple and patient convenient system is highly desirable for monitoring and analysis of sleep. In this study, we have proposed a system for automated identification of CAP phase-A and phase-B. To accomplish the task, we have utilized the openly accessible CAP sleep database. The study is performed using two single-channel EEG modalities and their combination. The model is developed using EEG signals of healthy subjects as well as patients suffering from six different sleep disorders namely nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), narcolepsy, periodic leg movement disorder (PLM), insomnia and rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD) subjects. An optimal orthogonal wavelet filter bank is used to perform the wavelet decomposition and subsequently, entropy and Hjorth parameters are extracted from the decomposed coefficients. The extracted features have been applied to different machine learning algorithms. The best performance is obtained using ensemble of bagged tress (EBagT) classifier. The proposed method has obtained the average classification accuracy of 84%, 83%, 81%, 78%, 77%, 76% and 72% for NFLE, healthy, SDB, narcolepsy, PLM, insomnia and RBD subjects, respectively in discriminating phases A and B using a balanced database. Our developed model yielded an average accuracy of 78% when all 77 subjects including healthy and sleep disordered patients are considered. Our proposed system can assist the sleep specialists in an automated and efficient analysis of sleep using sleep microstructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393617PMC
July 2021

Automatic Sleep-Stage Scoring in Healthy and Sleep Disorder Patients Using Optimal Wavelet Filter Bank Technique with EEG Signals.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 17;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, Singapore 599489, Singapore.

Sleep stage classification plays a pivotal role in effective diagnosis and treatment of sleep related disorders. Traditionally, sleep scoring is done manually by trained sleep scorers. The analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded during sleep by clinicians is tedious, time-consuming and prone to human errors. Therefore, it is clinically important to score sleep stages using machine learning techniques to get accurate diagnosis. Several studies have been proposed for automated detection of sleep stages. However, these studies have employed only healthy normal subjects (good sleepers). The proposed study focuses on the automated sleep-stage scoring of subjects suffering from seven different kind of sleep disorders such as insomnia, bruxism, narcolepsy, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), periodic leg movement (PLM), rapid eye movement (REM) behavioural disorder and sleep-disordered breathing as well as normal subjects. The open source physionet's cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) sleep database is used for this study. The EEG epochs are decomposed into sub-bands using a new class of optimized wavelet filters. Two EEG channels, namely F4-C4 and C4-A1, combined are used for this work as they can provide more insights into the changes in EEG signals during sleep. The norm features are computed from six sub-bands coefficients of optimal wavelet filter bank and fed to various supervised machine learning classifiers. We have obtained the highest classification performance using an ensemble of bagged tree (EBT) classifier with 10-fold cross validation. The CAP database comprising of 80 subjects is divided into ten different subsets and then ten different sleep-stage scoring tasks are performed. Since, the CAP database is unbalanced with different duration of sleep stages, the balanced dataset also has been created using over-sampling and under-sampling techniques. The highest average accuracy of 85.3% and Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.786 and accuracy of 92.8% and Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.915 are obtained for unbalanced and balanced databases, respectively. The proposed method can reliably classify the sleep stages using single or dual channel EEG epochs of 30 s duration instead of using multimodal polysomnography (PSG) which are generally used for sleep-stage scoring. Our developed automated system is ready to be tested with more sleep EEG data and can be employed in various sleep laboratories to evaluate the quality of sleep in various sleep disorder patients and normal subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002569PMC
March 2021
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