Publications by authors named "Jagriti Narang"

52 Publications

Conventional and Nanotechnology-Based Sensing Methods for SARS Coronavirus (2019-nCoV).

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 Feb 4;4(2):1178-1190. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, SET's College of Pharmacy, Dharwad, Karnataka 580 002, India.

Ongoing pandemic coronavirus (COVID-19) has affected over 218 countries and infected 88,512,243 and 1,906,853 deaths reported by Jan. 8, 2021. At present, vaccines are being developed in Europe, Russia, USA, and China, although some of these are in phase III of trials, which are waiting to be available for the general public. The only option available now is by vigorous testing, isolation of the infected cases, and maintaining physical and social distances. Numerous methods are now available or being developed for testing the suspected cases, which may act as carriers of the virus. In this review, efforts have been made to discuss the conventional as well as fast, rapid, and efficient testing methods developed for the diagnosis of 2019-nCoV.Testing methods can be based on the sensing of targets, which include RNA, spike proteins and antibodies such as IgG and IgM. Apart from the development of RNA targeted PCR, antibody and VSV pseudovirus neutralization assay along with several other diagnostic techniques have been developed. Additionally, nanotechnology-based sensors are being developed for the diagnosis of the virus, and these are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.0c01545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874501PMC
February 2021

Graphene Based Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for Detection of False Smut of Rice (Ustilaginoidea virens).

Plant Pathol J 2021 Jun 1;37(3):291-298. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida 201303, UP, India.

False smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is an important rice fungal disease that significantly decreases its production. In the recent past, conventional methods have been developed for its detection that is time-consuming and need high-cost equipments. The research and development in nanotechnology have made it possible to assemble efficient recognition interfaces in biosensors. In this study, we present a simple, sensitive, and selective oxidized graphene-based geno-biosensor for the detection of rice false smut. The biosensor has been developed using a probe DNA as a biological recognition element on paper electrodes, and oxidized graphene to enhance the limit of detection and sensitivity of the sensor. Probe single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and target ssDNA hybridization on the interface surface has been quantitatively measured with the electrochemical analysis tools namely, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. To confirm the selectivity of the device, probe hybridization with non-complementary ssDNA target has been studied. In our study, the developed sensor was able to detect up to 10 fM of target ssDNA. The paper electrodes were employed to produce an effective and cost-effective platform for the immobilization of the DNA and can be extended to design low-cost biosensors for the detection of the other plant pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.11.2020.0207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200582PMC
June 2021

Point of care detection of COVID-19: Advancement in biosensing and diagnostic methods.

Chem Eng J 2021 Jun 31;414:128759. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 007, India.

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has created much inconvenience and fear that the virus can seriously affect humans, causing health hazards and death. This pandemic has created much worry and as per the report by World Health Organization (WHO), more than 43 million individuals in 215 countries and territories were affected. People around the world are still struggling to overcome the problems associated with this pandemic. Of all the available methods, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been widely practiced for the pandemic detection even though several diagnostic tools are available having varying accuracy and sensitivity. The method offers many advantages making it a life-saving tool, but the method has the limitation of transporting to the nearest pathology lab, thus limiting its application in resource limited settings. This has a risen a crucial need for point-of-care devices for on-site detection. In this venture, biosensors have been used, since they can be applied immediately at the point-of-care. This review will discuss about the available diagnostic methods and biosensors for COVID-19 detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2021.128759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847737PMC
June 2021

A changing trend in diagnostic methods of Influenza A (H3N2) virus in human: a review.

3 Biotech 2021 Feb 20;11(2):87. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Biochemistry, MaharshiDayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana 124001 India.

The influenza virus is classified into four types A, B, C, and D, but type A and B are responsible for major illnesses in people with influenza A being the only virus responsible for flu pandemics due to the presence of two surface proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on the virus. The two subtypes of influenza A virus, H1N1 and H3N2, have been known to cause many flu pandemics. Both subtypes change genetically and antigenically to produce variants (clades and subclades, also know as groups and subgroups). H3N2 tends to change rapidly, both genetically and antigenically whereas that of H1N1 generally tends to have smaller changes. Influenza A (H3N2) viruses have evolved to form many separate, genetically different clades that continue to co-circulate. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses have caused significant deaths as per WHO report. The review describes methods for detection of influenza A(H3N2) viruses by conventional serological methods as well as the advanced methods of molecular biology and biosensors. All these methods are based on different parameters and have different targets but the goal is to improve specificity and increase sensitivity. Amongst the molecular methods, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered a gold standard test due to its many advantages whereas a number of other molecular methods are time-consuming, complex to perform or lack specificity. The review also considers bio-sensing methods for simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific detection of H3N2. The classification and principle of various H3N2 biosensors are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02642-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816835PMC
February 2021

CRISPR: A new paradigm of theranostics.

Nanomedicine 2021 04 9;33:102350. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Sonepat. Electronic address:

Infectious and hereditary diseases are the primary cause of human mortality globally. Applications of conventional techniques require significant improvement in sensitivity and specificity in therapeutics. However, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) is an innovative genome editing technology which has provided a significant therapeutic tool exhibiting high sensitivity, fast and precise investigation of distinct pathogens in an epidemic. CRISPR technology has also facilitated the understanding of the biology and therapeutic mechanism of cancer and several other hereditary diseases. Researchers have used the CRISPR technology as a theranostic approach for a wide range of diseases causing pathogens including distinct bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites and genetic mutations as well. In this review article, besides various therapeutic applications of infectious and hereditary diseases we have also explained the structure and mechanism of CRISPR tools and role of CRISPR integrated biosensing technology in provoking diagnostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831819PMC
April 2021

Electrochemical Multiplexed Paper Nanosensor for Specific Dengue Serotype Detection Predicting Pervasiveness of DHF/DSS.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 10 14;6(10):5886-5894. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Center for Electrochemical Science & Materials, Department of Chemistry, K.L.E. Institute of Technology, Opposite to Airport, Hubballi, Karnataka 580027, India.

The serotype-specific early detection of dengue fever is very effective in predicting the pervasiveness of fatal infections such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). This fever results from reinfection (secondary) with a serotype of the dengue virus, which is different from the serotype involved in primary infection. Hence, the present work was aimed to develop a multiplexed electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) consisting of graphene oxide-silicon dioxide (GO-SiO) nanocomposites to detect the specific type of dengue virus (DENV). The conducting nature of GO-SiO-coated multiplexed platform provided amplification in the signal response of the genosensor. The present sensor detected the target DNA of the four serotypes of the dengue virus, namely, DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, and DENV 4, in a wide detection range of 100 pM to 100 μM. The sensor showed a high degree of specificity toward specific serotypes of DENV. Further, the use of such paper-based sensor had many advantages such as facile preparation, homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles onto the surface, requirement of a small quantity of sample, and low cost. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the fabrication of a genosensor for predicting the pervasiveness of the dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00976DOI Listing
October 2020

Graphitic Carbon Nitride as an Amplification Platform on an Electrochemical Paper-Based Device for the Detection of Norovirus-Specific DNA.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Apr 7;20(7). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Crystallography (IC), Via Salaria Km 29.3, Rome I-00015, Italy.

Norovirus is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis, acute vomiting, intense diarrhoea, acute pain in the stomach, high fever, headaches, and body pain. Conventional methods of detection gave us very promising results but had disadvantages such as low sensitivity, cost ineffectiveness, reduced specificity and selectivity, etc. Therefore, biosensors can be a viable alternative device which can overcome all setbacks associated with the conventional method. An electrochemical sensor based on oxidized graphitic carbon nitride (Ox-g-CN) modified electrochemical paper-based analytical device (ePAD) was fabricated for the detection of norovirus DNA. The synthesized Ox-g-CN nanosheets were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The capture probe DNA (PDNA) modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). These two characterization techniques were also employed to find the optimal scan rate, response time and temperature of the fabricated sensor. The fabricated biosensor showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 fM. Furthermore, the specificity of the reported biosensor was affirmed by testing the response of capture probe DNA with oxidized graphitic carbon nitride (PDNA/Ox-g-CN) modified ePAD on the introduction of a non-complimentary DNA. The fabricated ePAD sensor is easy to fabricate, cost effective and specific, and requires a minimum analysis time of 5 s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20072070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180435PMC
April 2020

Analytical techniques for the detection of glycated haemoglobin underlining the sensors.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 27;155:685-696. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India. Electronic address:

The increase in concentrations of blood glucose results arise in the proportion of glycated haemoglobin. Therefore, the percentage of glycated haemoglobin in the blood could function as a biomarker for the average glucose level over the past three months and can be used to detect diabetes. The study of glycated haemoglobin tends to be complex as there are about three hundred distinct assay techniques available for evaluating glycated haemoglobin which contributes to some differences in the recorded values from the similar samples. This review outlines distinct analytical methods that have evolved in the recent past for precise recognition of the glycated - proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.205DOI Listing
July 2020

Few biomedical applications of carbon nanotubes.

Methods Enzymol 2020 28;630:347-363. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Nanotubes of carbon are allotropic form of carbon material that rolled to form a cylindrical structure that may be singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) depending upon the number of carbon layers. These carbon nanotubes have exhibited characteristics properties such as  electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical. Carbon nanotubes can be employed for immobilization matrix for biomolecules such as an enzyme, nucleic acid, etc. Enzymes can be immobilized onto carbon nanotubes via absorption or covalent bonding. Various enzymatic based biosensors are also developed for the detection of various analytes. Present chapter mainly emphasizes characteristics of carbon nanotubes, their preparation methods, purification and exploitation of CNTs as an immobilization matrix for theranostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2019.11.005DOI Listing
December 2020

Paper based point of care immunosensor for the impedimetric detection of cardiac troponin I biomarker.

Biomed Microdevices 2019 12 16;22(1). Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, UP, 201301, India.

Advancements in health care monitoring demand a rapid, accurate and reliable early diagnosis of "Heart Attack" (acute myocardial infarction) with an objective to develop a cost-effective, rapid and label-free point of care diagnostic test kit for the detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) on paper-based multi-frequency impedimetric transducers. Paper based sensing platforms were developed by integrating carboxyl group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with antibodies of cardiac troponin I (anti-cTnI) biomarker and was characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Various concentrations of cTnI with anti cTnI were studied as a function of impedance change. The suitability of the proposed immunosensor is demonstrated by spiking cTnI in blood serum samples. The limit of detection (LoD) and sensitivity of the proposed sensor was determined to be 0.05 ng/mL and 1.85 mΩ/ng/mL respectively, with a response time of ~1 min. The shelf life of the fabricated sensor was nearly 30 days. The rapid response, very low detection limit, and cost effectiveness offer a portable platform to detect cTnI in blood serum samples. The proposed immunosensor, therefore, offers an affordable healthcare diagnostic platform in resource limited areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10544-019-0463-0DOI Listing
December 2019

Self-Assembled Two-Dimensional Molybdenum Disulfide Nanosheet Geno-Interface for the Detection of .

ACS Omega 2019 Sep 3;4(12):14913-14919. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.

This report presents a novel lab-on-a-paper (LoP)-based device coupled with a molybdenum disulfide nanosheet (MoSNS)-modified electrochemical genosensor for detecting -specific DNA. Conductive electrodes were grafted on a paper-based substrate employing a stencil printing technique, and MoSNS was decorated on the working electrode. MoSNS has strong affinity toward nucleo bases, which made it a best sensing interface for the immobilization of DNA. Morphological, optical, and structural characterizations were accomplished using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Raman spectroscopy, repectively. The current studies of an electrochemical genosensor demonstrated a good linear detection range from 100-20 nM and a low limit of detection of 20 nM toward DNA with = 0.991. The proposed LoP-based genosensor confirmed as a better sensing podium and an effectual immobilization matrix for DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b01651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751711PMC
September 2019

Prussian blue nanocubes/carbon nanospheres heterostructure composite for biosensing of metformin.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 15;13(T-NANO 2014 Abstracts):117-120. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Biochemistry, M. D. University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

This paper reports the fabrication of highly sensitive metformin sensor based on Prussian blue (PB) nanocubes/carbon nanosphere (CNS) heterostructures composed of a perfect cube and spherical composite on a fluorine-doped tin oxide surface. Due to the excellent biocompatibility of PB nanocubes the PB/CNS based Mf sensor exhibited a wide linear range of 0.001-10 mM with a response duration of less than 5 s and a detection limit (based on signal to noise ratio) of 0.1 µM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S125153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419316PMC
April 2019

Correction to: Voltammetric detection of anti-HIV replication drug based on novel nanocomposite gold-nanoparticle-CaCO hybrid material.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2019 06;42(6):1077-1079

Department of Biochemistry, M. D. University, Rohtak, 124001, Haryana, India.

The Figs. 2, 4 and 5 were published wrongly in this paper, due to inadvertent compilation of figures during uploading the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-019-02097-7DOI Listing
June 2019

Morphology-Preferable MoSe Nanobrooms as a Sensing Platform for Highly Selective Apta-Capturing of Salmonella Bacteria.

ACS Omega 2018 Oct 11;3(10):13020-13027. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi 110025, India.

The present report employed nanobroom (NB)-shaped two-dimensional molybdenum diselenide (MoSe) for the preparation of a sensing matrix for the detection of . An aptamer specific to salmonella was immobilized onto MoSeNB-modified fluorine-doped tin oxide via glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Characterizations confirmed the nanobroom morphology and nanosize of the MoSe material. Electrochemical studies revealed a good linear detection range of 10-10 CFU/mL with low detection limit of 1 × 10 CFU/mL and with = 0.98. The developed preferable nanobroom-shaped sensing matrix can provide a promising platform for rapid and accurate detection of Salmonella in real samples due to its tremendous stability and sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6217589PMC
October 2018

Preparation, Characterization, and Application of Enzyme Nanoparticles.

Methods Enzymol 2018 13;609:171-196. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Enzymes are fundamental biocatalysts, which regulate various metabolic reactions. They exhibit high substrate specificity, sensitivity, and exceptional catalytic activity under ideal conditions and, hence, have been used as industrial catalysts. Enzyme nanoparticles have attracted the scientific community as they can be used for environment protection, biochemical engineering, and biomedicine. It is necessary to understand the nature of enzyme nanoparticles interactions with their analyte. Various types of enzyme/protein nanoparticles have been immobilized onto a matrix (electrode or membrane) for the fabrication of biosensors. Among the various nanoparticles and nanomaterials, organic nanoparticles have received more attention due to their fascinating properties. Therefore, the future research should be focused to develop advanced biosensors based on enzyme nanoparticles that could be used for early diagnosis and management of chronic diseases. This chapter explains various enzyme nanoparticles-based biosensors, such as GOX, HRP, uricase, cholesterol oxidase, hemoglobin, and their biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2018.07.001DOI Listing
June 2019

Development of MoSe₂ Nano-Urchins as a Sensing Platform for a Selective Bio-Capturing of Escherichia. coli Shiga Toxin DNA.

Biosensors (Basel) 2018 Aug 14;8(3). Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi 110025, India.

The present study was aimed to develop "fluorine doped" tin oxide glass electrode with a MoSe2 nano-urchin based electrochemical biosensor for detection of Escherichia. coli Shiga toxin DNA. The study comprises two conductive electrodes, and the working electrodes were drop deposited using MoSe2 nano-urchin, and DNA sequences specific to Shiga toxin Escherichia. coli. Morphological characterizations were performed using Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer; X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. All measurements were done using methylene blue as an electrochemical indicator. The proposed electrochemical geno-sensor showed good linear detection range of 1 fM⁻100 μM with a low detection limit of 1 fM where the current response increased linearly with Escherichia. coli Shiga toxin dsDNA concentration with R2 = 0.99. Additionally, the real sample was spiked with the dsDNA that shows insignificant interference. The results revealed that the developed sensing platform significantly improved the sensitivity and can provide a promising platform for effective detection of biomolecules using minute samples due to its stability and sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios8030077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163765PMC
August 2018

Comparative analysis of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes for electrochemical sensing of glucose on gold printed circuit boards.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2018 Sep 25;90:273-279. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

NIBEC, Ulster University, Jordanstown Campus, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB, UK. Electronic address:

In the present work, a comparative study was performed between single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes coated gold printed circuit board electrodes for glucose detection. Various characterization techniques were demonstrated in order to compare the modified electrodes viz. cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chrono-amperometry. Results revealed that single-walled carbon nanotubes outperformed multi-walled carbon nanotubes and proved to be a better sensing interface for glucose detection. The single-walled carbon nanotubes coated gold printed circuit board electrodes showed a wide linear sensing range (1 mM to 100 mM) with detection limit of 0.1 mM with response time of 5 s while multi-walled carbon nanotubes coated printed circuit board gold electrodes showed linear sensing range (1 mM to 100 mM) with detection limit of 0.1 mM with response time of 5 s. This work provided low cost sensors with enhanced sensitivity, fast response time and reliable results for glucose detection which increased the affordability of such tests in remote areas. In addition, the comparative results confirmed that single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrodes can be exploited for better amplification signal as compared to multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.04.072DOI Listing
September 2018

Detection of chikungunya virus DNA using two-dimensional MoS nanosheets based disposable biosensor.

Sci Rep 2018 05 16;8(1):7734. Epub 2018 May 16.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, UP, India.

Development of platforms for a reliable, rapid, sensitive and selective detection of chikungunya virus (CHIGV) is the need of the hour in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports available for the electrochemical detection of CHIGVDNA. Therefore, we aim at developing a biosensor based on molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (MoS NSs) for the point-of-care diagnosis of CHIGV. Briefly, MoS NSs were synthesized by chemical route and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction. MoS NSs were then subjected to physical adsorption onto the screen printed gold electrodes (SPGEs) and then employed for the detection of CHIGV DNA using electrochemical voltammetric techniques. Herein, the role of MoS NSs is to provide biocompatibility to the biological recognition element on the surface of the screen printed electrodes. The detection strategy employed herein is the ability of methylene blue to interact differentially with the guanine bases of the single and double-stranded DNA which leads to change in the magnitude of the voltammetric signal. The proposed genosensor exhibited a wide linear range of 0.1 nM to 100 µM towards the chikungunya virus DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25824-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5955964PMC
May 2018

A new tactics for the detection of S. aureus via paper based geno-interface incorporated with graphene nano dots and zeolites.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Jun 5;112:364-370. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida 201301, UP, India. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a pathogenic bacteria which causes infectious diseases and food poisoning. Current diagnostic methods for infectious disease require sophisticated instruments, long analysis time and expensive reagents which restrict their application in resource-limited settings. Electrochemical paper based analytical device (EPAD) was developed by integrating graphene nano dots (GNDs) and zeolite (Zeo) using specific DNA probe. The ssDNA/GNDs-Zeo modified paper based analytical device (PAD) was characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The genosensor was optimized at pH7.4 and incubation temperature of 30°C. A linear current response with respect to target DNA concentrations was obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed sensor was found out to be 0.1nM. The specificity was confirmed by introducing non-complimentary target DNA to ssDNA/GNDs-Zeo modified PAD. The suitability of the proposed EPAD genosensor was demonstrated with fruit juice samples mixed with S. aureus. The proposed EPAD genosensor is a low cost, highly specific, easy to fabricate diagnostic device for detection of S. aureus bacteria which requires very low sample volume and minimum analysis time of 10s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.01.143DOI Listing
June 2018

Ultrasensitive electrochemical immuno-sensing platform based on gold nanoparticles triggering chlorpyrifos detection in fruits and vegetables.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 May 9;105:14-21. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Sector-125, Noida, 201313, India. Electronic address:

Chlorpyrifos (chl) is an organophosphate pesticide extensively used in agriculture and highly toxic for human health. Fluorine doped tin-oxide (FTO) based electrochemical nanosensor was developed for chlorpyrifos detection with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and anti-chlorpyrifos antibodies (chl-Ab). AuNPs provides high electrical conductivity and specific resistivity, thus increases the sensitivity of immunoassay. High electrical conductivity of AuNPs reveals that it promotes the redox reaction for better cyclic voltammetry. Based on the intrinsic conductive properties of FTO-AuNPs complex, chl-Ab was immobilized onto AuNPs surface. Under optimized conditions, the proposed FTO based nanosensor exhibited high sensitivity and stable response for the detection of chlorpyrifos, ranging from 1fM to 1µM with limit of detection (LOD) up to 10fM. The FTO-AuNPs sensor was successfully employed for the detection of chlorpyrifos in standard as well in real samples up to 10nM for apple and cabbage, 50nM for pomegranate. The proposed FTO-AuNPs nanosensor can be used as a quantitative tool for rapid, on-site detection of chlorpyrifos traces in real samples when miniaturized due to its excellent stability, sensitivity, and simplicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2018.01.013DOI Listing
May 2018

Portable bioactive paper based genosensor incorporated with Zn-Ag nanoblooms for herpes detection at the point-of-care.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 26;107(Pt B):2559-2565. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Department of Biochemistry, MD University, Rohtak 124001, HRY, India.

The present work describes the fabrication of an electrochemical paper-based analytical device (EPAD) integrated with Zn-Ag nanoblooms for detection of herpes in human, caused by Herpes virus 5(HHV-5) DNA, at the point of care. The cyclic voltammetry(CV) was used for electrochemical detection of the HHV-5 DNA in infected patient samples. The EPAD exihibited optimum current response within 5s at pH7.0 and 35°C with two dynamic linear/working ranges, 113-10 and 3×10-10copies/mL and detection limit of 97copies/mL. The device showed high selectivity, repeatability, and sensitivity. The device had many advantageous features such as portable, facile approach, economical and potential for commercialization. The proposed sensing scheme is highly feasible for future clinical detection of Herpes virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.146DOI Listing
February 2018

Hydrothermally synthesized zinc oxide nanorods incorporated on lab-on-paper device for electrochemical detection of recreational drug.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 Dec 29;46(8):1586-1593. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

c Department of Biochemistry , Maharishi Dayanand University , Rohtak , Haryana , India.

This paper reports an electrochemical paper analytical device (EPAD) for detection of recreational drug; methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). MDMA is used as an addictive narcotic by youth and there is an urgent need to detect this drug as it is a potential neurotoxic agent. The proposed EPAD represents many advantageous features of being simple, low-cost, consistent and disposable. The working electrode of the EPAD features zinc oxide nanorods (ZnONRs). The morphological, optical, elemental composition and phase analysis of the synthesized ZnONRs has been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photo-luminescence (PL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The developed sensor showed optimum response at 7.0 pH and wide linear range of 1 µM-1 mM with a low detection limit of 0.1 µM for MDMA. Evaluation of the sensor also revealed best results in terms of analytical recovery (95%) and accuracy (95%). The designed EPAD could prove to be very effective in case of forensic diagnostic applications. This work provides a reliable diagnostic method for remote areas with limited resources, and will also help people who cannot afford expensive medical tests and have limited access to power and trained personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2017.1381614DOI Listing
December 2018

Detection of alprazolam with a lab on paper economical device integrated with urchin like [email protected] Pd shell nano-hybrids.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Nov 5;80:728-735. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Department of Biochemistry, MD University, Rohtak -124001, Haryana, India.

We present results of the studies relating to fabrication of a microfluidic biosensor chip based on urchin like [email protected] Pd shell nano-hybrids that is capable of sensing alprazolam through electrochemical detection. Using this chip we demonstrate, with high reliability and in a time efficient manner, the detection of alprazolam present in buffer solutions at clinically relevant concentrations. Methylene blue (MB) was also doped as redox transition substance for sensing alprazolam. Nano-hybrids modified EμPAD showed wide linear range 1-300ng/ml and low detection limit of 0.025ng/l. Low detection limit can further enhance its suitability for forensic application. Nano-hybrids modified EμPAD was also employed for determination of drug in real samples such as human urine. Reported facile lab paper approach integrated with urchin like [email protected] Pd shell nano-hybrids could be well applied for the determination of serum metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.11.128DOI Listing
November 2017

Lab on paper chip integrated with [email protected] for electroanalysis of diazepam.

Anal Chim Acta 2017 Aug 13;980:50-57. Epub 2017 May 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana, India.

We describe herein the fabrication of an electrochemical microfluidic paper based device (EμPAD) for the detection of diazepam, a sedative, anxiety-relieving and muscle-relaxing drug. To achieve it, silica coated gold nanorods ([email protected]) were synthesized and drop casted on an electrochemical microfluidic paper based device (EμPAD) for the detection of diazepam. The synthesized composites were characterized by recording its images in scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The experimental results confirmed that [email protected] had good electrocatalytic activity towards diazepam. The modified paper based electrode showed a stable electrochemical response for diazepam in the concentration range of 3.5 nM to 3.5 mM. EμPAD offers many advantageous features such as facile approach, economical and have potential for commercialization. [email protected] modified EμPAD was also employed for determination of diazepam in spiked human urine samples. Reported facile lab paper approach integrated with [email protected] could be well applied for the determination of serum metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.05.006DOI Listing
August 2017

A genosensor for detection of consensus DNA sequence of Dengue virus using ZnO/Pt-Pd nanocomposites.

Biosens Bioelectron 2017 Nov 27;97:75-82. Epub 2017 May 27.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, UP, India. Electronic address:

An electrochemical genosensor based on Zinc oxide/platinum-palladium (ZnO/Pt-Pd) modified fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate was fabricated for detection of consensus DNA sequence of Dengue virus (DENV) using methylene blue (MB) as an intercalating agent. To achieve it, probe DNA (PDNA) was immobilized on the surface of ZnO/Pt-Pd nanocomposites modified FTO electrode. The synthesized nano-composites were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. This PDNA modified electrode (PDNA/ZnO/Pt-Pd/FTO) served as a signal amplification platform for the detection of the target hybridized DNA (TDNA). The hybridization between PDNA and TDNA was detected by reduction in current, generated by interaction of anionic mediator, i.e., methylene blue (MB) with free guanine (3'G) of ssDNA. The sensor showed a dynamic linear range of 1 × 10M to 100 × 10M with LOD as 4.3 × 10 M and LOQ as 9.5 × 10 M. Till date, majorly serotype specific biosensors for dengue detection have been developed. The genosensor reported here eliminates the possibility of false result as in case of serotype specific DNA sensor. This is the report where conserved sequences present in all the serotypes of Dengue virus has been employed for fabrication of a genosensor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2017.05.047DOI Listing
November 2017

Impedimetric genosensor for detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV1) DNA using viral probe on methylene blue doped silica nanoparticles.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 May 23;98:84-93. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, UP, India. Electronic address:

An impedimetric genosensor was fabricated for detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 in serum, based on hybridization of the probe with complementary target cDNA from sample. To achieve it, probe DNA complementary to HCVgene was immobilized on the surface of methylene blue (MB) doped silica nanoparticles [email protected]) modified fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode. The synthesized [email protected] was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. This modified electrode (ssDNA/[email protected]/FTO) served both as a signal amplification platform (due to silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) as well as an electrochemical indicator (due to methylene blue (MB)) for the detection of the HCV DNA in patient serum sample. The genosensor was optimized and evaluated. The sensor showed a dynamic linear range 100-10 copies/mL, with a detection limit of 90 copies/mL. The sensor was applied for detection of HCV in sera of hepatitis patient and could be renewed. The half life of the sensor was 4 weeks. The [email protected]/FTO electrode could be used for preparation of other gensensors also.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.01.093DOI Listing
May 2017

Graphene nanoflakes on transparent glass electrode sensor for electrochemical sensing of anti-diabetic drug.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2017 Apr 19;40(4):537-548. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology (AINT), AMITY University, Noida, 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Metformin (Mf) plays a major role in controlling insulin level of individuals at risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Overdose of Mf can cause lactic acidosis, diarrhoea, cough, or hoarseness, etc. These particulars point out the identification for selective and sensitive methods of Mf determination. In the present work, graphene nanoflakes-polymethylene blue (GNF-PMB) nano-composites were developed onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO/F) coated glass substrates for electrochemical sensing of Mf using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The developed sensor shows quick response time (10 s), linearity as 10-10 µM, LOD (0.1 nM), and good shelf life (10 weeks). Attempts have been made to utilize this electrode for estimation of Mf in urine samples. Configured as a highly responsive, reproducible Mf sensor, it combines the electrical properties of GNF and stable electron transfer of PMB. The newly developed Mf sensor presents a promising candidate in point-of-care diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-016-1719-1DOI Listing
April 2017

An enzyme free Vitamin C augmented sensing with different ZnO morphologies on SnO2/F transparent glass electrode: A comparative study.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016 Dec 7;69:769-79. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, UP, India. Electronic address:

Three types of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures viz. ZnO nanocrystals (ZnONCs), ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and ZnO nanobelts (ZnONBs) were synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, FTIR and SEM. A comparison of signal amplification by these ZnO nanostructures as judged by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) revealed that ZnONCs are better sensing interface for electrochemical detection. When these ZnO nanostructure were compared electrochemically for sensing Vitamin C, ZnONC's sensor outperformed the ZnONP and ZnONB sensor and previously reported sensors. The ZnONCs/MB/FTO electrode showed a wide linear sensing range (0.001μM to 4000μM), low detection limit (0.0001μM), a small response time (5s) and a storage stability of 6months. To the best of our knowledge, this elevated sensitivity and remarkable stability for electrochemical Vitamin C detection using ZnONC's have not been reported so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.07.012DOI Listing
December 2016

Point of care with micro fluidic paper based device integrated with nano zeolite-graphene oxide nanoflakes for electrochemical sensing of ketamine.

Biosens Bioelectron 2017 Feb 17;88:249-257. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Department of Biochemistry, MD University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.

The present study was aimed to develop an ultrasensitive technique for electroanalysis of ketamine; a date rape drug. It involved the fabrication of nano-hybrid based electrochemical micro fluidic paper-based analytical device (EμPADs) for electrochemical sensing of ketamine. A paper chip was developed using zeolites nanoflakes and graphene-oxide nanocrystals (Zeo-GO). EμPAD offers many advantages such as facile approach, economical and potential for commercialization. Nanocrystal modified EμPAD showed wide linear range 0.001-5nM/mL and a very low detection limit of 0.001nM/mL. The developed sensor was tested in real time samples like alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and found good correlation (99%). The hyphenation of EμPAD integrated with nanocrystalline Zeo-GO for detection of ketamine has immense prospective for field-testing platforms. An extensive development could be made for industrial translation of this fabricated device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.08.043DOI Listing
February 2017

Impedimetric genosensor for ultratrace detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in patient samples assisted by zeolites and MWCNT nano-composites.

Biosens Bioelectron 2016 Dec 7;86:566-574. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Deptt. of Biochemistry, MD University, Rohtak, India.

Nanocrystals of zeolites (Nanocrys Zeo) and Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) based diagnostic genosensor was employed for detection of polymerase chain (PCR) amplified HBVDNA in blood of hepatitis B patients. The ssDNA-nanocomposite modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The hybridization between ss DNA probe and target ss DNA was detected by reduction in current, generated by interaction of methylene blue (MB) with free guanine (3'G) of ssDNA. Nanocrys zeo were deposited on the Fluorine doped tin oxide glass electrode (FTO) by drop-casting method for better immobilization of ss DNA while MWCNTs are incorporated into the zeolite-assembly to enhance the electro-conductivity of the present genosensor. The ssDNA-nanocomposite modified FTO electrode exhibited optimum current within 5s, at pH 5.6, and incubation temperature of 45°C. The value of charge transfer resistance (Rct) was linear with the number of copies of target DNA between 150 and 10(6) copies/ml. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 50 copies/ml. Within and between batches coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.5% and 3.2% respectively. Results obtained with our genosensor were also correlated with those by RT-PCR and r(2) value found with good accuracy of 97%. The electrode was reused by dipping it into 0.1M NaOH for 3min and lost 50% of its initial activity in 4 weeks. Furthermore the technique employed for detection of HBV is EIS, which is convenient and required less analysis time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.07.013DOI Listing
December 2016
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