Publications by authors named "Jagdesh Kumar"

10 Publications

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Treatment of high-energy intra-articular fractures of tibia with Ilizarov external fixator in adults: A tertiary centre experience.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 11:e14488. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of the Ilizarov fixator in the proximal and distal fractures of the tibia.

Materials And Methodology: This retrospective study reviewed 59 patients having high-energy intra-articular proximal and distal tibia fractures associated with severe soft-tissue injury, who were managed surgically with an Ilizarov fixator. The functional outcome was evaluated by using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scoring system (AOFAS) and the Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov (ASAMI) Italy scoring system for tibial plateau and plafond fractures respectively.

Results: The most common mode of injury was road traffic accidents. According to the Gustilo open fracture classification, there were 16 patients with grade-I and nine with grade II open fractures. The remaining had closed fractures. According to the Schatzker classification of plateau fractures, 20 were graded as type V and 15 as type VI. According to the AO classification of plafond fractures, 12 fractures were graded as Type-43C1, 5 as Type-43C2, and 7 as Type-43C3. There was delayed union in 11 proximal and four distal fractures, all of which achieved union without additional bone grafting. In proximal fractures, according to AOFAS, out of 35, 26 had an acceptable while nine had a fair result. In distal fractures, according to ASAMI, out of 24, 16 had an acceptable while five had fair results. There were 192/448 wires in 58 patients with pin site infection; all were superficial and settled. Posttraumatic joint arthrosis was noted in nineteen.

Conclusions: The postoperative clinical and radiological outcome indicated that primary Ilizarov external fixator is a reliable minimal invasive surgery and definitive fixation method for high-energy intra-articular proximal and distal tibial fractures with compromised soft-tissue. It also offers early stabilisation and painless joint motion without a high rate of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14488DOI Listing
June 2021

Role of denosumab before resection and reconstruction in giant cell tumors of bone: a single-centered retrospective cohort study.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Orthopaedics, Dr Ruth KM Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi/Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Denosumab has been approved by Food and Drug Authority in 2013 for use in surgically unresectable Giant cell tumor (GCT) to achieve resectable tumor margins. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional outcome and surgical convenience with the use of neoadjuvant denosumab before resection and reconstruction in Campanacci grade III GCT.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 70 cases of Campanacci grade III GCT receiving resection and reconstruction between January 2014 and December 2019. They were stratified into two groups: one group of 29 patients received once-weekly denosumab 120 mg for 4-weeks before resection and reconstruction, while the other group of 41 patients did not receive denosumab before resection and reconstruction. Quality of life by musculoskeletal tumor society score where 0-7 means poor, 8-14 means fair, 15-22 means good; above 22 means excellent, incidence of tumor recurrence, intraoperative duration in minutes and postoperative positive margins were assessed for each cohort after 12 months follow-up.

Results: There was no significant difference in musculoskeletal tumor society score (25.75 vs. 27.41; P  = 0.178), incidence of recurrence (3.45% vs. 4.88%; P  < 0.001), and postoperative positive margins (10.34% vs. 4.88%; P  = 0.38) for both groups. However, the intraoperative duration (133.38 vs. 194.49; P  < 0.001) was significantly higher in the non-denosumab group compared with denosumab group.

Conclusions: Neoadjuvant denosumab is equally effective considering postoperative functional outcomes and surgical convenience except intraoperative duration where it is highly helpful in saving the operating time duration. Easier identification, resection and lesser reconstruction are the key surgical convenience offered by neoadjuvant denosumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-03012-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children presenting with supracondylar fractures of humerus.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 10;75(5):e14056. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: The purpose of the current analysis is to evaluate the predominance of vitamin D inadequacy in children with supracondylar fracture of the humerus.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Dr Ruth K. M. Pfau Civil, Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from December 2019 to July 2020. Patients aged 18 months-18 years presenting with supracondylar fractures were included in the study. Patients were divided into four groups based on their age as toddlers (18 months to 3 years), pre-school age (3-5 years), school-age (6 to 11 years) and adolescents (11-18 years).

Results: A total of 227 children presented with upper limb fractures of which 72 (31.7%) were supracondylar. The mean vitamin D level was found to be 32.5 ± 9.1 ng/mL. Of the study subjects, low vitamin D levels were found in 34.7% (n = 25), adequate in 59.7% (n = 43) and ideal in 5.5% (n = 4) of patients. The mean vitamin D levels for toddlers were 33.5 ng/mL, for preschool children was 27.66 ng/mL, for school-age children was 30.4 ng/mL and for adolescents was 37 ng/mL.

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is not only restricted to Pakistan but also other parts of the world, although the reasons may vary in each of those regions. However, vitamin D supplementation in all parts of the globe can prevent a significant number of fractures. This prevalence study showed vitamin D deficiency in 35% of children with supracondylar fractures, with the lowest mean values in the preschool age group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14056DOI Listing
May 2021

Predictive Factors Associated With Fear Faced by Healthcare Workers During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Questionnaire-Based Study.

Cureus 2020 Aug 14;12(8):e9741. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Orthopaedic Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since the beginning has been a reason of fear among healthcare workers (HCWs) due to the increased mortality, especially in the HCWs themselves. In this survey study, we aimed to explore the predictive factors associated with fear faced by HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify the areas which need to be addressed to reduce it. Methods On May 14, 2020, we conducted an observational, cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire, consisting of the following two parts: (1) focused on factors associated with HCWs' fear of getting an infection and being a source of carrying the infection to whom they care, and (2) focused on factors associated with HCWs' fear of uncertainty and lack of support from concerned health authorities. Results The mean age of the participants was 40.04 ± 12.92 years with 79.3% being males. More than half (51.1%) of the participants were consultants. The most important factors associated with fear included getting infected (84.8%), quarantined (69.6%), not getting medical treatment (62%), losing a life (56.8%), and infecting family members (94.2%). Another major factor associated with HCWs' fear was lack of support from concerned health authorities, 80.2% thought of solatium, and 71.7% believed that the job should be given to eligible family members of the deceased. More than 82.2% were concerned about health expenses and around 97.6% felt an additional health risk allowance should be given. Conclusion Our results indicate that the risk of getting infection to themselves and their families, along with a lack of support from concerned health authorities, was strongly associated with fear among HCWs. We hope through these findings that the concerned health authorities will take notice and do something in this regard by developing appropriate policies and measures to make sure that HCWs and their families are cared for if they get infected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489766PMC
August 2020

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Healthcare Workers Regarding the Use of Face Mask to Limit the Spread of the New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).

Cureus 2020 Apr 20;12(4):e7737. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Orthopaedic Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Many countries including Pakistan are currently using face masks in their pandemic control plans. Being highly prevalent, the correct use of these masks is particularly important, as an incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the rate of transmission. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of healthcare workers (HCWs) in wearing a surgical face mask to limit the spread of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Materials and Methods This survey was conducted by interviewing HCWs using a questionnaire consisting of the basic demographic characteristics, and the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the use of surgical face mask to limit the new COVID-19 exposure. Each correct answer was scored 1 and each incorrect answer scored 0. The total number of questions was 16, and the final score was calculated and then labeled according to the percentage (out of 16) of correct responses as good (>80%), moderate (60-80%), and poor (<60%). Results A total of 392 participants with a mean age of 42.37 ± 13.34 years (341 males and 51 females) were included in the study. The overall final results were good in 138 (35.2%), moderate in 178 (45.4%), and poor in 76 (19.3%). Around 43.6% of participants knew about the correct method of wearing the masks, 68.9% knew that there are three layers, 53% stated that the middle layer act as a filter media barrier, and 75.5% knew the recommended maximum duration of wearing it. The majority (88.2%) of participants knew that a cloth face mask is not much effective, around 79.8% knew that used face mask cannot be re-used, and 44.8% knew about the yellow-coded bag for disposal. Conclusions Knowledge, attitude, and practice of HCWs regarding the use of face masks were found to be inadequate. Studied HCWs had a positive attitude but moderate-to-poor level of knowledge and practice regarding the use of face mask. HCWs and general public awareness campaigns regarding the proper use of face mask by utilizing all social media available resources would be helpful during this pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241223PMC
April 2020

Ilizarov External Fixation: Percutaneous Gigli Saw Versus Multiple Drill-hole Osteotomy Techniques for Distraction Osteogenesis.

Cureus 2019 Jun 22;11(6):e4973. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Orthopaedic Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Many different methods and variations have been employed to perform osteotomy for deformity correction, bone lengthening, and segmental bone transport. Currently, multiple drill-hole (MDH) and Gigli saw osteotomies are the two most preferred ones, being favoured over other techniques. Our objective is to compare the modified healing index (mHI) of these two commonly used procedures. Methodology This retrospective study was conducted at the department of Orthopedics, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The study population consisted of all skeletally mature patients who underwent tibial bone osteotomy for bone lengthening or bone transport using Ilizarov circular fixator from June 2016 to September 2018. We excluded patients with metabolic bone disease and patients who underwent osteotomy for deformity correction. Preoperative and operative patients' demographics and clinical data were gathered through a review of medical record and mHI was calculated to compare the effectiveness of osteotomy techniques. Results A total of 50 patients, 74% males and 26% females 26% with a mean age of 33.14 ± 12 years were included in the study. Of the 50 patients, 23 (27 osteotomies) had undergone MDH osteotomy (group I), whereas 27 patients (37 osteotomies) had a Gigli saw osteotomy (group II). The overall mHI of both groups was 1.60 ± 0.34 month/cm (range 1.0-2.5 month/cm). When we compared the mHI of both techniques, the mean mHI was 1.72 ± 0.33 month/cm (range 1.2 - 2.5 months/cm) in MDH group and 1.54 ± 0.36 month/cm (range 1.0-2.5 month/cm) in the Gigli saw group. The healing index was significantly lower in the Gigli saw group. None of our patients showed nonunion at the osteotomy site. However, the problems of incomplete osteotomy in two cases and bone fractures in four cases were seen in MDH osteotomy. Conclusion According to our results, percutaneous Gigli saw osteotomy technique by two small incisions minimizes the local soft tissue trauma and periosteal disruption around the osteotomy more than the multiple drill holes osteotomy, resulting in better consolidation following distraction osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6701915PMC
June 2019

Surgical Fixation of Atypical Femur Fractures in Bisphosphonate-treated Patients.

Cureus 2019 May 17;11(5):e4690. Epub 2019 May 17.

Orthopaedic Surgery, Dow Medical College Karachi, Karachi, PAK.

Objective To evaluate the outcomes of the surgical fixation of atypical femoral fractures in bisphosphonate-treated patients with an intramedullary device. Materials and methods This multicentric study was carried out at the department of orthopedics, Dr. Ruth Phau Civil Hospital and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, between 2013 and 2018. In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed 10 bisphosphonate-treated patients, fixed surgically with an intramedullary nail after presenting with radiologically characteristic atypical femur fractures identified according to the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research criteria. We excluded patients with fractures sustained by high-energy trauma, road traffic accidents, fall from a height, and those associated with underlying malignancy. Results A total of 11 atypical femoral fractures in 10 patients were included, all of whom were females with a mean age of 68.6 (range 57-82) years. Out of 11 fractures, 81.8% (n=9) were located in the subtrochanteric region and two were located in the femoral shaft. The mean bisphosphonate use was 58.3 months. All patients were treated with intramedullary devices; an intramedullary interlocking nail in two cases and proximal femoral nail antirotation in nine cases. The mean follow-up duration was 12 months. All fractures were united in an average time of 9.9 months (range 6 - 16 months). Implant failure and/or nonunion were not observed, whereas delayed union was noted in five patients. Conclusion Intramedullary fixation is a reliable method for the treatment of atypical femur fractures in bisphosphonate-treated patients owing to its intramedullary placement. These devices act as an internal splint and can provide much more axial stability, reducing the risk of implant fatigue failure due to a delay in fracture healing from prolonged bisphosphonate use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636699PMC
May 2019

Fixation of Metacarpal Fractures Using Intramedullary Headless Compression Screws: A Tertiary Care Institution Experience.

Cureus 2019 Apr 16;11(4):e4466. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Orthopedic Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Metacarpal fractures account for the majority of hand fractures. Inadequate management can cause functional deficit which can lead to loss of fine hand movements. Adequate management has proven to give good outcomes. The use of intramedullary screws has given better results than the use of Kirschner wires (K-wires). Method This study was conducted at Dr. Ruth Phau Civil Hospital, Karachi (CHK) between August 1, 2018 and January 31, 2019. A total of 32 patients presented with metacarpal fractures. They were surgically managed with intramedullary headless screw fixation. Post-operatively, grip strength, range of motion, and presence of any disabilities were recorded. Patients were followed up to three months. Results Out of 32 patients, six were females. Mean age was found to be 29.1 ± 10.5 years. Post-operatively the mean grip strength was found to be 37.8 ± 7.3 kilograms. The mean total active range of motion was found to be 242.8 ±14.5 degrees. The mean days to return back to work were 25 ± 5.4 days. The mean patient satisfaction score was 8.1 ± 0.79. Three patients developed post-operative stiffness of the joint. Conclusion Patients with intramedullary screw fixation have good post-operative results with early return to work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579341PMC
April 2019

Pattern of Infecting Microorganisms and Their Susceptibility to Antimicrobial Drugs in Patients with Diabetic Foot Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Cureus 2018 Jun 25;10(6):e2872. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, PAK.

Diabetes mellitus is a universal health problem, with its prevalence in Pakistan making it among the top 10 countries in the world. Approximately 13.9 million people in Pakistan will have developed diabetes by 2030. Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is one of the more serious complications of diabetes. If not treated properly, patients may develop diabetic foot osteomyelitis leading to gangrene and amputation. These infections are usually polymicrobial, with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) being among the more common organisms isolated from DFU. This survey of patients with DFU in a tertiary hospital in Karachi, Pakistan found 68.5% of patients had peripheral neuropathy, 57% had chronic osteomyelitis, and 37% and 49% had Wagner grades 2 and 3, respectively. Infections were polymicrobial in 83% of patients, E. coli was isolated from 63%, and S. aureus from 58%. Of the isolated organisms, 95% were sensitive to meropenem and 81% to linezolid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110415PMC
June 2018

Outcome of one stage combined open reduction, pelvic and derotation femoral osteotomy in congenital dislocated hips of children younger than three years age.

J Pak Med Assoc 2014 Sep;64(9):1015-20

Objective: To determine the outcome of one-stage combined operative management of congenital dislocation of hips in children aged 18-36 months.

Methods: The descriptive case series study was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2011. Children aged 18-36 months suffering from congenital dislocation of hips were included. Those with Tonnis stage III and IV were managed with one-stage operative procedure without preliminary traction. The operative procedure included adductor tenotomy, open reduction, capsulorraphy, Salter's osteotomy and a femoral derotation osteotomy. Catteral's 'Test of Stability' was used after open reduction as an indicator for need of pelvic and femoral osteotomies. Follow-up ranged between 1 and 7 years. The patients were evaluated clinically on McKay's criteria and radiologically on Severin's criteria. Klisic's overall rating was used to know mean of the assessments.

Results: There were 38 patients with 50 congenital dislocations of hip. There were 26 (68.42%) females and 12 (31.57%) males with a female-to-male ratio of 2:1. Mean age at the time of operation was 24.26 ± 7.6 months. Of the total, 12 (31.57%) patients had bilateral involvement, 11 (28.94%) had right-sided and 15 (39.47%) had left-sided involvement. Right side to Left ratio was 1:1.2. At the time of last follow-up, 25 (50%) hips behaved excellent on McKay's criteria. According to radiographic classification on Severin's criteria, 24 (48%) hips were in excellent class. Avascular necrosis of femoral head was noted in 3 (6%) hips, re-subluxation/re-dislocations were observed in 3 (6%) hips and 1 (2.6%) patient had 1 cm femoral lengthening.

Conclusion: One-stage open reduction, capsulorrapyhy, Salter's osteotomy and femoral derotation osteotomy without preliminary traction to re-locate congenital dislocation of hips in late presenting children is a safe and highly effective method. It produces a low rate of complication and need for repeat surgery. It reduces the cost of treatment, minimises socio-economic burden and psychological trauma incurred by lengthy hospitalisation of treatment with traction followed by closed reduction.
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September 2014