Publications by authors named "Jaffar Abbas"

22 Publications

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Internet Addiction Status and Related Factors among Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in Western Iran.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2021 Jun 15:272684X211025438. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: In recent years, Internet and social media technology use have emerged as an integral tool of human society, and the evolution of technological integration, cyberspace, and web-technology has become a common practice in educational institutions. Internet usage among students has played an indispensable role in learning behavior; however, the excessive usage of the internet and social media leads to internet addiction. This original study has performed a focalized scrutiny on revealing relationships between internet addiction and associated factors among the students of medicine, dentistry, and pharmaceutical departments.

Methods: This descriptive and analytical study recruited medical students from the Self-governing Education Incubator of Kermanshah. This survey distributed questionnaires among the respondents' three departments, and this statistical data reported on 420 valid responses of the respondents. They represent first and second-semester medical students of the academic year 2017-2018. The study selected medical students by applying Cochran's Sample Size Formula through Stratified Random Sampling and cross-sectional research design. The survey has utilized a demographic questionnaire of Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) for the data collection. The study analyzed received data by using SPSS version 23 and performed the descriptive statistics, and analytical statistics (t-test and ANOVA).

Results: The results of the present study established that the majority of subjects were female students (53.3%), and the average age was 23.84 ± 2.14, including the students of all departments. Besides, findings specified that the overall mean and standard deviation scores were 3.34 and ±0.88. Internet addiction revealed mean and the standard deviation score measured for all students 3.29 ± 0.73, 3.17 ± 0.92, and 3.57 ± 0.64 correspondingly. The survey results illustrated that medical students' internet addiction substantially correlated with demographic variables, such as age, marital status, the field of study, academic term, significant time of consuming the internet, the key reason of utilizing the internet, and daily usage of the internet ( < .05).

Conclusion: The results of the study specified that 25% of medical students showed internet addiction. The students are increasingly using the internet, and it has penetrated among students. The design and implementation of adequate educational programs and the application of internet-based efficiency interventions are essential for both knowledge acquisition and medical students' healthy behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684X211025438DOI Listing
June 2021

Innovative human resource management strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic narrative review approach.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 7;7(6):e07233. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Health Information Management, School of Paramedical Sciences, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Background: The spread of COVID-19 creates disruption, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity in all organizations. People are the primary asset of any organization and help achieve their goals. Accordingly, to manage human resources sustainably, the organizational strategy review is an appropriate retort.

Objective: The purpose of this comprehensive review study is to identify unknown challenges, strategies, and unusual decisions related to human resource management other than clinical organizations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The study applied a narrative review approach dissection based on organizations' human resource management strategies to combat the COVID-19 impacts. The review study conducted published literature research through the electronic databases at Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and LISTA. The study extracted 1281 articles from the mentioned databases from November 2021 to the first quarter of 2021. This study reviewed selected papers, included 15 relevant articles, and removed duplicates according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally, the study developed a conceptual framework of human resource management strategies based on the literature findings to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: The COVID-19 pandemic posed numerous adverse consequences, such as economic shock, global health crisis, change in social behaviors, and challenges at the organization level to continue business operations. Besides, the strategies included flexibility, strengthening internal efficiency, talent acquisition, and making innovative changes based on organizational assessment and needs for smooth business activities.

Conclusion: The appropriate human resource management strategies implementations would increase employees' mental well-being, satisfaction, productivity, motivation, and health safety at the workplace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183111PMC
June 2021

Comparing the Associated Factors on Lifestyle Between Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Healthy People: A Case-Control Study.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2021 Jun 7:272684X211022158. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: the most important way to control diabetes is to follow a preventive lifestyle and if a diabetic individual follows a preventive lifestyle which he or she has accepted. The main objective of the current study is to compare the factors affecting the lifestyle in patients suffering from Type II diabetes and the healthy individuals in Kermanshah City.

Methods: this study is based on a case-control design where using simple random sampling, 110 patients suffering from type II diabetes are selected as the case group and 111 healthy subjects among the companions of other patients are selected as the control group from the Center for Diabetics in Kermanshah City. The average age of the participants is . The questionnaires used for collecting the data included the following: the demographic information questionnaire and the lifestyle questionnaire which covers diet, physical activity, coping with stress, and smoking. Software applications including STSTA14 and SPSS23 were used for performing statistical computations and logistic regression or linear regression tests were used for analyzing the collected data.

Results: in the subscales of diet, physical activity, spiritual growth, and stress management, there was a significant difference between the diabetic and healthy groups in a wat that the average score for these subscales was higher in the healthy individuals. While the average score for "health responsibility" was higher in the diabetic group compared to the healthy subjects, the difference was not significant (). Moreover, there was a significant statistical relationship between the two groups, i.e. the diabetic and healthy groups, and the variables of age, education level, and occupation (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: healthy lifestyle including proper diet and athletic activity is effective in preventing type II diabetes. Accordingly, implementing policies in the urban transportation system such as providing a special lane for bikers in the cities, increasing the tax for harmful foods, considering subsidies for healthy food products, and self-care of individuals can be effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684X211022158DOI Listing
June 2021

The promise and perils of Unit 731 data to advance COVID-19 research.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 05;6(5)

School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141376PMC
May 2021

The Role of Social Media in the Advent of COVID-19 Pandemic: Crisis Management, Mental Health Challenges and Implications.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 12;14:1917-1932. Epub 2021 May 12.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 6715847141, Iran.

Background: This study focuses on how educating people through social media platforms can help reduce the mental health consequences of the COVID-19 to manage the global health crisis. The pandemic has posed a global mental health crisis, and correct information is indispensable to dispel uncertainty, fear, and mental stress to unify global communities in collective combat against COVID-19 disease worldwide. Mounting studies specified that manifestly endless coronavirus-related newsfeeds and death numbers considerably increased the risk of global mental health issues. Social media provided positive and negative data, and the COVID-19 has resulted in a worldwide infodemic. It has eroded public trust and impeded virus restraint, which outlived the coronavirus pandemic itself.

Methods: The study incorporated the narrative review analysis based on the existing literature related to mental health problems using the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) approach to minimize the COVID-19 adverse consequences on global mental health. The study performed a search of the electronic databases available at PsycINFO, PubMed, and LISTA. This research incorporates the statistical data related to the COVID-19 provided by the WHO, John Hopkins University, and Pakistani Ministry of Health.

Results: Pakistan reported the second-highest COVID-19 cases within South Asia, the fifth-highest number of cases in Asia after Iran, India, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and the 14th highest recorded cases, as of October 14, 2020. Pakistan effectively managed the COVID-19 pandemic in the second wave. It stands at the eighth-highest number of confirmed cases in Asia, the 3rd-highest in South Asia, and the 28th-highest number of established patients globally, as of February20, 2021.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 has resulted in over 108.16 million confirmed cases, deaths over 2.374 million, and a recovery of 80.16 million people worldwide, as of February 12, 2021. This study focused on exploring the COVID-19 pandemic's adverse effects on global public health and the indispensable role of social media to provide the correct information in the COVID-19 health crisis. The findings' generalizability offers helpful insight for crisis management and contributes to the scientific literature. The results might provide a stepping-stone for conduct future empirical studies by including other factors to conclude exciting developments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S284313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126999PMC
May 2021

The effect of education based on health belief model on promoting preventive behaviors of hypertensive disease in staff of the Iran University of Medical Sciences.

Arch Public Health 2021 May 5;79(1):69. Epub 2021 May 5.

Nursing Care Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R., Iran.

Background: Hypertension is one of the major causes of many diseases, such as heart attack, strokes, kidney failure, and many internal disorders. This presentresearch study aimed to investigate the impact of educational programs based on the health belief model to promote hypertension prevention behavior of Iran University of Medical Sciences staff.

Methods: This study has incorporated pretest-posttest quasi-experimental based on 128 staff members and randomly assigned the recruited and involved participants to an intervention (n = 64) and a control group (n = 64). The data collection tool was based on a questionnaire related to health belief model constructs based on 42 questions. The study interpreted the results using ANCOVA and robust ANCOVA as suitable approaches.

Results: ANCOVA showed improvement in the cues to participants' action following educational interventional (p = 0.011). the robust ANCOVA specified that the intervention was successful for participants with low to moderate initial levels of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy scores. The levels of these components did not change in participants with very high baseline scores. Compared to a control group, regardless of baseline score, the perceived benefits and practice (behavior) of participants at the intervention group were improved significantly (P <  0.05).

Conclusion: This current study specified that the education-based health belief model effectively promotes hypertension preventive behaviors among Iran University of Medical Sciences staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-021-00594-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097917PMC
May 2021

Correlation between general health and sexual function in older women in an Iranian setting.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 26;9:300. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Nutrition, Khalkhal University of Medical Sciences, Khalkhal, Iran.

Introduction: The world's population is aging and this trend continues. Older adults are living healthier and longer than in the last decades and their sexual function should also be considered along with their general health. This study aimed to examine the correlation between general health and sexual function in elderly women.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional correlation study, 1245 women over 60 years old were selected in Ardabil health-care centers by a convenient sampling method. Demographic data of all participants were noted and general health and sexual function were evaluated by the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire.

Results: The participants' mean ± standard deviation age was 75.1 ± 7.2 years, most of the women (40.08%) were illiterate, and the majority of them were living with their married (44.81%) or single children (27.14%). The general health score for 380 older women (30.52%) was under 22 (healthy). About 60% of the women had engaged in sexual activity during the past 4 weeks, and the total mean score of FSFI was 17.36 ± 1.44. In addition, 84.33% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55). The age ( < 0.05), educational level ( < 0.001), living with children ( < 0.01), and general health status ( < 0.01) were found to be significantly related to sexual function. The total scores for FSFI and the scores for all domains except for satisfaction were in positive correlation with the score for the total and all domains of general health ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: Sexual function in elderly women is affected by several factors, such as general health. Therefore, to promote successful aging in women, sexual function and general health require more attention when implementing women's health initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_316_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774623PMC
November 2020

Mental health consequences of COVID-19 media coverage: the need for effective crisis communication practices.

Global Health 2021 01 5;17(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Unit of Psychiatry, Institute of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences; & Center for Cognition and Brain Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China.

During global pandemics, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), crisis communication is indispensable in dispelling fears, uncertainty, and unifying individuals worldwide in a collective fight against health threats. Inadequate crisis communication can bring dire personal and economic consequences. Mounting research shows that seemingly endless newsfeeds related to COVID-19 infection and death rates could considerably increase the risk of mental health problems. Unfortunately, media reports that include infodemics regarding the influence of COVID-19 on mental health may be a source of the adverse psychological effects on individuals. Owing partially to insufficient crisis communication practices, media and news organizations across the globe have played minimal roles in battling COVID-19 infodemics. Common refrains include raging QAnon conspiracies, a false and misleading "Chinese virus" narrative, and the use of disinfectants to "cure" COVID-19. With the potential to deteriorate mental health, infodemics fueled by a kaleidoscopic range of misinformation can be dangerous. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of research on how to improve crisis communication across media and news organization channels. This paper identifies ways that legacy media reports on COVID-19 and how social media-based infodemics can result in mental health concerns. This paper discusses possible crisis communication solutions that media and news organizations can adopt to mitigate the negative influences of COVID-19 related news on mental health. Emphasizing the need for global media entities to forge a fact-based, person-centered, and collaborative response to COVID-19 reporting, this paper encourages media resources to focus on the core issue of how to slow or stop COVID-19 transmission effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00654-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784222PMC
January 2021

The Impact of Coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) Epidemic on Individuals Mental Health: The Protective Measures of Pakistan in Managing and Sustaining Transmissible Disease.

Authors:
Jaffar Abbas

Psychiatr Danub 2020 Autumn - Winter;32(3-4):472-477

Antai College of Economics and Management (ACM), School of Media and Communication (SMC), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Postcode 200240, Shanghai, China,

Background: This study performed a focalized examination of the global impact of the coronavirus epidemic. This current review is one of the few kinds of research, which has sought to check the effect of the coronavirus on mental health issues and the need for psychological well-being in the standard population and patients in response to the global wake of the epidemic and its effects in Pakistan.

Subjects And Methods: This study has utilized the data on coronavirus patients from the Ministry of Health, National Institute of Health Pakistan. The age of the confirmed coronavirus patients ranged from 12 to over 80 years, including international and local transmitters.

Results: Recorded data delivered by the National Institute of Health, Pakistan has quantified that the outbreak of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) entered Pakistan through international travelers. They carried the virus after they visited different countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, the USA, China, and European countries. By April 30, 2020, there were 16,473 confirmed cases of coronavirus. Total deaths are 361, with a mortality rate of 2.20%, and ultimately recovered cases reported 4,105 with a percentage of 24.90%. As of October 24, 2020, there were 327,063 confirmed cases of the COVID-19 in Pakistan, which posed vast social, economic, health, and environmental problems in the society. The epidemic has affected individuals across the country and confirmed patients in the country increased rapidly.

Conclusion: The government officials had initially estimated over 50,000 corona patents by April 30, which would be a great challenge; however, the situation remained under control because of suppression and smart-lockdown strategies by the Government. This study's findings reported that superior health facilities are required to treat the patients. This research review incorporated data generated by NIH, and respondents are from all the regions of Pakistan, subsequently restricting its generalizability to experimental results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24869/psyd.2020.472DOI Listing
January 2021

Effectiveness of telephone-based screening and triage during COVID-19 outbreak in the promoted primary healthcare system: a case study in Ardabil province, Iran.

Z Gesundh Wiss 2020 Nov 13:1-6. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Fellowship of National Health & Treatment Network Management, Department of Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Aims: Screening services for early detection of patients is one of the important capabilities of the health system with a proper referral system. In the crisis of respiratory infection of Covid-19, screening based on symptoms is one of the key measures. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the telephone-based screening and triage services in the promoted primary healthcare system with regard to the Covid-19 outbreak, in terms of reducing unnecessary referrals to the hospital.

Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in two stages on 1,406,635 households during March/April 2020 in Ardabil province for screening and early detection of Covid-19 disease. In the first stage, conducted by trained healthcare providers through telephone, individuals suspected of Covid-19 were identified. In the second stage, the individuals were referred to the second level of service in comprehensive healthcare centers (16- or 24-h centers) for clinical evaluation by a physician.

Results: The results showed that before establishing a screening and triage system for patients in comprehensive healthcare centers, all patients were referred directly to the hospital, while after the implementation of the program, a significant reduction in hospital visits was observed and a large number of patients undertook the care and triage services in comprehensive healthcare centers.

Conclusion: The use of a grading system in referring patients with suspected cases, triage of patients according to symptoms at the comprehensive health centers, and activation of home isolation were the most important factors in reducing the burden of unnecessary referrals of patients to the hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10389-020-01407-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665795PMC
November 2020

Nurses' Work-Related Quality of Life and Its Influencing Demographic Factors at a Public Hospital in Western Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2020 Nov 17:272684X20972838. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The quality of life as a concept beyond physical health stands one of the protuberant indexes, and various health-based studies required distinct measurements, which deemed necessary for their significant implications. The nurses fight at the front and play a leading role in providing services to patients at healthcare centers. They deserve a higher quality of life in catering to physical health services. This present study focuses on examining nurses' work-life quality standards and how demographic variables contribute to the hospital of Imam Reza in Kermanshah of Western Iran.

Methods: This descriptive-analytical study recruited a sample of 271 nurses affiliated with Imam Reza Hospital and Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by incorporating the stratified random sampling in 2019. This study used a two-part questionnaire to collect data from the targeted respondents. The first part presented the participants' demographic profiles, and the second part showed the nurses' work-related quality of life (WRQoL) on the scale developed by Van Laar et al. The study screened the data and performed analyses through the SPSS version-23. The research study conducted a descriptive analysis to measure mean and standard deviation with inferential statistics, including independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA (P < 0.05).

Results: The study findings specified that nurses' average quality of the work-life was at a moderate level 3.11 ± 0.47. Besides, results indicated that 57.50% of the nurses reported high standards of quality of work-life, 36.50% showed a modest and 5.20% revealed a lower level of work-life quality. The findings indicated that the quality of work-life significantly correlated with respondent'' age, marital status, education, work experience, position, department, shifts, and employment status (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of this research demonstrated that the nurses' quality of work-life was higher than the average standard. The results provide useful insight for nurses and hospital managers. The policymakers and health managers need to pay more attention to providing a better quality of work-life to the nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684X20972838DOI Listing
November 2020

Emotional Intelligence and Quality of Life in Elderly Diabetic Patients.

Int Q Community Health Educ 2020 Oct 21:272684X20965811. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Coordination of various physical and mental aspects of individuals, including the ability to control difficult conditions and situations has an effect in the prevention and development of various diseases, such as diabetes, and the improvement of the quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of this study was is to determine the effect of emotional intelligence on the quality of life of elderly diabetic patients.

Methods: This study was conducted in 2018. The statistical population in this cross-sectional study consisted of elderly people referred to the health centers of Kermanshah province in western Iran, who were divided via available sampling into two groups with diabetes and without diabetes. Data gathering tools were a couple of LIPAD Quality of Life and Shrink Emotional Intelligence standard questionnaires. The Data was analysed using software SPSS, 23 th version. Tests were used (T-test, Chi-square, Anova and regression).

Results: Most of them were male (52.72%) and the mean age of the patients was 65.01(±6.08) years old and married. The quality of life score in diabetics and non-diabetics was respectively 51.9 and 50.37 with a standard deviation of 17.73 and 20.54. The mean total score of emotional intelligence in the elderly with diabetes was 99.42 with a standard deviation of 10.37 and non-diabetic subjects were 97.18 with a standard deviation of 18.4.

Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the mean scores of quality of life (0.652) and emotional intelligence (0.421) in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. But, the emotional intelligence has an effect on the quality of life of the elderly people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272684X20965811DOI Listing
October 2020

A study of internet addiction and its effects on mental health: A study based on Iranian University Students.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 31;9:205. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: The Internet has drastically affected human behavior, and it has positive and negative effects; however, its excessive usage exposes users to internet addiction. The diagnosis of students' mental dysfunction is vital to monitor their academic progress and success by preventing this technology through proper handling of the usage addiction.

Materials And Methods: This descriptive-analytical study selected 447 students (232 females and 215 males) of the first and second semesters enrolled at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2018 by using Cochrane's sample size formula and stratified random sampling. The study applied Young's Internet Addiction Test and Goldberg General Health Questionnaire 28 for data collection. The study screened the data received and analyzed valid data set through the -test and Pearson's correlation coefficient by incorporating SPSS Statistics software version 23.0.

Results: The results of the current study specified that the total mean score of the students for internet addiction and mental health was 3.81 ± 0.88 and 2.56 ± 0.33, correspondingly. The results revealed that internet addiction positively correlated with depression and mental health, which indicated a negative relationship ( > 0.001). The multiple regression analysis results showed students' five significant vulnerability predictors toward internet addiction, such as the critical reason for using the Internet, faculty, depression, the central place for using the Internet, and somatic symptoms.

Conclusions: The study findings specified that students' excessive internet usage leads to anxiety, depression, and adverse mental health, which affect their academic performance. Monitoring and controlling students' internet addiction through informative sessions on how to use the Internet adequately is useful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_148_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530416PMC
August 2020

A race for a better understanding of COVID-19 vaccine non-adopters.

Brain Behav Immun Health 2020 Dec 9;9:100159. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

School of Public Health, China Institute for Urban Governance, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

In this paper, we aim to underscore the need for a more nuanced understanding of vaccine non-adopters. As the availability of vaccines does not translate into their adoption-a phenomenon that may be more pronounced amid "Operation Warp Speed"-it is important for public health professionals to thoroughly understand their "customers" (i.e., end users of COVID-19 vaccines) to ensure satisfactory vaccination rates and to safeguard society at large.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544597PMC
December 2020

Challenges Facing Women Survivors of Self-Immolation in the Kurdish Regions of Iran: A Qualitative Study.

Front Psychiatry 2020 14;11:778. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: Women confront many problems after self-immolation, so the purpose of this study was to explore the challenges facing women survivors of self-immolation in the Kurdish Regions of Iran.

Method: This study used a qualitative approach and conventional content analysis. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 19 Kurdish women who attempted self-immolation in Iran. They were sampled through purposeful sampling and snowball sampling. The Lincoln and Guba criteria were used to strengthen the research.

Results: The results of data analysis were categorized into five main categories: 1-psychological problems, 2-lack of social and legal supportive structures, 3-incomplete treatment, 4-poor self-care, and 5-social problems. These categories consist of 19 subcategories.

Conclusion: Having been rescued from self-immolation, the women confront many challenges returning to normal life. Reducing these women's problems and paving the way for their return to life requires multi-dimensional and community-based interventions. Therefore, all social organizations and institutes can cooperate and each of them paves part of the way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456816PMC
August 2020

Letter to highlight the effects of isolation on elderly during COVID-19 outbreak.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2020 12 16;35(12):1477-1478. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Antai College of Economics and Management (ACM), School of Media and Communication (SMC), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5423DOI Listing
December 2020

How the COVID-19 pandemic effected economic, social, political, and cultural factors: A lesson from Iran.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2021 05 2;67(3):298-300. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Health Education and Health Promotion, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764020939984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107447PMC
May 2021

Prioritization of needs among students of University of Medical Sciences: A needs assessment.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 31;9:57. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The need assessment is a fundamental part of any planning, and almost by neglecting it, the effectiveness of the programs is impossible. The purpose of this study was the prioritization of needs among students of the Iran University of Medical Sciences.

Materials And Methods: The design study was conducted in two parts; in the first part, the design of the questionnaire was done by qualitative methods. The questionnaires were extracted by interviewing and obtained acceptable validity and reliability. Moreover, the second part created a questionnaire consisting of four categories: education, welfare, economic, and psychological and social. A simple random sampling method was used to select 363 people using the Cochran formula. Finally, 336 people (including 28 people excluded) completed the questionnaire. A questionnaire designed to collect sample data was used and analyzed using version 23 of SPSS.

Results: A total of 336 students (26.77 ± 5.45 years) participated in the study. 123 (36.6%) were male and 213 (63.4%) were female. Psychological and social needs of students were prioritized, and educational priorities were ranked second. The findings showed that there was no significant statistical difference between the scores of welfares and psychosocial and educational needs and the gender of the research units ( > 0.05). However, in the mean of economic needs scores, there is a significant statistical difference between the marital status of the research units ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results of our study in the research units showed that the priority of psychosocial needs was more than other needs and the educational priority was the next. According to the results of this study, we suggest that, in future educational and educational planning, policymakers and planners should pay attention to psychological and social issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0445-7706.281641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255571PMC
March 2020

COVID-19 Pandemic and Impending Global Mental Health Implications.

Psychiatr Danub 2020 ;32(1):32-35

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan,

The increase in organisms transference and infectious pandemics across the globe have been accelerated by an increase in travel, international exchange and global changes in earth's climate. COVID-19, a virus caused by the novel coronavirus that was initially identified on December 2019, in Wuhan city of China is currently affecting 146 territories, states and countries raising distress, panic and increasing anxiety in individuals exposed to the (actual or supposed) peril of the virus across the globe. Fundamentally, these concerns ascend with all infections, including those of flu and other agents, and the same worldwide safeguards are compulsory and suggested for protection and the prevention of further diffusion. However, media has underlined COVID-19 as rather an exclusive threat, which has added to panic and stress in masses which can lead to several mental health issues like anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder which should be contained immediately in its initial phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24869/psyd.2020.32DOI Listing
April 2020

Prioritizing health promotion lifestyle domains in students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences from the students and professors' perspective.

J Educ Health Promot 2019 29;8:228. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: An individual's lifestyle is closely related to the health so that a healthy lifestyle improves the purpose of this study was prioritizing health promotion lifestyle domains in students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences from the students and professors' perspective.

Materials And Methods: This study was done in cross-sectional method. The statistical population of this study consisted of students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2018. In addition, 10 faculty members in this university and five students were questioned in Delphi method from different educational groups. The questionnaire was used consisted of two parts. The first part included demographic characteristics, and the second part included the standard questions for Pender's health promotion model. The Delphi needs assessment method was also used to collect the information.

Results: The mean score of students' health-promoting behaviors was average (135.22 ± 19.35). The greatest score of health promotion behaviors was related to the spiritual growth scale (25.3 ± 5.4), and the lowest score was for physical activity (19.7 ± 05.1). The results of the Delphi method also suggested that both groups of faculty members and students believe that the dimensions of health accountability, physical activity, and prevention of high-risk behaviors in the students' lifestyle, need to be intervened.

Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the students' lifestyle at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences was in average condition and low scores in the dimension of physical activity. Planned interventions should be made to promote health-promoting lifestyle among these students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_250_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905280PMC
November 2019

The Relationship of Religiosity and Marital Satisfaction: The Role of Religious Commitment and Practices on Marital Satisfaction Among Pakistani Respondents.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2019 Mar 20;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 20.

School of Sociology and Political Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

The sociology of religion focuses on an individual's social and married life. This research performed the first focalized examination of the influence of spirituality and religiosity on the marital satisfaction of Pakistani Muslim couples and how religious commitment and religious practice strengthens the relationship of married couples. This study incorporates the Kansas Marital Satisfaction scale (KMSS), the Religious Commitment Inventory (RCI-10) and the Religious Practice scale to measure marital satisfaction. Survey questionnaires, including a survey invitation letter and an informed consent form, were sent to married couples residing in five urban areas of Pakistan. The sample consisted of 508 valid responses, 254 males and 254 females, exploring the respondent's perception of their marital satisfaction. The data received were screened and tested through SPSS version 25. The first step of the data analysis was to examine the impact of religiosity variables (religious commitment, religious practice) on marital satisfaction. Findings indicated that religious commitment and religious practice are vital for a happy married life. The findings help explain the social dynamics of marital satisfaction in Pakistani culture. The results also indicated that religious commitment and religious practice strengthened and promoted marital satisfaction. This study is novel in the context of Pakistani culture and conclusions cannot be generalized to the whole population. Other religious factors may provide further research directions. The results of this study may help practitioners and decision-makers focusing on marital satisfaction issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs9030030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466571PMC
March 2019

The moderating role of social support for marital adjustment, depression, anxiety, and stress: Evidence from Pakistani working and nonworking women.

J Affect Disord 2019 02 3;244:231-238. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

School of Sociology and Political Science, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan, 200444 Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: This study examined how social support moderates the prolongation of mental distress related to depression, anxiety, stress, and marital adjustment in working and nonworking women. The study aimed to reveal the relationship between social support and mental health issues associated with depression, anxiety, stress, and marital adjustment among females.

Methods: This research study is among the few studies performed in a Pakistani context and was conducted in 2017 to measure affective disorders among nonworking and working married females. Questionnaires were distributed among 500 targeted women, and valid responses were received from married working women in hospitals, banks, and multinational companies, and married nonworking women from residential areas of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional design with purposive sampling was adapted for this research, and three scales were used to measure stress, anxiety, depression, social support, and marital adjustment and its social and cultural implications among the sampled population.

Results: Social support was positively and significantly associated with marital adjustment, although it showed a negative association with anxiety, depression, and stress in working and nonworking women; this finding reflects the better mental health of the study population. The findings proved that marital adjustment has a negative relation with depression and anxiety in married working and nonworking females. Social support acts as a moderator for marital cohesion, affection, stress, and depression, and the results reflected that nonworking women with higher marital cohesion and affection showed less stress and depression because of social support.

Limitations: The findings of this sample cannot be generalized to the whole population as they are specific to the targeted respondents only.

Conclusion: The study revealed that women's mental health is affected by psychological distress caused by depression, anxiety, stress, social and cultural norms, and their implications. Lower stress and depression lead to better mental health as ostensive social support may help to explain the relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.07.071DOI Listing
February 2019
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