Publications by authors named "Jafar Bazyar"

10 Publications

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Epidemiology of road traffic crashes in Ilam Province, Iran, 2009-2013.

BMC Res Notes 2020 Nov 10;13(1):517. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Objective: Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are major public health challenges of world health systems, and the main leading cause of death in children and young adults aged 5 to 29 years. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology of RTCs in Ilam, Iran.

Results: The total mortality rate due to RTCs has been increasing every year. There was a statistically significant relationship between age/sex and death or injury from RTCs in pedestrians, drivers, and passengers (p < 0.05). There was a significant relationship between the part of body trauma and RTCs in pedestrians (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between the type of vehicle and using seat belt with RTCs in drivers and passengers (p = 0.000).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05366-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653693PMC
November 2020

Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2020 May;49(5):837-850

Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Background: Disasters are increasing all over the world. Iran, is one of the high-risk countries in this regard; so it is unavoidable to prepare hospitals as vital centers when disasters happen. This study aimed to evaluation the hospital preparedness based on previous studies in Iran.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis by browsing through all articles published since 2006 to 2017, in English and Persian both languages were designed. Databases that we searched to, include Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Medlib, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Internationally and SID, Irandoc and Magiran, domestically. Two expert researchers investigated separately. Researchers used random and fixed effect models in the meta-analysis. Moreover, random and fixed effects model and meta-regression tests were applied by using STATA ver. 11. The <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Twenty-five studies with a sample size of 181 hospitals were introduced to the process of meta-analysis. Iranian hospital preparedness is 53%, totally, that is moderate. Preparedness in different categories is as follows: emergency services 62%, communication 57%, security 54%, education 57%, logistic 65%, human resources 52%, Management and command 64%, reception 43%, transfer and evacuation 44%, traffic 47%, non-structural safety 57%, and structural safety 49%.

Conclusion: Hospital preparedness is moderate in Iran. Optimal management of existing resources and the use of Update technologies in the field of hospital services be directed towards improving the preparedness of hospitals for disasters.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475629PMC
May 2020

Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2020 May;49(5):837-850

Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Background: Disasters are increasing all over the world. Iran, is one of the high-risk countries in this regard; so it is unavoidable to prepare hospitals as vital centers when disasters happen. This study aimed to evaluation the hospital preparedness based on previous studies in Iran.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis by browsing through all articles published since 2006 to 2017, in English and Persian both languages were designed. Databases that we searched to, include Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Medlib, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Internationally and SID, Irandoc and Magiran, domestically. Two expert researchers investigated separately. Researchers used random and fixed effect models in the meta-analysis. Moreover, random and fixed effects model and meta-regression tests were applied by using STATA ver. 11. The <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Twenty-five studies with a sample size of 181 hospitals were introduced to the process of meta-analysis. Iranian hospital preparedness is 53%, totally, that is moderate. Preparedness in different categories is as follows: emergency services 62%, communication 57%, security 54%, education 57%, logistic 65%, human resources 52%, Management and command 64%, reception 43%, transfer and evacuation 44%, traffic 47%, non-structural safety 57%, and structural safety 49%.

Conclusion: Hospital preparedness is moderate in Iran. Optimal management of existing resources and the use of Update technologies in the field of hospital services be directed towards improving the preparedness of hospitals for disasters.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475629PMC
May 2020

The Principles of Triage in Emergencies and Disasters: A Systematic Review.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2020 Jun 6;35(3):305-313. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The use of triage systems is one of the most important measures in response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) caused by emergencies and disasters. In these systems, certain principles and criteria must be considered that can be achieved with a lack of resources. Accordingly, the present study was conducted as a systematic review to explore the principles of triage systems in emergencies and disasters world-wide.

Methods: The present study was conducted as a systematic review of the principles of triage in emergencies and disasters. All papers published from 2000 through 2019 were extracted from the Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases. The search for the articles was conducted by two trained researchers independently.

Results: The classification and prioritization of the injured people, the speed, and the accuracy of the performance were considered as the main principles of triage. In certain circumstances, including chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, certain principles must be considered in addition to the principles of the triage based on traumatic events. Usually in triage systems, the classification of the injured people is done using color labeling. The short duration of the triage and its accuracy are important for the survival of the injured individuals. The optimal use of available resources to protect the lives of more casualties is one of the important principles of triage systems and does not conflict with equity in health.

Conclusion: The design of the principles of triage in triage systems is based on scientific studies and theories in which attempts have been made to correctly classify the injured people with the maximum correctness and in the least amount of time to maintain the survival of the injured people and to achieve the most desirable level of health. It is suggested that all countries adopt a suitable and context-bond model of triage in accordance with all these principles, or to propose a new model for the triage of injured patients, particularly for hospitals in emergencies and disasters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X20000291DOI Listing
June 2020

Environmental Related Risk Factors to Road Traffic Accidents in Ilam, Iran.

Med Arch 2019 Jun;73(3):169-172

Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the most serious health issue in the world and the main cause of death after the first year of birth. Environmental factors are among the most important and effective aspects of RTIs occurrences and their human consequences.

Aim: This study aimed to identify the environmental factors associated with road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Ilam province.

Methods: All crash data in Ilam province in 2012 were investigated. RTI's data was collected using COM 114 form which included some human, environmental and vehicle related factors. Through Chi-Square test and logistic regression model, the association between environmental factors and RTIs was examined. For all statistical analyses we used the package Stata 13.1.

Results: A total of 2314 traffic accidents were investigated. The highest 1659 (72.3%) and lowest 19 (0.83%) frequency of RTAs occurred during day and sunrise respectively. The majority of RTAs took place in July and September. The maximum number of RTAs was when the day was clear (91.7%) 2103 and the minimum when it was cloudy (3.5%) 81. A significant relationship was found between fatal RTAs and factors such as; the sort of the road, the hindered visibility, the location of the accident, the accidents' place, the climate, and lighting of the day (P<0.05). The adjusted chance of traffic accidents causing death or injuries in main streets was 9.7 times more than in highways; in sidetracks it was 3.54 times more. And when it was cloudy, the chance was 2.60 times more than when was clear (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Regarding the standards of road construction, development of the roads, and educating drivers how to adjust their driving behavior to the environment and road conditions could have a great role in decreasing RTAs causing death or injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2019.73.169-172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6643320PMC
June 2019

A comprehensive evaluation of the association between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes of major organ systems: a systematic review with a worldwide approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 May 22;26(13):12648-12661. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Ambient air pollution is nowadays one of the most crucial contributors to deteriorating health status worldwide. The components of air pollution include PM and PM, NO, SO, CO, O, and organic compounds. They are attributed to several health outcomes, for instance, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), respiratory diseases, birth outcomes, neurologic diseases, and psychiatric diseases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between different ambient air pollutants and the above-mentioned health outcomes. In this systematic review, a total of 76 articles was ultimately selected from 2653 articles, through multiple screening steps by the aid of a set of exclusion criteria as non-English articles, indoor air pollution assessment, work-related, occupational and home-attributed pollution, animal studies, tobacco smoking effects, letters to editors, commentaries, animal experiments, reviews, case reports and case series, out of 19,862 published articles through a systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Then, the associations between air pollution and different health outcomes were measured as relative risks and odds ratios. The association between air pollutants, PM and PM, NO, SO, CO, O, and VOC with major organ systems health was investigated through the gathered studies. Relative risks and/or odds ratios attributed to each air pollutant/outcome were ultimately reported. In this study, a thorough and comprehensive discussion of all aspects of the contribution of ambient air pollutants in health outcomes was proposed. To our knowledge up to now, there is no such comprehensive outlook on this issue. Growing concerns in concert with air pollution-induced health risks impose a great danger on the life of billions of people worldwide. Should we propose ideas and schemes to reduce ambient air pollutant, there will be dramatic reductions in the prevalence and occurrence of health-threatening conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04874-zDOI Listing
May 2019

Triage Systems in Mass Casualty Incidents and Disasters: A Review Study with A Worldwide Approach.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Feb 12;7(3):482-494. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Injuries caused by emergencies and accidents are increasing in the world. To prioritise patients to provide them with proper services and to optimally use the resources and facilities of the medical centres during accidents, the use of triage systems, which are one of the key principles of accident management, seems essential.

Aim: This study is an attempt to identify available triage systems and compare the differences and similarities of the standards of these systems during emergencies and disasters through a review study.

Methods: This study was conducted through a review of the triage systems used in emergencies and disasters throughout the world. Accordingly, all articles published between 1990 and 2018 in both English and Persian journals were searched based on several keywords including Triage, Disaster, Mass Casualty Incidents, in the Medlib, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google scholar, Irandoc, Magiran, Iranmedex, and SID databases in isolation and in combination using both and/ or conjunctions.

Results: Based on the search done in these databases, twenty different systems were identified in the primary adult triage field including START, Homebush triage Standard, Sieve, CareFlight, STM, Military, CESIRA Protocol, MASS, Revers, CBRN Triage, Burn Triage, META Triage, Mass Gathering Triage, SwiFT Triage, MPTT, TEWS Triage, Medical Triage, SALT, mSTART and ASAV. There were two primary triage systems including Jump START and PTT for children, and also two secondary triage systems encompassing SAVE and Sort identified in this respect. ESI and CRAMS were two other cases distinguished for hospital triage systems.

Conclusion: There are divergent triage systems in the world, but there is no general and universal agreement on how patients and injured people should be triaged. Accordingly, these systems may be designed based on such criteria as vital signs, patient's major problems, or the resources and facilities needed to respond to patients' needs. To date, no triage system has been known as superior, specifically about the patients' clinical outcomes, improvement of the scene management or allocation of the resources compared to other systems. Thus, it is recommended that different countries such as Iran design their triage model for emergencies and disasters by their native conditions, resources and relief forces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390156PMC
February 2019

Triage Systems in Mass Casualty Incidents and Disasters: A Review Study with A Worldwide Approach.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019 Feb 12;7(3):482-494. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Health in Emergency and Disaster Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Injuries caused by emergencies and accidents are increasing in the world. To prioritise patients to provide them with proper services and to optimally use the resources and facilities of the medical centres during accidents, the use of triage systems, which are one of the key principles of accident management, seems essential.

Aim: This study is an attempt to identify available triage systems and compare the differences and similarities of the standards of these systems during emergencies and disasters through a review study.

Methods: This study was conducted through a review of the triage systems used in emergencies and disasters throughout the world. Accordingly, all articles published between 1990 and 2018 in both English and Persian journals were searched based on several keywords including Triage, Disaster, Mass Casualty Incidents, in the Medlib, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google scholar, Irandoc, Magiran, Iranmedex, and SID databases in isolation and in combination using both and/ or conjunctions.

Results: Based on the search done in these databases, twenty different systems were identified in the primary adult triage field including START, Homebush triage Standard, Sieve, CareFlight, STM, Military, CESIRA Protocol, MASS, Revers, CBRN Triage, Burn Triage, META Triage, Mass Gathering Triage, SwiFT Triage, MPTT, TEWS Triage, Medical Triage, SALT, mSTART and ASAV. There were two primary triage systems including Jump START and PTT for children, and also two secondary triage systems encompassing SAVE and Sort identified in this respect. ESI and CRAMS were two other cases distinguished for hospital triage systems.

Conclusion: There are divergent triage systems in the world, but there is no general and universal agreement on how patients and injured people should be triaged. Accordingly, these systems may be designed based on such criteria as vital signs, patient's major problems, or the resources and facilities needed to respond to patients' needs. To date, no triage system has been known as superior, specifically about the patients' clinical outcomes, improvement of the scene management or allocation of the resources compared to other systems. Thus, it is recommended that different countries such as Iran design their triage model for emergencies and disasters by their native conditions, resources and relief forces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390156PMC
February 2019

The relationship between some neonatal and maternal factors during pregnancy with the prevalence of congenital malformations in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Nov 8;32(21):3666-3674. Epub 2018 May 8.

f Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery , Ilam University of Medical Sciences , Ilam , Iran.

Congenital malformations are one of the main causes of death and disability in children. These malformations arise during embryogenesis and fetal development during pregnancy due to exposure to some environmental factors and genetic mutations. Given the high prevalence of congenital malformations in Iran, the current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between some neonatal and maternal factors during pregnancy with the prevalence of congenital malformations in Iran. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis study. All studies conducted in Iran were extracted between 2000 and 2016 during a search in internal and external databases of Medlib, Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, Magiran, SID, Cochrane, Irandoc, and all articles published. Then, the required data were entered into the Spss16 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL); and the model of fixed and random effects was analyzed in meta-analysis, Cochran, meta-regression using statistical tests. A total of 30 studies with a sample size of 928,311 patients were enrolled. Baby's gender (1-1.55: CI95%) OR: 1.25, preterm delivery (1.71-3.69: CI 95%) OR: 2.51, low birth weight (1.13-2.67: CI95%) OR: 1.74, age older than 35 for the pregnant mother (1.41-6.3: CI 95%) OR: 2.98, multiple births (1.14-3.46: CI 95%) OR: 1.99, mother suffering from chronic diseases (1.68-3.31: CI 95%) OR: 2.36 are significantly related with the risk of congenital malformations. Based on the results the baby's gender, premature birth, low birth weight, mother's age, consanguineous marriages, multiple births, family history of congenital malformations, and the risk of chronic diseases in the mother during pregnancy increase the birth of children with congenital malformations. As a result, control or modification of the above factors implementing a health and education intervention program can reduce the birth of children with congenital malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2018.1465917DOI Listing
November 2019

The prevalence of sexual violence during pregnancy in Iran and the world: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Inj Violence Res 2018 Jul 27;10(2):63-74. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran. Email:

Background: Domestic violence during pregnancy is a public health crisis, because it affects both mother and fetus simultaneously, resulting in irreversible consequences for mothers and their newborns. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence during pregnancy in the world and Iran as meta-analysis.

Methods: This study is a meta-analysis on the prevalence of sexual violence during pregnancy in the world and Iran that was conductedon Persian and English published articles up to 2015. To this end, through searching the information by key words and their compounds at SID, Medlib, Irandoc, Google scholar, Pubmid, ISI, Iranmedex, Scopus and Magiran, all related articles were extracted independently by two trained researchers. The results of studies analyzed using the STATA and Spss 16 software.

Results: In the initial searching of 167 articles, 33 articles related to Iran, 40 articles related to other parts of the world and totally 73 articles met inclusion criteria for study. The prevalence of sexual violence during pregnancy were estimated in the world 17% (CI 95%: 15% -18%) and in Iran 28% (CI 95%: 23%-32%). The prevalence of sexual violence during pregnancy in Iran is 11 percent more than the world.

Conclusions: According to the present meta-analysis results, the prevalence of sexual violence during pregnancy in Iran is high. Given that sexual violence during pregnancy causes damage to the mother and infant, it is recommended that the relevant authorities with the implementation of intervention and educational programs reduce the prevalence of sexual violence during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5249/jivr.v10i2.954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6101234PMC
July 2018