Publications by authors named "Jaeyoung Hong"

37 Publications

Assessment and utility of 2 Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 serological assays for seroprevalence studies among women in the United States.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jul 8;101(2):115480. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Two plasmid gene protein (Pgp3)-based serological assays, the Pgp3-ELISA and multiplex bead assay (Pgp3-MBA), were compared and used to estimate seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among females 14 to 39 years old participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2013-2016. Of the 2,201 specimens tested, 502 (29.5%, 95% CI 27.6-31.5) were positive using Pgp3-ELISA and 624 (28.4%, 95% CI 26.5-30.3) were positive using Pgp3-MBA. The overall agreement between the assays was 87.7%. Corresponding nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results were available for 1,725 specimens (from women 18-39 years old); of these, 42 (2.4%, 95% CI 1.8-3.3) were CT NAAT-positive. Most of the CT NAAT-positive specimens had corresponding positive serological assay results; 33 (78.6%, 95% CI 62.8-89.2) were Pgp3-ELISA-positive and 36 (85.7%, 95% CI 70.8-94.1) were Pgp3-MBA-positive. Although Pgp3-ELISA and Pgp3-MBA demonstrated equivalent performance in this study, an advantage of the Pgp3-MBA over Pgp3-ELISA is that it is well suited for high sample throughput applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2021.115480DOI Listing
July 2021

Chlamydial Pgp3 seropositivity and population attributable fraction among women with tubal factor infertility.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

1Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA 2University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 3Population Health Sciences and National Institute for Health Research, Health Protection Research Unit in Behavioural Science and Evaluation in Partnership with Public Health England, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK 4Section of Infectious Diseases Jefferiss Research Trust Laboratories Wright-Fleming Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus 5Alabama Fertility Specialists, Birmingham, AL 6University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health Department of Epidemiology and Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 7Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA 8Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Chlamydial infection is associated with tubal factor infertility (TFI); however, assessment of prior chlamydial infection and TFI is imperfect. We previously evaluated a combination of serological assays for association with TFI. We now describe the chlamydial contribution to TFI using a newer Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 enhanced serological (Pgp3) assay.

Methods: In our case-control study of women 19-42 years old with hysterosalpingogram-diagnosed TFI (cases) and non-TFI (controls) in two U.S. infertility clinics, we assessed possible associations and effect modifiers between Pgp3 seropositivity and TFI using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) stratified by race. We then estimated the adjusted chlamydia population attributable fraction (aPAF) with 95% CI of TFI.

Results: All black (n=107) and 618 of 620 non-black women had Pgp3 results. Pgp3 seropositivity was 25.9% (19.3-33.8%) for non-black cases, 15.2% (12.3-18.7%) for non-black controls, 66.0% (95% CI 51.7-77.8%) for black cases, and 71.7% (59.2-81.5%) for black controls. Among 476 non-black women without endometriosis (n=476), Pgp3 was associated with TFI (aOR 2.6 [1.5-4.4]), adjusting for clinic, age, and income; chlamydia TFI aPAF was 19.8% (95% CI 7.7-32.2%) in these women. Pgp3 positivity was not associated with TFI among non-black women with endometriosis nor among black women (regardless of endometriosis).

Conclusions: Among non-black infertile women without endometriosis in these clinics, 20% of TFI was attributed to chlamydia. Better biomarkers are needed to estimate chlamydia TFI PAF, especially in black women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001434DOI Listing
March 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

High Pgp3 Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity, pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility among women, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2013-2016.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and tubal infertility. Pgp3 antibody (Pgp3Ab) detects prior chlamydial infections. We evaluated for an association of high chlamydial seropositivity with sequelae using a Pgp3Ab multiplex bead array (Pgp3AbMBA).

Methods: We performed chlamydia Pgp3AbMBA on sera from women 18-39 years old participating in the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with urine chlamydia nucleic acid amplification test results. High chlamydial seropositivity was defined as a median fluorescence intensity (MFI ≥ 50,000; low-positive was MFI > 551-<50,000. Weighted US population high-positive, low-positive, and negative Pgp3Ab chlamydia seroprevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were compared for women with chlamydial infection, self-reported PID, and infertility.

Results: Of 2,339 women aged 18-39 years, 1,725 (73.7%) had sera and 1,425 were sexually experienced. Overall, 104 women had high positive Pgp3Ab (5.4% [95% CI 4.0-7.0] of US women); 407 had low positive Pgp3Ab (25.1% [95% CI 21.5-29.0]), and 914 had negative Pgp3Ab (69.5% [95% CI 65.5-73.4]).Among women with high Pgp3Ab, infertility prevalence was 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.7) times higher than among Pgp3Ab-negative women (19.6% [95% CI 10.5-31.7] versus 9.9% [95% CI 7.7-12.4]). For women with low Pgp3Ab, PID prevalence was 7.9% (95% CI 4.6-12.6) compared to 2.3% (95% CI 1.4-3.6) in negative Pgp3Ab.

Conclusions: High chlamydial Pgp3Ab seropositivity was associated with infertility although small sample size limited evaluation of an association of high seropositivity with PID. In infertile women, Pgp3Ab may be a marker of prior chlamydial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab506DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic Studies of Leptin Concentrations Implicate Leptin in the Regulation of Early Adiposity.

Diabetes 2020 12 11;69(12):2806-2818. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an exome-based analysis in up to 57,232 individuals of diverse ancestries to identify genetic variants that influence adiposity-adjusted leptin concentrations. We identify five novel variants, including four missense variants, in , , , and , and one intergenic variant near The missense variant Val94Met (rs17151919) in was common in individuals of African ancestry only, and its association with lower leptin concentrations was specific to this ancestry ( = 2 × 10, = 3,901). Using in vitro analyses, we show that the Met94 allele decreases leptin secretion. We also show that the Met94 allele is associated with higher BMI in young African-ancestry children but not in adults, suggesting that leptin regulates early adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db20-0070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679778PMC
December 2020

Revealing Kinetics of Two-Electron Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Single-Molecule Level.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 07 16;142(30):13201-13209. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Low Carbon Chemical Power, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, P. R. China.

By combining single-molecule fluorescence microscopy with traditional electrochemical methods, herein we report on the investigation of the electrocatalytic kinetics of two-electron (2e) pathway of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on a single FeO nanoparticle. The kinetic parameters for two-electron ORR process are successfully derived at the single-particle level, and a potential dependence of dynamic heterogeneity among individual nanoparticles is revealed. Furthermore, the performance stability of individual FeO nanoparticles for 2e ORR process is studied. This study deepens our understanding to the electrocatalytic ORR process, especially the 2e pathway at single-molecule and single-particle levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c06020DOI Listing
July 2020

Estimating Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Incidence and Mortality Using Capture-recapture, Florida.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Aug;73(3):506-512

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection (nHSV) leads to severe morbidity and mortality, but national incidence is uncertain. Florida regulations require that healthcare providers report cases, and clinical laboratories report test results when herpes simplex virus (HSV) is detected. We estimated nHSV incidence using laboratory-confirmed provider-reported cases and electronic laboratory reports (ELR) stored separately from provider-reported cases. Mortality was estimated using provider-reported cases, ELR, and vital statistics death records.

Methods: For 2011-2017, we reviewed: provider-reported cases (infants ≤ 60 days of age with HSV infection confirmed by culture or polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), ELR of HSV-positive culture or PCR results in the same age group, and death certificates containing International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, codes for herpes infection: P35.2, B00.0-B00.9, and A60.0-A60.9. Provider-reported cases were matched against ELR reports. Death certificates were matched with provider and ELR reports. Chapman's capture-recapture method was used to estimate nHSV incidence and mortality. Mortality from all 3 sources was estimated using log-linear modeling.

Results: Providers reported 114 nHSV cases, and ELR identified 197 nHSV cases. Forty-six cases were common to both datasets, leaving 265 unique nHSV reports. Chapman's estimate suggests 483 (95% confidence interval [CI], 383-634) nHSV cases occurred (31.5 infections per 100 000 live births). The nHSV deaths were reported by providers (n = 9), ELR (n = 18), and vital statistics (n = 31), totaling 34 unique reports. Log-linear modeling estimates 35.8 fatal cases occurred (95% CI, 34-40).

Conclusions: Chapman's estimates using data collected over 7 years in Florida conclude nHSV infections occurred at a rate of 1 per 3000 live births.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa727DOI Listing
August 2021

Tailored Palladium-Platinum Nanoconcave Cubes as High Performance Catalysts for the Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Feb 24;12(5):6328-6335. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Chemical Engineering , Kyung Hee University , Yongin 17104 , Republic of Korea.

To obtain high catalytic properties, finely modulating the electronic structure and active sites of catalysts is important. Herein, we report the design and economical synthesis of [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles for high productivity in the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide. [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles with a partially covered Pt shell on a Pd cube were synthesized using a simple direct seed-mediated growth method. The synthesized [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles were composed of high index faceted Pt on the corners and edges, while the Pd-Pt alloy was located on the terrace area of the Pd cubes. Because of the high-indexed Pt and Pd-Pt alloy sites, the synthesized concave [email protected] nanoparticles exhibited both high H conversion and HO selectivity compared with Pd cubes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b21558DOI Listing
February 2020

Design and synthesis of multigrain nanocrystals via geometric misfit strain.

Nature 2020 01 15;577(7790):359-363. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul, South Korea.

The impact of topological defects associated with grain boundaries (GB defects) on the electrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties of nanocrystalline materials is well known. However, elucidating this influence experimentally is difficult because grains typically exhibit a large range of sizes, shapes and random relative orientations. Here we demonstrate that precise control of the heteroepitaxy of colloidal polyhedral nanocrystals enables ordered grain growth and can thereby produce material samples with uniform GB defects. We illustrate our approach with a multigrain nanocrystal comprising a CoO nanocube core that carries a MnO shell on each facet. The individual shells are symmetry-related interconnected grains, and the large geometric misfit between adjacent tetragonal MnO grains results in tilt boundaries at the sharp edges of the CoO nanocube core that join via disclinations. We identify four design principles that govern the production of these highly ordered multigrain nanostructures. First, the shape of the substrate nanocrystal must guide the crystallographic orientation of the overgrowth phase. Second, the size of the substrate must be smaller than the characteristic distance between the dislocations. Third, the incompatible symmetry between the overgrowth phase and the substrate increases the geometric misfit strain between the grains. Fourth, for GB formation under near-equilibrium conditions, the surface energy of the shell needs to be balanced by the increasing elastic energy through ligand passivation. With these principles, we can produce a range of multigrain nanocrystals containing distinct GB defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1899-3DOI Listing
January 2020

Trends in Ectopic Pregnancy Diagnoses in United States Emergency Departments, 2006-2013.

Matern Child Health J 2020 Feb;24(2):213-221

Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Objectives: Ectopic pregnancy is an important adverse pregnancy outcome that is under-surveilled. Emergency department (ED) data can help provide insight on the trends of ectopic pregnancy incidence in the United States (US).

Methods: Data from the largest US all-payer ED database, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide ED Sample, were used to identify trends in the annual ratio of ED ectopic pregnancy diagnoses to live births during 2006-2013, and the annual rate of diagnoses among all pregnancies during 2006-2010. Diagnoses were identified through International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes and CPT codes.

Results: The overall ratio of weighted ED visits with an ectopic pregnancy diagnosis during 2006-2013 was 12.3 per 1000 live births. This ratio increased significantly from 2006 to 2013, from 11.0 to 13.7 ectopic pregnancies per 1000 live births, with no inflections in trend. The rate of ectopic pregnancy diagnoses per 1000 pregnancies increased during 2006-2010, from 7.0 to 8.3, with no inflections in trend. Females of all age groups experienced increases, though increases were less pronounced with increasing age. All geographic regions experienced increases, with increases being most pronounced in the Northeast.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that ED ectopic pregnancy diagnoses may be increasing in the US, although the drivers of these increases are not clear. Our results highlight the need for national measures of total pregnancies, stratified by pertinent demographic variables, to evaluate trends in pregnancy-related conditions among key populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-019-02842-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983328PMC
February 2020

Causal inference of latent classes in complex survey data with the estimating equation framework.

Stat Med 2020 02 17;39(3):207-219. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Latent class analysis (LCA) has been effectively used to cluster multiple survey items. However, causal inference with an exposure variable, identified by an LCA model, is challenging because (1) the exposure variable is unobserved and harbors the uncertainty of estimating parameters in the LCA model and (2) confounding bias adjustments need to be done with the unobserved LCA-driven exposure variable. In addition to these challenges, complex survey design features and survey weights must be accounted for if they are present. Our solutions to these issues are to (1) assess point estimates with the expected estimating function approach and (2) modify the survey design weights with LCA-based propensity scores. This paper aims to introduce a statistical procedure to apply the estimating equation approach to assessing the effects of LCA-driven cause in complex survey data using an example of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8382DOI Listing
February 2020

Potential Interplay between Dietary Saturated Fats and Genetic Variants of the NLRP3 Inflammasome to Modulate Insulin Resistance and Diabetes Risk: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of 19 005 Individuals.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 11 12;63(22):e1900226. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Centre on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

Scope: Insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a metabolic sensor activated by saturated fatty acids (SFA) initiating IL-1β inflammation and IR. Interactions between SFA intake and NLRP3-related genetic variants may alter T2D risk factors.

Methods: Meta-analyses of six Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 19 005) tested interactions between SFA and NLRP3-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and modulation of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance.

Results: SFA interacted with rs12143966, wherein each 1% increase in SFA intake increased insulin by 0.0063 IU mL (SE ± 0.002, p = 0.001) per each major (G) allele copy. rs4925663, interacted with SFA (β ± SE = -0.0058 ± 0.002, p = 0.004) to increase insulin by 0.0058 IU mL , per additional copy of the major (C) allele. Both associations are close to the significance threshold (p < 0.0001). rs4925663 causes a missense mutation affecting NLRP3 expression.

Conclusion: Two NLRP3-related SNPs showed potential interaction with SFA to modulate fasting insulin. Greater dietary SFA intake accentuates T2D risk, which, subject to functional validation, may be further elaborated depending on NLRP3-related genetic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864231PMC
November 2019

Association between trends in county-level opioid prescribing and reported rates of gonorrhea cases in the United States.

Ann Epidemiol 2019 08 4;36:26-32. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: We investigated the association between county-level trends in opioid prescribing rates, a proxy for opioid misuse, and rates of reported gonorrhea (GC) among males in the United States.

Methods: We used linear mixed-model regression analyses to evaluate the association between county-level trends in opioid prescribing rates and rates of reported GC among males during 2010-2015.

Results: There was a positive association between trends in county-level opioid prescribing rates and rates of GC among males (β = 0.068, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.030, 0.105) during 2010-2015. However, the magnitude of this association decreased significantly over time in counties where opioid prescribing rates decreased (β = -0.018, 95% CI = -0.030, -0.006) and remained stable (β = -0.020, 95% CI = -0.038, -0.002) but was unchanged in counties where opioid prescribing rates increased (β = -0.029, 95% CI = -0.058, 0.001).

Conclusions: During 2010-2015, we found a positive association between increases in county-level opioid prescribing rates, a proxy for opioid misuse, and rates of reported GC among males especially in counties most affected by the opioid crisis. Integrating sexual health with opioid misuse interventions might be beneficial in addressing the GC burden in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2019.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6931277PMC
August 2019

Quality of dietary fat and genetic risk of type 2 diabetes: individual participant data meta-analysis.

BMJ 2019 07 25;366:l4292. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Objective: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Design: Individual participant data meta-analysis.

Data Sources: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators.

Review Methods: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score.

Results: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I=7.1%, τ=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I=18.0%, τ=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I=58.8%, τ=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I=25.9%, τ=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed.

Conclusions: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l4292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6652797PMC
July 2019

Self-Reported Infertility and Associated Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Among Women of Reproductive Age-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2013-2016.

Sex Transm Dis 2019 07;46(7):446-451

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Sexually transmitted diseases, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. We estimated the prevalence of infertility and infertility health care seeking.

Methods: We analyzed self-reported lifetime infertility and infertility health care-seeking in women aged 18 to 49 years in the 2013 and 2015 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Weighted prevalence of infertility and infertility health care seeking, prevalence ratios (PRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.

Results: Among 2626 eligible women, 13.8% had self-reported infertility (95% CI, 12.3-15.3) with higher prevalence by age: 960, 18 to 29 years (PR, 6.4%; 95% CI, 4.8-8.0); 799, 30 to 39 years (PR, 14.8%; 95% CI, 12.2-17.3); and 867, 40 to 49 years (PR, 20.8%; 95% CI, 17.2-24.4). Non-Hispanic white women (PR, 15.4%; 95% CI, 13.0-17.8; n = 904) and non-Hispanic black women (PR, 12.9%; 95% CI, 10.3-15.5; n = 575) had the highest infertility prevalences. Women reporting PID treatment (n = 122) had higher infertility prevalence (PR, 24.2%; 95% CI, 16.2-32.2) than women without PID treatment (PR, 13.3%; 95% CI, 11.6-15.0; n = 2,485), especially among 18- to 29-year-old women (PR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.8-8.0). Of 327 women with infertility, 60.9% (95% CI, 56.1-65.8) sought health care. Women without health care insurance sought care less frequently than women with insurance.

Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample, 13.8% of reproductive-age women reported a history of infertility, of whom 40% did not access health care. Self-reported PID was associated with infertility, especially in young women. Annual chlamydia and gonorrhea screening to avert PID may reduce the burden of infertility in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579036PMC
July 2019

Exome-Derived Adiponectin-Associated Variants Implicate Obesity and Lipid Biology.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 07 6;105(1):15-28. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

The Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, LABioMed at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA.

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612516PMC
July 2019

An Ultrastretchable and Self-Healable Nanocomposite Conductor Enabled by Autonomously Percolative Electrical Pathways.

ACS Nano 2019 Jun 13;13(6):6531-6539. Epub 2019 May 13.

Biomedical Research Institute , Korea Institute of Science and Technology , Seoul 02792 , Republic of Korea.

Both self-healable conductors and stretchable conductors have been previously reported. However, it is still difficult to simultaneously achieve high stretchability, high conductivity, and self-healability. Here, we observed an intriguing phenomenon, termed "electrical self-boosting", which enables reconstructing of electrically percolative pathways in an ultrastretchable and self-healable nanocomposite conductor (over 1700% strain). The autonomously reconstructed percolative pathways were directly verified by using microcomputed tomography and in situ scanning electron microscopy. The encapsulated nanocomposite conductor shows exceptional conductivity (average value: 2578 S cm; highest value: 3086 S cm) at 3500% tensile strain by virtue of efficient strain energy dissipation of the self-healing polymer and self-alignment and rearrangement of silver flakes surrounded by spontaneously formed silver nanoparticles and their self-assembly in the strained self-healing polymer matrix. In addition, the conductor maintains high conductivity and stretchability even after recovered from a complete cut. Besides, a design of double-layered conductor enabled by the self-bonding assembly allowed a conducting interface to be located on the neutral mechanical plane, showing extremely durable operations in a cyclic stretching test. Finally, we successfully demonstrated that electromyogram signals can be monitored by our self-healable interconnects. Such information was transmitted to a prosthetic robot to control various hand motions for robust interactive human-robot interfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b00160DOI Listing
June 2019

Evidence of Recent Genomic Evolution in Gonococcal Strains With Decreased Susceptibility to Cephalosporins or Azithromycin in the United States, 2014-2016.

J Infect Dis 2019 06;220(2):294-305

Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Given the lack of new antimicrobials or a vaccine, understanding the evolutionary dynamics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a significant public and global health priority. We investigated the emergence and spread of gonococcal strains with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins and azithromycin using detailed genomic analyses of gonococcal isolates collected in the United States, 2014-2016.

Methods: We sequenced genomes of 649 isolates collected through the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. We examined the genetic relatedness of isolates and assessed associations between clades and various genotypic and phenotypic combinations.

Results: We identified a large and clonal lineage of strains (MLST ST9363) associated with elevated azithromycin minimum inhibitory concentration (AZIem), characterized by a mosaic mtr locus (C substitution in the mtrR promoter, mosaic mtrR and mtrD). Mutations in 23S rRNA were sporadically distributed among AZIem strains. Another clonal group (MLST ST1901) possessed 7 unique PBP2 patterns, and it shared common mutations in other genes associated with cephalosporin resistance.

Conclusions: Whole-genome sequencing methods can enhance monitoring of antimicrobial resistant gonococcal strains by identifying gonococcal populations containing mutations of concern. These methods could inform the development of point-of-care diagnostic tests designed to determine the specific antibiotic susceptibility profile of a gonococcal infection in a patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581898PMC
June 2019

Trends in the Prevalence of Anogenital Warts Among Patients at Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics-Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network, United States, 2010-2016.

J Infect Dis 2019 04;219(9):1389-1397

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Approximately 90% of genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. In the United States, HPV vaccination has been recommended for girls and women aged ≤26 years, and since 2011, for boys and men aged ≤21 years and for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) aged ≤26 years.

Methods: Data were obtained from 27 clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network. Trends in the annual prevalence of anogenital warts (AGW) from 2010-2016 were described by sex and by the sex of sex partners.

Results: During 2010-2016, significant declines in the prevalence of AGW were observed in women aged <40 years, men who have sex with women only (MSW) aged <40 years, and MSM of all age categories. An inflection in trend in 2012 was noted for MSW aged 20-24 or 25-29 years and for MSM aged 20-24 years.

Conclusions: The observed declines in the prevalence of AGW suggest that HPV morbidity is declining among populations attending STD clinics, including MSW, MSM, and women. Declines in younger age groups are consistent with what would be expected following the implementation of HPV vaccination. However, declines were also observed in older age groups and are not likely to be the result of vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910218PMC
April 2019

Giant thermal hysteresis in Verwey transition of single domain FeO nanoparticles.

Sci Rep 2018 Mar 23;8(1):5092. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Center for Correlated Electron Systems, Institute for Basic Science, Seoul, 08826, Korea.

Most interesting phenomena of condensed matter physics originate from interactions among different degrees of freedom, making it a very intriguing yet challenging question how certain ground states emerge from only a limited number of atoms in assembly. This is especially the case for strongly correlated electron systems with overwhelming complexity. The Verwey transition of FeO is a classic example of this category, of which the origin is still elusive 80 years after the first report. Here we report, for the first time, that the Verwey transition of FeO nanoparticles exhibits size-dependent thermal hysteresis in magnetization, Fe NMR, and XRD measurements. The hysteresis width passes a maximum of 11 K when the size is 120 nm while dropping to only 1 K for the bulk sample. This behavior is very similar to that of magnetic coercivity and the critical sizes of the hysteresis and the magnetic single domain are identical. We interpret it as a manifestation of charge ordering and spin ordering correlation in a single domain. This work paves a new way of undertaking researches in the vibrant field of strongly correlated electron physics combined with nanoscience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23456-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865112PMC
March 2018

Men Who Have Sex With Men-Identification Criteria and Characteristics From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2014.

Sex Transm Dis 2018 05;45(5):337-342

Objectives: This study aimed to provide identification criteria for men who have sex with men (MSM), estimate the prevalence of MSM behavior, and compare sociodemographics and sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors between non-MSM and MSM groups using data from a nationally representative, population-based survey.

Methods: Using data from men aged 18 to 59 years who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999 to 2014, detailed criteria were developed to estimate MSM behavior-at least one lifetime same-sex partner (MSM-ever), at least one same-sex partner in the past 12 months (MSM-current), and at least one lifetime and zero same-sex partners in the past 12 months (MSM-past).

Results: The estimated prevalence of MSM-ever was 5.5%-of these, 52.4% were MSM-current and 47.1% were MSM-past. Furthermore, MSM-ever are a nonhomogenous subpopulation, for example, 70.4% of MSM-current identified as homosexual and 71.2% of MSM-past identified as heterosexual (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The prevalence of MSM behavior identified here is similar to other published estimates. This is also the first article, to our knowledge, to use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to compare MSM by 2 recall periods (recent vs. lifetime) of last same-sex sexual behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935694PMC
May 2018

Microscopic States and the Verwey Transition of Magnetite Nanocrystals Investigated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

Nano Lett 2018 03 23;18(3):1745-1750. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Fe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of magnetite nanocrystals ranging in size from 7 nm to 7 μm is measured. The line width of the NMR spectra changes drastically around 120 K, showing microscopic evidence of the Verwey transition. In the region above the transition temperature, the line width of the spectrum increases and the spin-spin relaxation time decreases as the nanocrystal size decreases. The line-width broadening indicates the significant deformation of magnetic structure and reduction of charge order compared to bulk crystals, even when the structural distortion is unobservable. The reduction of the spin-spin relaxation time is attributed to the suppressed polaron hopping conductivity in ferromagnetic metals, which is a consequence of the enhanced electron-phonon coupling in the quantum-confinement regime. Our results show that the magnetic distortion occurs in the entire nanocrystal and does not comply with the simple model of the core-shell binary structure with a sharp boundary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04866DOI Listing
March 2018

Transethnic Evaluation Identifies Low-Frequency Loci Associated With 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 04;103(4):1380-1392

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.

Context: Vitamin D inadequacy is common in the adult population of the United States. Although the genetic determinants underlying vitamin D inadequacy have been studied in people of European ancestry, less is known about populations with Hispanic or African ancestry.

Objective: The Trans-Ethnic Evaluation of Vitamin D (TRANSCEN-D) genomewide association study (GWAS) consortium was assembled to replicate genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) meta-analyses of European ancestry and to identify genetic variants related to vitamin D concentrations in African and Hispanic ancestries.

Design: Ancestry-specific (Hispanic and African) and transethnic (Hispanic, African, and European) meta-analyses were performed with Meta-Analysis Helper software (METAL).

Patients Or Other Participants: In total, 8541 African American and 3485 Hispanic American (from North America) participants from 12 cohorts and 16,124 European participants from SUNLIGHT were included in the study.

Main Outcome Measures: Blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured for all participants.

Results: Ancestry-specific analyses in African and Hispanic Americans replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC (2 and 4 SNPs, respectively). An SNP (rs79666294) near the KIF4B gene was identified in the African American cohort. Transethnic evaluation replicated GC and DHCR7 region SNPs. Additionally, the transethnic analyses revealed SNPs rs719700 and rs1410656 near the ANO6/ARID2 and HTR2A genes, respectively.

Conclusions: Ancestry-specific and transethnic GWASs of 25(OH)D confirmed findings in GC and DHCR7 for African and Hispanic American samples and revealed findings near KIF4B, ANO6/ARID2, and HTR2A. The biological mechanisms that link these regions with 25(OH)D metabolism warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-01802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276579PMC
April 2018

Impact of common genetic determinants of Hemoglobin A1c on type 2 diabetes risk and diagnosis in ancestrally diverse populations: A transethnic genome-wide meta-analysis.

PLoS Med 2017 Sep 12;14(9):e1002383. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 18 HbA1c-associated genetic variants. These variants proved to be classifiable by their likely biological action as erythrocytic (also associated with erythrocyte traits) or glycemic (associated with other glucose-related traits). In this study, we tested the hypotheses that, in a very large scale GWAS, we would identify more genetic variants associated with HbA1c and that HbA1c variants implicated in erythrocytic biology would affect the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. We therefore expanded the number of HbA1c-associated loci and tested the effect of genetic risk-scores comprised of erythrocytic or glycemic variants on incident diabetes prediction and on prevalent diabetes screening performance. Throughout this multiancestry study, we kept a focus on interancestry differences in HbA1c genetics performance that might influence race-ancestry differences in health outcomes.

Methods & Findings: Using genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 159,940 individuals from 82 cohorts of European, African, East Asian, and South Asian ancestry, we identified 60 common genetic variants associated with HbA1c. We classified variants as implicated in glycemic, erythrocytic, or unclassified biology and tested whether additive genetic scores of erythrocytic variants (GS-E) or glycemic variants (GS-G) were associated with higher T2D incidence in multiethnic longitudinal cohorts (N = 33,241). Nineteen glycemic and 22 erythrocytic variants were associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance. GS-G was associated with higher T2D risk (incidence OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.06, per HbA1c-raising allele, p = 3 × 10-29); whereas GS-E was not (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.60). In Europeans and Asians, erythrocytic variants in aggregate had only modest effects on the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. Yet, in African Americans, the X-linked G6PD G202A variant (T-allele frequency 11%) was associated with an absolute decrease in HbA1c of 0.81%-units (95% CI 0.66-0.96) per allele in hemizygous men, and 0.68%-units (95% CI 0.38-0.97) in homozygous women. The G6PD variant may cause approximately 2% (N = 0.65 million, 95% CI 0.55-0.74) of African American adults with T2D to remain undiagnosed when screened with HbA1c. Limitations include the smaller sample sizes for non-European ancestries and the inability to classify approximately one-third of the variants. Further studies in large multiethnic cohorts with HbA1c, glycemic, and erythrocytic traits are required to better determine the biological action of the unclassified variants.

Conclusions: As G6PD deficiency can be clinically silent until illness strikes, we recommend investigation of the possible benefits of screening for the G6PD genotype along with using HbA1c to diagnose T2D in populations of African ancestry or groups where G6PD deficiency is common. Screening with direct glucose measurements, or genetically-informed HbA1c diagnostic thresholds in people with G6PD deficiency, may be required to avoid missed or delayed diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5595282PMC
September 2017

An Illustration of Errors in Using the P Value to Indicate Clinical Significance or Epidemiological Importance of a Study Finding.

Sex Transm Dis 2017 08;44(8):495-497

From the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

We conducted a simulation study to illustrate that P values can suggest but not confirm statistical significance; and they may not indicate epidemiological significance (importance). We recommend that researchers consider reporting effect sizes as P values in conjunction with confidence intervals or point estimates with standard errors to indicate precision (uncertainty).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5761065PMC
August 2017

Development of a rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) Model in Rhesus macaques using Chlamydia trachomatis serovars E and L.

J Med Primatol 2017 10 10;46(5):218-227. Epub 2017 May 10.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Rectal STI coinfection models enhance the understanding of rectal HIV transmission risk factors.

Materials And Methods: Rhesus macaques (n=9) were exposed to one of three rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) challenges: C. trachomatis L (CT-L ); C. trachomatis serovar E (CT-E), followed by CT-L ; or CT-E, treatment/clearance, then CT-L . Infections were monitored by PCR. Weekly blood and rectal secretion/lavage samples were collected for cytokine analyzes and/or epithelial sloughing, occult, and overt blood determinations.

Results: Chlamydial infections were successfully established in each animal, with varying degrees of persistence. Mucosal IL-1beta was upregulated in animals consecutively infected with CT-E then CT-L (P=.05). Epithelial sloughing was also significantly increased post-infection in this group (P=.0003).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates successful rectal infection of rhesus macaques with CT-E and CT-L and describes measures of assessing rectal inflammation and pathology. Different infection strategies yield varying inflammatory and pathologic outcomes, providing well-described models for future SIV/SHIV susceptibility studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmp.12272DOI Listing
October 2017

Prevalence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Sexually Experienced Women of Reproductive Age - United States, 2013-2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Jan 27;66(3):80-83. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome of the female reproductive tract characterized by inflammation of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (1). PID occurs when microorganisms ascend from the vagina or cervix to the fallopian tubes and other upper genital tract structures (1). PID can result from untreated bacterial infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain (1). Because there is no single diagnostic test for PID, clinicians rely on nonspecific signs and symptoms for diagnosis. The purpose of these analyses was to assess the burden of self-reported PID in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 cycle. Starting in 2013, NHANES female participants aged 18-44 years were asked about a lifetime history of PID diagnosis. Based on these data, the estimated prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was 4.4% in sexually experienced women of reproductive age (18-44 years). The prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was highest in women at increased risk, such as women reporting a previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Stratified by race/ethnicity and having a previous STI diagnosis, non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) women reporting a previous STI diagnosis had nearly equal self-reported lifetime PID prevalence (10.0% versus 10.3%). However, the lifetime prevalence of PID among black women was 2.2 times that among white women if no previous STI was diagnosed (6.0% versus 2.7%). These findings suggest that PID is prevalent and associated with previous STI diagnoses; therefore, it is important for clinicians to screen female patients for chlamydia and gonorrhea to reduce the incidence of PID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6603a3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573882PMC
January 2017

Association of genetic variations and gene expression in a family-based study.

BMC Proc 2016 18;10(Suppl 7):109-112. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mt. Wayte Avenue, Suite 2, Framingham, MA 01702 USA ; Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord St, Boston, MA 02118 USA.

Background: Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) maps are considered a valuable resource in studying complex diseases. The availability of gene expression data from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) provides a great opportunity to investigate the association of gene expression with genetic variants in blood.

Methods: A total of 267 samples with gene expression and whole genome sequencing data were employed in this study. We used linear mixed models with genetic random effects along with a permutation procedure to create an eQTL map. The eQTL map was further tested in terms of functional implication, including the enrichment in disease-related variants and in regulatory regions.

Results: We identified 22,869 significant eQTLs from the GAW19 data set. These eQTLs were highly enriched with genetic loci associated with blood pressure and DNase hypersensitive regions. In addition, the majority of genes associated with eQTLs showed moderate to high heritability ( > 0.4).

Conclusions: We successfully created an eQTL map from the GAW19 data set. Our study indicated that the eQTLs were enriched within regulatory regions, and tended to have relatively high heritability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12919-016-0014-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5133483PMC
October 2016
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